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ULS3^0 6 6'' 10 

JUL 11 1900 


l^arbarl) College I^Uirars 



(01«aa of 18141). 

This fund is $ao,ooo, and of its income three quarters 

shall be spent for books and one quarter 

be added to the principal. 

^yia^i. 3/. /9^^ 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Land of Sunshine 




Staff— David SUrr Jordan, Joaquin Miller, Theodore H. Hittell. Mary Hallock Foote, 

Margaret Collier Graham, Charles Warren Stoddard, Grace Ellery Channinj^. John Vance 

Cheney, Ina Coolbrith, William Keith. Dr. Washington Matthews, Dr. Elliott 

Coues, George Parker Winship, Frederick Webb Hodge. Chas. F. Holder. 

Edwin Markham, Geo. Hamlin Fitch, Chas. Howard Shinn, T. S. 

Van Dyke, Chas. A. Keeler, Louise M. Keeler. A. F. Harmer, 

L. Maynard Dixon, Charlotte Perkins Stetson, Constance 

Goddard Du Bois, Batterman Lindsay, Chas. 

Dwight Willard. 

June, 1899, to November, 1899 

Land of Sunshine publishing Co. 


Digitized by 


it S ^ 9 o C) ~> / 


Copyright 1899 by 
Land of Sunshine Publishing Co. 

Digitized by 


The Land of Sunshine, 



Aboriginal Art in Obsidian, illustrated, H. C. Meredith... 255 

A Little Curio (story), Julia B. Foster 270 

Among the Yaqui Indians, illustrated. Verona Granville.. 84 
An Afternoon in Chinatown, illustrated, Olive Percival... 50 
Angle of Reflection, The, Margaret Collier Graham 

48, 121, 182 

Arizona's Biggest Gold-Mine, illustrated, Sharlot M. Hall, 148 

Big Bonanza, The, illustrated, Theodore H. Hittell...2i4, 276 
Bird-of-Paradise Flower, The, illustrated, Juliette E. 

Mathis 199 

Blossom of Barren Lands, A (poem), illustrated, Eugene 

M, Rhodes 251 

California Aquarium and Zoological Station, A, illustrated, 

Charles Frederick Holder 77 

California Babies, illustrated 60, 124, 189, 243, 301, 359 

California Goat-Ranch, A, illustrated, Kate P. Sieghold... 252 

California in 1757 (map) 269 

California Redwoods, illustrated, Bertha F. Herrick 95 

California State Normal School, illustrated, Melville 

Dozier 134 

City of the Saints, The, illustrated, Annie Getchell Gale, 201 
Congress (Ariz.) Gold-Mines, illustrated, Sharlot M. 

Hall 148 

Cowboy's Pencil, A, illustrated, by Ed. Borein, C. F. L • • 159 

Diaz, the Mexican Magician, illustrated 308 

Dry Loco- Weed (poem), Grace A. Luce 307 

Early California History, from documents never before 

published in English — Viceroy Revilla-Gigedo's 

Report. 1768-1793, 32, 105, 168/225, 283. 335, 

Fray Zarate-Salmeron's Relacioii 335 

Ed. Borein, Cowboy artist, illustrated 159 

First Rain. The 306 

Happy Hunting Ground, The, Idah M. Strobridge 21 

Indian Problem, The. illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 

T39. 207, 263, 332 

In the Lion's Den (by the editor), 42, 113. 174, 234, 290. 345 

Invitation (poem), Louisa M. Groshon 335 

Italy and Our Italy, Grace Ellery Channing 24 

Joaquin Miller's Monuments, illustrated 240 

Digitized by 


Keeper of the Camp, The, illustrated by L. Maynard 

Dixon, Elwyn Irving Hoffman 29 

Landmarks Club, The 123, 355 

Land We Love, The, illustrated 58, 128, 246, 297. 356 

Learning Two Hands, illustrated, Mrs. C. M. Bradfield... 9 

Leaves from the Popol Vub (poems), John Vance Cheney.. 3 

Lion's Den. In the (by the editor), 42, 113, 174, 234, 290, 345 

Mayne Reid, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 4 

Mex (poem) Sam T. Clover 165 

Mexican Magician, The, illustrated 308 

Missions of California, Some Unknown, illustrated, Con- 
stance Goddard Du Bois 317 

Morn on the Pacific (poem), Herbert Bashford 195 

My Brother's Keeper, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis, 139, 207 

263, 332 

Myth of Queen Xochitl, The, illustrated, Owen Wallace.. 259 

Nature of the Beast, The, illustrated, Juan del Rio 329 

New Mexico Sheep-King, A, illustrated, C. F. L 197 

One Day at Pacheco's, Idah M. Strobridge, illustrated by 

Alex. F. Harmer •. loi 

Our Literary Pioneer, illustrated, Chas. F. Lummis 4 

Piute Legend, A, Idah M. Strobridge 21 

Raisin- Making, illustrated, D. E. Kessler 18 

Revilla-Gigedo, Viceroy, Report on California, 1793, 32, 105 

168, 225, 283 

Salt Lake City, illustrated, Annie G. Gale 201 

Some Unknown Missions of California, illustrated, Con- 
stance Goddard Du Bois 317 

Summer Dusk (poem), Nora May French 195 

** Tennessee" and '* Partner,'* illustrated, Ralph Ei Bick- 

nell 325 

That which is written (book-reviews by the editor), 46, 117 

178, 237, 294, 350 

War Views in the Philippines 53, 185 

Yaqui Indians of Sonora, The, illustrated, Verona Gran- 
ville 84 

Yuccas, The (poem), Robt. Mowry Bell 240 

Zapote Blanco, The, illustrated. Dr. F. Franceschi 199 

Zarate-Salmeron, history of California and New Mexico, 

1538-1626 336 

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jrsE. ISdS 

Vol. XI No. I 


LEARNING TWo/'S^Sfe^]^^- ) "-^^'f ??*y . 
OUR ITALY. ET^. "HL * "^ " ■ ?""str»ted 

L05 PAIsrs DLL50L OILAIAW TLMMa'' sSf -^^^^ity k' ' '^. 'S 

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tOE>y«(C'^'^tD IS9S 6r LAnO OF SUM5HINE PUS. CO 








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FROn A i, 

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Wonder Deep Well Pump ^ 

The WONDER does it,.., 

Wilhoiit plunger'^ or valve* 
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l,ow prices 
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The Machinery and Electrical Go. 

JSl N. Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

T &i V^ to ^~xy— i;,y-T,y— caJ~~'i5^ "CafJ— U^ ~T^' T 


and Baby Carriage!^ uf the celrbraled 
We might huy some other carriage cheaper 
it for lejis, but it would not have ihe many ad 
diEtiuguitth the Whitney. Materials, wcKxI.sltreli coverings- 
all are carefully stlecterJ The Brake. Rubber Tires» Parasol 
adjustTnent— 'eTer>thing is absolutely tht- beil^ 


Niles Pease Furnitore Co., 

439-441 443 S. Spring St., Los Anj^eies 

WBITSKV niakc. R 

leaper niid thus Mt-ll L 

nv advantages which ^ 

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Loi Angeks. Cal. 



f^ORDPr^X ^TVr PQ in waist and dresa silk^. Wool 
l>.^LJKKill^l O I iLCo dress gooiiH in coloreit and 
t>lack. Tailor suitings. BTiick crepous in most varied assort- 
mentif. The newest lads in Ttimmings, Neckwear, Cloves and 

The largest and most com pit hen sire stock of Tailor mad « 
Suits, Skirts, Coate, Jockctft and Capes, tilk waUi^p wool 
wuistH, waab waists. 

Our undeiwear and corset deparlments are second to nooe 
on the Coa&t, New parasola anid sunshades. 

Goodsof uuquestioned quality and merit at Popular PhCLs. 

Mail oiders receive onr prom pi attcnlii^n. 



riYkicr St O 

F, B. Silverwood'8 hig store m» at 1:24 Soiilh Spring St- 

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L A. Eng. Co. 

THE KEEPER OF THE CAMP. Draw n by L Knynard Dixon. 

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Vol. 11, No. 1. 


JUNE, 1899. 

Leaves from the Popol-Vuh. 



He that engenders had called forth the world ; 
The mist, ingathered from the vast of space, 
Together drawn, had fashioned a great face 
Of vale and mountain, tree, and river curled. 
Of all the leaves and flowers was none unfurled, 
No bird had song, no voice the giant race 
Of beasts ; for darkness held her ancient place, 
The day-god's bolt glowed in his hand, unhurled. 
But eastward, now, dream colors, faint and far 
Foretold to those first lives the end of night. 
And from the sea and land all rose as one ; 
The mother-dark, with neither moon nor star. 
Was thick with wild eyes looking for the light, 
And throats of thunder for the coming sun. 


Strange tremor seized and shook them, hoar and old, 
The Fathers Four, the Sires, of mighty frame ; 
Down on their clear gods*-eyes a dimness came. 
As when the rain-wings on the mountains fold. 
While to their hearts crept up the numbing cold, 
And flickered, as in wind, the spirit's flame. 
Calling their sons and weeping wives by name. 
Thus said they, of all men the font and mold : — 
*'Once more the Shadow Chief across the sky 
We follow, with Him who brought us we return ; 
'Twill fall to you as first to us it fell. 
The days and nights come hither, and go by, 
The fire within will sink, no longer bum 
But, as with us, with you it shall be well." 

Newberry Library, Chieaf o. 

'The folklore of the ancient Central Americans 

Coprrifht 1899 bf land of Sunthine Pub. Co 

Digitized by 


Our Literary Pioneer. 


URIOUSLY enough, the first man to write 
fiction of the Southwest, the first author (in 
our own speech) to know and love Arizona, 
New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, the Wonder- 
land of the United States, was an English- 
man. And to this day, though we have put 
graver scholars to that field, no other man 
has made it so fascinating as this fighting 
bantam Irishman, Capt. Mayne Reid, made it half a century 

Furthermore, no other writer was ever so deeply wor- 
shipped by so many young Americans. Since his time, 
the United States alone has produced more brainy people who 
have given their best work to the young, than the whole 
history of mankind held before. There have been in this 
country alone fully fifty writers for youth, better educated and 
of more intellectuality than Mayne Reid. We have had not 
only the Oliver Optic print-factories in literature to reel off 
juvenile calicoes by the yard ; we have had as well the unpre- 
cedented genius of the Jungle Books^ the glow of the Tangle- 
wood Tales, the up-to-date finish of Little Lord Fauntleroy, 
and hundreds of other juveniles really good. Yet the striking 
fact remains that none of them ever had such an audience, in 
numbers or in partisanship, as Mayne Reid had. Nor have 
any others so well deserved it. Boys who were boys thirty- 
five or forty years ago know that. If the boys of today know 
less of Mayne Reid — why, so much the worse for them ! 

There is no dark secret about his power. It was not luck. 
He had red blood ; he cared for the things young natures care 
for — or generous natures of any age — and he knew what he 
was talking about. ** Adventure" to him was not a cos- 
tumer's stock in trade, but a fact. His life held more of ro- 
mance and adventure, probably, than the lives of all the popu- 
lar authors of today put together. In other words, he knew 
more of life. 

It is a fact strange but true that no naturalist, geographer, 
philosopher, historian who has written of this field has better 
stood the test of fifty years. To this day no one has ever been 
able to pick a serious flaw in Mayne Reid's history, geogra- 
phy, ethnology, zoology — in fact his local color. How remark- 
able is this record can be realized only by those who seriously 
know what in the same period has befallen Prescott — as much 
greater student and writer as the sun is more than sixpence. 
But the field man lasts, the closet man did not. 
This small but lion-hearted soldier of fortune — if we can 

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apply the term to one who soldiered not for fortune but for 
fun and generosity — ^was the very first man who taught Amer- 
icans the charm of the American West ; and to this day his 



peer has not arisen. I do not mean for technical skill — we are 
infested with ** better artists.*' But we have not yet had one 
who knew the land so well and loved it so deeply and could 

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L. A Eng. Co 

'hacienda," at gbrrard's cross, bucks. 

make his love so contagious. A too fluent writer and one too 
hasty for finish, he was a marvelously clear observer, a true 
lover of nature, and a companion whose enthusiasm pardoned 
his talkativeness. His adult novels are too sensational for our 
taste nowadays, though equally true to life; but his ** boy's 
novels ' ' are the wholesomest thing a wholesome boj*^ can be 
inspired withal. They teach love of nature as no others do ; 
they are clean and manful, and so exciting that no sane boy 
alive can fail to kindle to them. The Boy Hunters, and The 
Young Voyageurs, The Plant- Hunters, and The Cliff- Climbers, 
The Bush Boys and The Young Yagers, The Desert Home — if 
these are not in your bones, more vital still than anything that 
far greater writers can give you nowadays, why, you missed 
half the fun of being a boy, that's all. And with half the fun, 
considerable of the profit. A really wise parent will give his 
boys all these books. 

Mayne Reid was born in the North of Ireland in 1818. His 
father, a Presbyterian clergyman, designed his son for the min- 
istry ; but the boy had another pulse. He graduated from 
college to — the wilderness. At twenty-two he landed in New 
Orleans ; and was disgusted to find his learning a scant equip- 
ment for life. He got a place as ** storekeeper " on an old 
lyouisiana plantation — and material for stirring and true tales 
of the palmy slave days. He tutored and taught school. Then 

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he went trading, trapping and hunting into what was the 
Great American Desert, and wandered over it for five years. 
He went with pioneer frontiersmen ; he lived with Indians, 
learning their tongue and feeding full on that life of war and 
wild hunting. Then he drifted to Cincinnati and joined a 
company of strolling actors ; and at last fetched up in Phila- 
delphia — then the literary heart of the country — and began to 
make a living by poetry and kindred writing. He was an in- 
timate friend of Poe, and has left us a '* defense " which is in 
itself enough to convince one in the teeth of all the currish 
packs that have barked at that strangely abused genius. 
When the Mexican war came Reid got a commission in the 
first volunteer regiment raised in New York. He was to the 
fiercest battle of that war (the storming of Chapultepec) pre- 
cisely what Roosevelt was at San Juan, or Punston in Calumpit 
— the typical hero, the daredevil who was first. Gen. Scott 
praised him in general orders for conspicuous gallantry, and 
his fame was as full and as generous throughout all the army. 
On that bristling rock he fell with a wound from which he 
never really recovered. 

Settling to a literary life in New York, he broke out again 
when Hungary's vain struggle for freedom so stirred our fath- 
ers; and sailed at once to offer his sword. The *' rebellion " 
was crushed, and Reid had no more chance to fight for the lib- 
erty of others ; but he became the life-long and intimate friend 
of Kossuth. He sat down in England and began to write the 
romances which have given him fame. His first was The 
RiHe Rangers^ written at Don Piatt's house in Ohio directly 
upon his return from the Mexican war (1848) and published 
in London in 1850. It was an instant success. The Scalp 
Hunters soon followed from the press, and made his place se- 
cure. His first boy's book was The Desert Home (1851) less 
noted than Robinson Crusoe, but tenfold truer to life. Thence 
forward for a third of a century his books poured forth in an 
impetuous flood. Out of fifty volumes from his pen, doubtless 
one-half will live. 

In 1867 the impulsive Irishman returned to this country, 
which never ceased to be his love, and made his home in New 
York and Newport. He was perhaps the first author to get 
big prices in the United States. Frank Leslie's paid him $8000 
for the serial rights of The Child Wife; The Fireside Compan- 
ion $5000 for The Finger of Fate — one of the most worthless 
of his tales. In 1868 he started a juvenile magazine of his 
own in New York called Onward. In fourteen months his 
health broke down, and the magazine died. In 1870 he- re- 
turned to England, and never saw America again. Writing 
and by turns suffering from the old wound received on Chapul- 
tepec, he rounded out a life simple as a child's, brave as any 

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hero's. And he never forgot the land he fought for and in a 
way discovered. He died October 22, 1883. Less than five 
months before his death, he wrote to a friend in this country : 
** America is indeed the land of novelties, as it is that of my 
love and longings ; and you are to be envied — perhaps you 
know not how much — for being able to claim it as your home. 
I only wish — fervently wish — I could say the same for my- 
self ; but, alas ! my disabled state may hinder me from ever 
again seeing that far. fair land of the West, so endeared to me 
by early recollections." 

Learning Two Hands, 


HERE is at least an effort to teach some 
American boys and girls two hands; and 
in the public schools of the city of Los 
Angeles the children are learning. Ambi- 
dexter drawing is taught now in all grades, 
and with gratifying success. 

The value of freehand drawing can h. rdly 
be overestimated. It brings, eye, mind and 
hand into intimate relations, and teaches attention, flexibility 
and accuracy to all three. It develops the sense of form and 
proportion, enforces observation, demands correct translation 
by the hand of that which eye and mind have formulated. 

Drawing with both hands, at the early age wherein eyes, 
mind and hands are most susceptible of training, unquestion- 

e. ■. DttTii Kof Cm 


'Saperriaor of DrAwijg. Los Angeles City ScbojU. 
From photo*, bj Mr. Oriffltb, of the Uoion ave. School. 

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ably gives a more rounded 
development. It proves to be 
as easy to train both hands as 
to train one. Indeed, with 
proper direction, ambidexter 
drawing can be done without 
consciousness of the hands at 
all. Distance and direction, 
the two fundamental ideas of 
geometry , and the base of size 
and form, are first taught. 
Direction is the foundation of 
all design ; since it is the 
shape of things, not their size, 
which determines their rank 
in beauty. The methods of 
teaching direction are some- 
what indicated by the accom- 
panying photographs, show- 
ing point and straight line 
figures and figures enclosed in 
squares. Then follow circles, 
spirals and curves of all kinds, 
as units of design. 

These and object drawing 
(always using both hands) fas- 
cinate almost any normal child , 
and the ease of accomplish- 
ment is enough to prove that 
nature meant us to use both 
hands with equal facility. 

Another great aid to ambi- 
dexterity is paper modeling, 
also taught in these schools. 
It employs both hands at the 
same time, as hardly any 
other form of manual training 
does. In this course we begin 
with the geometrical solids ; 
the cube first, as it is simplest. 
The child draws the pattern of 
a cube, develops the surface, 
cuts it out, folds and pastes it. 
From this, by degrees, he goes 
on to make all kinds of prisms, 
cones, pyramids, cylinders, 
octahedrons, dodecahedrons 
and the like, and objects based 
upon these forms. Nearly all 

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forms, in nature and in art, can be referred to geometry, and 
often the easiest way to teach children to draw a leaf or flower 
is to show them what geometric form it most nearly approaches. 
There is practically no end to the objects that can be made 
in paper modelling, and the training is admirable. The pat- 
terns must be drawn and cut out with great exactness, else 
they will not fold properly. Well made, they are used as ob- 
jects for freehand drawing and for working drawings. So, in 
this course of paper modeling, the child learns to draw pat- 
terns and working models, to draw to scale, to cut, fold and 
paste, and acquires some practical knowledge of solid geometry. 
As the illustrations evidence, this most exact and pleasant 
form of manual training can be taught in all grades by the 
class teacher, with no more expense than that for paper, paste 
and scissors. Whatever is to be his walk in life, the child who 
has this ambidexter training has a better start than the child 
without it. There is no vocation wherein it is not ** better to 
have two hands than a hand and a half;'' no circumstance in 
which it is not of value to have had eye, hand, observation, 
judgment and will trained to accuracy and firmness, as these 
exercises train them. 

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The Raisin -Making. 

• V O. m. KmSSLKR. 

#gJ«^HE raisin-making in a Southern California grape-growing sec- 
vSrl V t,ioa is the culmination of the whole year. Through the swift 
JL march of golden days about the circuit of the almanac the fruit 
rancber guides, aids and watches the vines. When the last brown 
leaves have fallen in sunny December the process of pruning begins. 
Denuded of its foliage the many arms of the vine sprawl from a central 
stump over the ground, in crude resemblance to some uncouth sea deni- 
zen. With pruning shears and saw the rancher removes the tentacle - 
like branches, leaving from ten inches to a foot and a half of knobby 
stump (according to the age of the vine and mode of pruning) rising 
from the broken surface of the ground. The acres of pruned vineyard 
present rather the appearance of acres of knotted sticks set twelve feet 
apart in rows of mathematical exactness. A man can ordinarily prune 
au acre a day. 

Then come the winter rains ; a week of sunshine, then a day or two 
of uncertain weather opening with a sharp drive of pelting raindrops ; 
the chasine, frolicking clou(& letting a patch of sunshine through on 
distant hill or adjacent field. It spreads, narrows, and may enwrap you 
for a moment in a yellow warmth, and then is blotted out by a low, 
scudding cloud. 

This for a day — rain in patches, in flurries, in mists, in a soft, settling 
fineness that will hardly keep you in doors, with singing birds and nod- 
ding, beckoning flowers without. Then perhaps for a night a settled 
downpour, swishing and singing round the corners, running in rivulets 
through the groves and vineyards. Following this, another week or so 
of warm, clear brightness that dries upon the soaked soil a hard crust, 
and coaxes the germs of wild flowers up and over every spot in beds of 
bloom, tinting &e hills, the roadside, the vineyards in rainbow hues. 
But these fra^le beauties of exquisite daintiness are weeds, and out 
comes the cultivator. Up and down the long rows brown furrows cut 
through masses of pink, lavender and the gold of poppies, until all is 
again a chocolate stretch of powdered soil. This also prevents the 
baking, so that the next rain will soak into the earth and not run off the 
hard surface into useless gulleys. This process is continued after every 
rain until the month of May, when the rainy season is practically over. 
Hoeing and suckering are then to be done. 

The brightness of wild verdure fades gently into soft tans and browns, 
the deciduous trees don the mantle of green, and the dreamy, sunlit 
summer broods over the land, the days like jewels slipping through her 
hands, an unvarying chain, soft, warm and opalescent. 

Then in September when the days are mellowest, the sky is deepest, 
the leaves are rustling ripely, and the amber bunches of the muscatel 
hang heavy and rich from the bending, creeping branches ; when culti- 
vation has long ceased and the reaching vines meet and twist in a tangle 
across the aisles — then the raisin-making begins. 

Into the section from all directions come men, singly, by twos and 
threes, or in gangs, whites, Mexicans, Indians ; men of many nation- 
alities and walks of life. On all the ranches preparation is active. At 
the larger ones where the acres are numbered by hundreds, and the dried 
product is graded and packed upon the ranch, the machinery is being 
overhauled, busy hammers are nailing together the boxes for the pack- 
ing, tents are erected along the roadsides ; and everywhere wagon -loads 
of trays are being distributed down the long aisles between the rows of 

One morning you arise to find a camp of Mexicans at your gate. In 
the early light they file past the house, a swathy, undersized race with 
glittering eyes and soft, voluble utterance. Later, when the "high 

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fog " has dissolved save for some clinging whisps and fragments caught 
like down ujjon the rocky hillsides, yon go down into the vineyard. The 
gang moves in a bunch, clipping off the translucent clusters of Musca- 
tels, arran^ng them upon the trays to shrink and shrivel under the ravs 
of the sun into the concentrated delicacy we know. Behind them the 
lines of trays lie, a basking array of shimmering fruit, and someone in- 
terested is shoving the clusters together, that the tray shall be honestly 
filled, for the workers are paid by the tray. 

On your return you perhaps plod through a few acres of orange grove 
— for a fruit ranch is seldom exclusively vineyard — and visit the camp 
under the cypress along the road. A few Mexican women are busy pre- 
paring the noonday meal, chopping huge joints apart with an axe, 
stirring the gypsy kettle resting upon stones over an open fire, jerking 
scrambling youngsters from under the feet of the horses and mules 
staked the other side of the road. You may hold a limited conversation 
with one of the younger women as she sits combing her hair — the princi- 
pal amusement of the Indian and Mexican women — the older ones 
would not understand should you speak to them. 

After two weeks* exposure to the dry heat the filled trays are ready to 
be turned so that the grape may be cured evenly. This is accomplished 
by two men, one on either side, placing an empty tray over the full one, 
dexterously reversing it, then, carrying the upper one with them, repeat- 
ing the process on down the row. It is at this stage in the curing that 
the grape is most delectable. 

The amber is changing through ruddy stages to amethyst, and the 
sun-warmed balls are drops of honey — double-distilled, so sweet they 
make you long with a great thirst for the red water-tank shimmering in 
the sunlight forty acres away ; but you must eat and eat, and go on eat- 
ing even while your palate is cloying with the sweetness. 

In another week the dried grapes are ready for the sweat boxes. These 
wide, open boxes contain from 150 to 160 pounds, and as the raisins be- 
come sufficiently cured they are sorted from the others and placed there- 
in, the large, perfect clusters and the inferior, broken pieces in separate 
boxes. These are usually carried to a sweating-house, a closed structure, 
in which they soften and moisten evenly, the drying having made the 
stems exceedingly brittle ; or simply stacked in one corner of the pack- 
ing-house to await the grading and packing. 

At this season of the year rain is possible, and one of the unpleasant 
features of the business is a midnight turning out of all hands to stack 
the trays, with imminent showers overhead, and perhaps a thorough 
drenching before the finishing. This also involves the extra labor of a 
respreading of trays when the sun again comes forth. 

There is after the first gathering always a second crop which was too 
green for curing at the time of the first. This is usually made into wine 
or vinegar, or left hanging on the vines. At the time of its ripening the 
sun*s heat is not sufficient to transform it into raisins. 

Every ranch of any considerable size has its own packing-house and 
grading machinery, but there are several such institutions in the section 
to which smaller landowners take their product. The raisins destined to 
be "loose muscatels'' go first through the stemmer, a machine in which 
the stems, bits of leaves, etc., are separated from the fruit; then the 
grader swallows them, and shaking and bobbing through successive 
sieves they finally emerge in neatly assorted heaps as seedless, two, 
three, and four crown loose muscatels. Thence they are boxed and la- 
beled, ready for shipment. 

The layers pass into the nimble fingers of a room full of girls, who se- 
lect, snip imperfect raisins and superfluous stems from the hunches, and 
arrange them in forms holding five pounds. Pour of these are a series 
filling a twenty-pound box, the first three simply wrapped in white or 
blue paper ; the top, the most carefully arranged, folded in a wrapper. 

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resplendent with pictures, and bearing tibe brand of the raisia. The four 
are successively pressed by machinery into the box, which is then vari- 
ously labeled Layers, London Layers, Clusters, Two or Three Crown 
Layers, as the case may be, and stecked away awaiting the final venture 
so vital to the randier, the ship^e into ue land of the commission 
man, the wholesaler, the retailer and the consumer. 

The characteristic scenes, accompaniments of the season, are novel and 
interestiDg to the new comer. Driving down a palm-bordered road 
with limiuess stretches of green bushes on either hand, knots of bine- 
clad men stooping and rising from the billowy mass, the fiednt sound of 
their voices, and occasional bird-pipe breaking through the sunlit silence 
of the pure, raisin-scented air, you stop before a cluster of packing- 
houses at a cross road, where the rumble and crash of machinery and 
busy puff of engine rise in a cheerful din. 

Across the toSA. under the drooping, berry-hung pepper branches some 
Indian women sit before their very primitive camp, combing their hair, 
and perhaps a few unemployed men are gambling absorbedly near them. 
You enter the packing-room and watch the demy-workine girls at the 
long tables, an impression of tanned Ileuses, bright eyes and nimble ton- 
gues, with a sweet neavy odor of raiiins greeting you. There will be a 
sprinkling of Mexican girls, but the minority are daughters of the sec- 
tion, Americans, friends and neighbors* 

At the end of the season the floating population, principally Mexican 
and Indian, have a ball and general "good time.'' This will end in 
more or less drinking, some '"cutting|' and a dispersing until the next 
September. The residents breathe a sigh of relief when the demonstxm- 
tlon is past, and Nature and people relapse into the quiet even tenor of 
their ways. 

The Happy Hunting Ground. 



\ ^I^S^^ Piutey go when them git dead ? I no know. I 
AkY never see. I just hear somebody talk ; tell urn what 
* ^ kind 'nother place he go Ume by when he heap git 
die. That's all. I never not see that place. Who tell um 
me ? Oh, that dead men sometimes he come back, he talk. 
Him come in the night ; in night time him come. That's way 
he da Just night. 

Well, this way : over there pretty far up in sky somewhere 
— pretty long far — is b^ country. Heap good country. Lots 
rivers. River all got um fish. All kind Piutey fish. Trout 
— chub ; that kind. No got carp. Piutey no like um that 
kind. No got um that kind in that 'nother cotmtry. Lots 
creeks ; lots rivers. High mountain ; good many big — ^high ! 
Plenty deer — antelope — mountain sheep. !Lots. Lots rabbits 
too. Good place for hunt ; can hunt all time, never no kill um 
all, everything. 

Lots grass, tules ; trees ; all that kind thing. Lots good 
flowers. No got ranch there that white man ; no white men 
come that place. No fence ; no house ; no that way. Just 

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good country, that's all. No alkali flats ; no got nothin' bad. 
Just good all time ; just good thing. 

Nobody fight ; men he no never die. No never lie — steal — 
no git mad. Men he no git drunk ; no git tired. Him never 
work ; never. Just smoke — catch um fish — ^plenty dance — 
shoot um deer ; that 's all, you know. Sometimes have big 
hunt ; heap big hunt ; sometimes have heap big dance. Git 
um pine nuts up in mountain. 

When Piutey die he git go that country pretty quick. 'Bout 
one night, all 'lone, he go. He fly, go there. He git that 
country he quit fly, he walk ; just walk then. Clothes? No, 
he no take clothes when he leave here — just take hat, that 's 
all. May be. 

Over there that country he wear buckskin clothes ; wimin 
too wear um. Plenty beads ; moccasins too. Got um good 
moccasin. All men — all that wimin wear hair heap long. All 
um got long hair. Everybody he paint um face. Chief, them 
got some feather in hair. No got hat, them chief. Chiefs 
diem got more better things than other Piutey. Them got 
um four — may be five wives. 'Nother Piutey got just one 
wife ; that's all. 

When die — ^when go to that country — everybody git be 
young men, young wimin again. Everybody young man ; 
everybody young wimin. Everybody, he young. How that 
way ? I no know. Just that way ; that what I think. Maybe 
old men he die here ; he git go that 'nother country, quick — 
heap quick — right away he git to be young man again. That 's 
good, I think. Never git tired. Boy—^l — ^little papoose, 
he die here this country, he git go that other place he big men 
— ^big wimin right away pretty quick. He never stay children 
that place. No children there. No grow slow like here. No 
that way. Grow git big one day. One day he git big wimin 
— big men when he die. Children he die — old men he die, 
just same ; when he git go that country he be young men — 
young wimin. Never no old men — no children live there. 
Just be. young all time ; all time he young. That 's way he 
do, stay young all time; 

Never go 'way ; just live there all time. All time. All 
time. You sade that ? Not same like here. Never die. That 
place he never git die ; he never quit, never. I no know how 
he fix um that way never quit. He just do that way ; never 
no more die. 

Men go that pretty far country he find um all femily pretty 
quick. Father, mother, children, all um he find um. He find 
um there right away. Got um camp all together just same 
like here. 

Got one big boss that country. I guess he that same old 
man I tell you 'bout. The old man first he father everybody 

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b'long Piutey and Bannock. Him big boss. Big chief. Him 
take care all them Injins. 

That country b'long to all kind Injins ? No ; that just for 
Kutey — for just Banno6k — some Shoshone, may be. Piutey 
let them Shoshone stay there. All other kind Injin — all white 
men stay outside that country. They live far over by the 
edge of that place. No can come inside that good country in 
where Piutey and Bannock live. 

White men live close ? Yas. That what I think. That 
what other Piutey tell um me. White men no live inside; just 
out by the edge. I guess so. You sabe this ? White men 
may be he die ; he got g^t go somewhere. Where he go ? I 
think he go that same place by the outside. Not inside where 
Piutey stay ;" not there— just outside. Rabbit — ^horse — deer — 
everything he git go somewhere when he die. Him all go to 
that other country I guess. I just think so. Piutey live In- 
side by middle that place. Deer — ^horse — ^rabbit — Bannock 
Injin too ; may be some Shoshone live inside. All um other 
kind — 'nother kind Injin, white men all live just by outside. 

That good place. Heap good. You bet I Everything git 
new all time. Nothin' never git be old. Everything plenty ; 
plenty everything all time. Everybody got good horse. Heap 
good ; gentle. Horse that kind run fast; no buck. 

No, no use um money that place. Nobody come find um 
gold rocks in mountain. Not that way do there. That way 
no good. Nobody rich that country — nobody that country be 
poor. Just got 'nough ; that 's all. Just got 'nough. No 
work ; just have good time. Everybody got just same kind 
everything. May be chief got some Uttle more ; just chief. 
That 's way do that place. 

All um live in wick-ee-up same like here. All um use bow 
— ^arrow ; just same like long time ago. No use um gun no 
more. Never. 

Piutey over by inside that country he g^t white skin all time. 
Just same like white men. That 's way he look when he git 

Wear um clothes white men kind there ? May be some he 
do that way. Not all. Some he do. Some he no wear um. 
Do just what way he like when he go there. That 's way he 

May be Injin live pretty close by that edge where white 
men live, he wear um that kind clothes. May be he live in 
middle that good place where all um Piutey live, there that 
place he no wear um. That 's way, I think. Out edge that 
place close by white men, there find um knife — ^pan — clothes — 
plenty thing, all same white men make um. 'Nother Piutey 
no use um. 'Nother Piutey just got um buckskin clothes — 
beads — ^that kind things; all same Injin make um. 

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Never eat white men grub, same way like he do here. Never. 
Just eat Injin grub. That 's way he do wheu die. 

Got um all summer — all same winter ? You bet \ Just same 
kind like here. Winter, summer ; day, night. All same. 

How I know that way ? My father tell um me. Who tell 
um my father ? Oh, I guess grandfJAther. How he know ? 
I no know. I just Uiink this way ; dead men — dead wimin 
come back when dark, tell um 'bout that kind place. No, I 
never see dead men come talk. I never see. Plenty old men 
see ; pl«ity old men tell um me. Dead men sometimes come 
when dark ; come talk that kind. He come just when night ; 
never come when day. Just come look 'round, see how this 
country look. He no stay here. Just dark night he come ; 
go back pretty quick. 

' No, he no like this country no more when he git die. That 
'nother kind place mcure better. Heap good. By that 'nother 
country everybody go bime by. Everybody stay there then. 
This place bum up when everybody git go 'way. That 's 
what I think. Bverybody git go to that 'nother country, stay 
all time. Stay there live all time. Never git die. Never. 
j4ll time stay there. That 's what I think. Old men tell um 
me that way. 

Bamboldt, Httikl*. 

Italy and Our Italy" 


'^HM patriotic American feels an instinctive aversion 
for the voluntarily expatriated Anerican, and as a 
class the expatriated justifies his conntryman's con- 
tempt Where he has songht Earope only as an 
exemption from home cares and burdens and re- 
mains to turn life into a lazy holiday, he commonly 
becomes, as one of the ''American colony" that 
infests the larger Buropean cities, a thing to be 
avoided like the cholera ; like the cholera, too, a 
thing his country can spare. 
These, however, are the loafers ; there is another class— students and 
workers — who fall equally under the spell of Buropean life. Whether 
these linger under thiat spell fighting with tender consciences or come 
home to fight it out with harsh circumstance, they are eaually doomed 
to homesickness— over there for the home ; over here for the life. 

To those who have known only our Bast, with its impossible climate, 
ils conventions bom of a life rjgidly circumscribed by nature and as 
rigidly reacting upon the intellectual and moral atmosphere, Burope 
must ever remain the worker's playground— that is to say tiie place 
where he can work. But to those of us who have been bom to, achieved 
or had thrust upon us by accident of illness the pleasure-ground and 
garden of the world, it is a miserable, and seems at first an ^defensible, 
thing to* be forever gazing " with reverted eyes" toward the unhopeftil 
lands of an elder day. 
Why is it that we do ? And need we ? 
Two things draw the student and worker irresistibly to Burope : the 

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eoonotny of life, the (deasore of life ; economy of life in its larger sense, 
pleasare of life in its deepest 

What Bnrope is to the wealthy tourist and millionaire is of no conse- 
quence. They may find it pleasant ; they certainly do not find it dieap. 
But the millionaire and the wealthy tourist are inconsiderable factors m 
tiie sum of life ; they construct for themselves exceptional conditions 
wherbver they go, and with these we have nothing to do until we — tor 
our sins — ^become millionaires or wealth^p^ tourists ourselves. The mass 
—even of travelling mankind— is still neither the one nor the other. I 
do not think even tat resident finds Europe dieap ; for he is taxed ont 
of his peace of mind as well as his income, his last earthly possession, 
and even his salt, and sometimes they tax his taxes. Why then is it so 
cheap, so desirable, so beguiling for the worker in a score of lines, -so 
restful f<^ the tired in any ? 

Dr. Weir Mitchell, in '< Wear and Tear,'* notes the fact that the brain 
worker accomplishes more with less expenditure in Europe than hi 
America, and any student will tell you the same of his own experience. 
** I accomplish so much more abroad V* ''It is so mu^ easier to woric 
over there I*' Dr. Mitchell, not unnaturally, from the standrwlnt of the 
Eastern Stetes, concludes that the difference is climatic ; but we who 
have tried the West must admit, if honest, that there is still a balanoe 
in favor of Europe, and we know it is f$ot climatic ! 

What is it? 

It is because of the stupidity of our manner of life, mainly. Leaving 
aside the obvious aids to special work, in the presence of great libraries, 
schools of scientific research and training for the special student ; in the 
fiMulities for the study of the Arts, wher3n we must continue to be at a 
disadvantage for a pmod of growth ; leavine out all that is inimltaible, 
the monuments of art, the vast collections, the great gfHetieiB, and (what 
follows as a corollary) the tndned public which Is in itself an education 
to the student, there remains a whole field of stupid differences which 
we are wUfhlly fostering and increasing, to oor unmeasured loss and 

For it is not onl^ the student ; him we might cheerfully allow to «o 
abroad for the special course the ages have been preparing for him ; itls 
the worker of limited purse, but not unlimited strength or time, seeing 
that he can -count on but one lifotime on the planet, who after wrestling 
fiercely or d<Mrgedly with conditions here, sooner or later finds himself 
sighine for a tew yean of European life to work in. 

We do not» after all, spend the major part of our lives, even in Europe, 
in galleries or libraries or in contemplating '* monuments ;*' it is not 
these things which make life abroad so foscinating, potent though they 
are ; it is largely the absence of the tyranny of things, that is to say, the 
cheapness and the ease of livinir. This, and the outdoor life. 

That any dweller in Southern California should have to look wistfully 
back to Europe for an out-^oor life ! 

Leaving aside, so far as it is possible to disentangle such interwoven 
dements, the ease and the cheapness, let us consider this one qnestion 
of the out-of-doomess of Europe compared with this land of out-of- 
doors I 

Italy is the country most nearly resembling ** Our Italy " — with the 
possible exception of Spain. Tuscany is very like Southern California ; 
the Val d'Amo very like the San Gabriel Valley ; but shall we say that 
Florence is very like Los Angeles ? Yet, associations aside — Los An- 
geles ought to be more beautiful than Florence ; Nature is on her side. 
And Los Angeles has lier Past, to which she owes most of the beauty 
and charm she does possess. 

But consider Los Angeles— the ** Electric City " — from the out-door 
point of view. Noble parks we are making — ^it is perha^ the best we 
are maldng^— but for practical purposes the little Plaza m the heart of 

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the citj is worth them all, and the Plaza ia a legacy from the Spaniard. 
No provision for out-door life la complete which does not provide for it 
on the spot, in the heart of the busy places. Little gardens, into which 
the man or woman with half an hour to waste (or save) may drop, 
fulfil a need no distant park, however splendid or beautiful, can meet. 
To the one he may make an excursion twice or thrice a year ; the other 
he has joy of daily, whether he rests there or merely passes it in his 
frenzied American hurry to get somewhere. 

There is no European city, town or village so poor but it has its pub- 
lic squares, its little i>arks as well as its great ones, its promenades, its 
bands, its caf6s, beer-gardens, music halls — centers, all of them, of social 
life which every tourist enters into delightedly over there* And with 
reason. It is not the people we know who minister most to us ; it is 
also the people we do not know, need not know, would not know if we 
could ; it is the spectacle of mankind, at which we are spectators. 
Thinkers, students, artists, have always therefore loved the city streets 
when no better might be. For this reason Victor Hugo rode his Paris 
omnibus, and one might still see — till recently — the solitary Ibsen at 
the same table of the same caf6 every day, at the same hour, drinking 
his coffee and casting over the top of his paper shrewd glances at the 
students, professors, foreigners — ^the learned and the unlearned — about 

Abroad, the business-man, the professor, the student, the house- 
mother, tiie artist, all drop into the garden or out-door cafe in the after- 
noon, and their band plays, or they play billiards; or they talk and visit; 
or they watch and rest. True, the great gallery and the library are open 
also; but you will find your distinguished artist and your eminent 
writer in neither. He has worked in his shop all the morning ; he is 
playing now. And he has so many choices of places to play in t 

Here, if we are in search of diversion we have a choice of shopping 
or putting on our best bonnets and gloves and '* calling'* on our ac- 
quaintance. Indoor sport, for those who have a taste for it t If we 
bicycle, we may indeed spin into the .country, and life is by so much 
the more rich since the wheel was invented ; but there are times when 
the tired brain is more refreshed by a change of thought than by even 
a change of scene. 

We have no simple pleasures. Individually, we may have, but collec- 
tively we have not. llie American is socially timid. He will get dol- 
lars' worth of pleasure for his franc in some simple pleasure abroad, but 
over here he dare not go where he is not sure his world goes. Therefore 
his world never does go. 

And with what have we replaced the bier-gar ten and caf^, the open-air 
concert and promenade of other lands? In the most out-of-door climate 
in the world, what form of social enjoyment has the genius of the 
Anglo-Saxon wrought out for himself? The social colun^ns reply : the 
after^noon " Tea " and card-party I The flower of Southern Califomian 
society gets together to gamble for cut-glass bon-bon dishes and hand- 
painted ash-trays — not now and again, but every day in the week, and 
month after month. 

'* I suppose " said a wondering visitor from the Bast, " it is a survival 
of the early gambling days and mining camps." 

Unluckily, the gamblers are from the Bast. 

In addition there exist sundry clubs for the study of Ruskin, Brown- 
ing, Bmerson, Shakespeare — that is to sa^, all the out-door poets and 
philosophers. Indoors we read of the " wise thrush who sings his song 
twice over " and all the ** banks where the wild thyme grows," while 
on our wide mesas the larks are singine unheard, and on our arroyo 
banks the yellow violets '* take the winds of March with beauty." 
The whole intelli^nce of our imported population has arrived at 
nothing more original, suitable and fit than the importation of their 

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winter-boand and froet-nipped pleasures too ; the pinchbeck of pale 
Eastern gold — the echo of Cistern society without the special culture, 
fruit of its special conditions, which made that tolerable. 

These deplorable social conditicms are written so that he who wheels 
may read, m the larjgre print of architecture. For the old Spanish ranch 
house, with its ^tto and cloistered porches for the family life, what do 
we find? "Suburban" residences; sea-side cottages twenty-five miles 
from the sea, roofii for sheddine snow under the orange trees, the houses 
of the arctic Bast transplanted bodily to a semi-tropical climate. Or we 
find the faiUifhl e£fort of an architect with a conscience — a Moorish or 
Spanish model answering to the skies and air of an answering land — 
pumted squarely on an mstem lawn, separated from the public street by 
an inch ot "coping'' and from the neighbors by nothing. Homes, that 
is to say, in which the only possible home-like is within the walls ; the 
only possible family-life as much doomed to indoomess by the inexora- 
ble architectural fact as by the Eastern fact of climate. 

No English seclusion of stone-wall, even, or tree-y park ; no Italian 
bosky thicket or terraced garden with paths for love to wander in, and 
sweet sunny spaces for little children to grow happy in ; no nooks for the 
student, vistas for the artist, withdrawn places where the tired may relax 
or the busy labor, within the sane influences of sun and air. 

For what then, in the name of reason, do our people fsrsake the East 
with all that the young West cannot yet have, if not for the things which 
she has and the East can never know ? 

Did we conquer the Spaniard and cannot even reap our fruit of con- 
quest ? Are we ourselves to be conquered by our own traditions — a sight 
for all the world to wonder at and laugh? Those of us who had the 
good fortune to '' come out,'' as we involuntarily say, even fifteen years 
ago remember the gracious traces of that elder day we supplaxited, and 
watch with a contempt which it is not even a courteous duf^ to veil, the 
travesty of social life which has supplanted that. We feel a certain 
scorn, however pitiful, for the nauveau riche hanging his costly house 
wiUi chromos and lining his library bookshelves with &lse bindings ; is 
it any less an advertisement of one's ignorance or scant culture when as 
the nouveau riche in climate we mistake the semi-tropical for the frigid 
and hang upon it the unbefitting, valueless architecture and entertam- 
ment, costume and custom of afien climes? 

No peasant in Europe would err so grossly. Dwellers in the close 
cities must depend much upon their pulHic squares, gardens and promen- 
ades, but they will have outdoor life, every available inch of it. The 
ca/S lines the sidewalk, and the populace steps cheerfully around it ; the 
poorest worker draws his work to the doorsill. 

Besides all this provision, in Italy, for public outdoor life, there exists 
everywhere the provision for outdoor life in seclusion. It is not only 
the great villas and palaces which have their wall-surrounded, terraced 
and fountained gardens, with stone seats and tables, where the afb^- 
dinner cofiee is served as a matter of course and common sense, when- 
ever the sunset or moonrise most invite ; it is the tiniest, squalidest 
home which may possess its paradise too. 

Enter the narrow dwelling of the fisherman or straw-worker — ^the poor- 
est of the poor — ^follow the bare passage to the end, and nine times out 
of a Tuscan ten you will emerge in an enchanting garden, walled in. 
with its tiny, trellised arbour, its tree or two, its flowers and seats ; and 
here the family washing, the family eating, the family industry go on — 
spinning, sewing, net-making, straw-mc^ing — whatever may be the 
form of industry by which the poorest people in the world (next to the 
Irish peasantry) wring their scanty living from the earth — ^it is carried 
on out of doors. I have often wondered how much this has to do with 
the nature of an Italian, who carries a source of never-failing sunshine 
in his heart and in the depths of his saddened eyes. 

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The bare houaes, withont oyens, without dowCs, without fnmaees, 
withottt bath^tnbt, without an j modern oonvenieaoes-— they are not made 
to live in truly ; but the Italian does not expect to live in' them. They 
are his occasional shelter merely. 

We claim it as our superiority that we hare invented the home ; in a 
sense — and that a noble one — I believe it is true ; but the Latin might 
justly retort that we have made cages of our homes. If within our 
houses the home life reaches a higher level of unity and tenderness than 
elsewhere (which at least every American would like to think) it is with 
justice urged that we confine it within those walls. For an American 
family to take an ** outing** is a great event ; and for the circle of whidi 
the iHiite-haired grandparent is the center and the baby the circumfer- 
ence, one must Ic^k in German gartens or Italian and French gardens. 

The climate of Germanv does not deter its dwellers ; the tratpumtana 
of Italy woiics no ill ; and coming home to our pale-cdieeked children, 
faded women and tired men, our furnace-heated houses (for the furnace 
Is beginning to decimate Southern California), and closed windows, one 
is made thoughtful. The Italian notoriously dies of consumption, and 
the New Bnglander. But it is the well-fed New Englander in his hot- 
house against the ill-nourished, the well-nigh starved, Italian. 

What ought we to have in Southern California— of all that makes Italy 
a name to conjure by ? Parks, as many and as splendid as we will, but 
also little parks, gardens, coff^-g^dens, beer-gardens, concert-gardens, 
and gardens in our homes. Not a mere patch of drenching blue-grass 
over which the hose forever weeps and on which no child may run nor 
elder rest, but real eardens shut In, not inhospitably to the public (for we 
ourselves are the public) but modestly, as we shut in our sleeping-rooms for 
privacy and seclusion, and no one quarrels with us therefbre. We have 
as much right-^^e poorest and the richest of us — ^to our bit of out-door 
home as our bit of in-door home. Finally, let us have our out-door pub- 
lic home, too ; not alone the Club (though there is nothing against that), 
but the out-door pleasure for all ; the out-door concert of &e best» and 
the out-duor cafe and garden — for eating and drinking are social in- 
stincts. An Italian will spend two hours over his modest glass of red 
wine, a German over his cup of co£fee or stein of beer ; it is reserve d for 
the Bnglishman and American "swilling** his mixed drinks to make a 
•* Temperance** object-lesson of the street. 

Id equipages and liveries there is no Bastem city but can outdo us ; 
even the flare of costumes (made by Bastem dressmakers for Bastem 
climates, commonly) is cheaply over-matched in Chicago or any other 
town ; but what an unmatched pageant of life there might be here, 
would man (and woman] but fit himself or herself ever so little to the 
environment! Every otner animal is modified by his environment ; only 
man cherishes the hope of modif3^ng bis himself, and "right now,'* 
while he is waiting, or without waiting. 

When one thinks of the beauty of shade and sun, of garden and 
grove, of park and drive and promenade, possible, one anticipates the 
recording anil's tears. Time was when a suburb of Los Angeles, then 
unknown as it is now famous, was one great garden In itself; when the 
avenues of shade, orchards of splendid fruit and bloom, the rose gardens 
of Persia, and all the song-birds of the earth, made setting for tiny half- 
Spanish ranch houses — ^homes which escaped captives of the Bast in- 
habited when they must, but as little as they could ; when horses in pic- 
turesque trappings made the shady avenues picturesque ; when the 
cafions and mesas were as much a part of daily life as the front-parlor ; 
when life was like a dream come true, and there was no reason for hop- 
ing to die. 

And now ! The shade trees are down — they "littered the streets,'* 
Trees have not the first notion of tidiness ! The ferny pepper is gone — 
its roots "humped up** the superior asphalt, whose untempered glare and 

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reflex heat now make pleasant the way of the pedestrian — ^the orange 
groves are snflfered to die of neglect — there is **no money** in them, since 
land became worth so much a front foot — and the horse is gone with tiie 
alfalfa which fed him. We drive now (with liveries) or wneel ; but we 
do not have the old roads to wheel over, which the Village Improvement 
Society (brains andcoosdenceof the town) k^tas no City Council or con- 
tractor ever did or will. Gone are the gardens, too ; a couple of rose 
"bushes constitute a garden now, set in a green — very green lawn-^(it is 
its one merit) stretching to the asphalt edge, and no tree ever makes 
it untidy. Palms — as useful as telegraph poles for the purpose-^aerre as 
shade trees. And in the rows of pretentious stone or cement houses, 
without blinds for shade, without porches— except a front one in which 
a toilette makes a figure — ^without a court-yard, without a summer-house, 
roof-garden, anything that might possibly serve as a possible screen be- 
tween life and the Raymond tonnst ; with an exterior "open as da^r to 
melting Charity," but with an interior lumbered with all the trifling im- 
pedimenta with which the house-bound Easterner strives to construct an 
ideal of life and multiply duties, sit those whom climate has lured 
hither — gambling for glass bon-bon dishes and hand-painted ash-trays ! 
It makes even an expansionist sad for the future of the Philippines t 

Puadena. CaI. 

The Keeper of the Camp 


'TTH a head whitened by the snows of many 
winters ; with a face withered into a mass of 
deep wrinkles ; with eyes that had not, for 
ten long years, seen even so much as the 
very faintest ray of God's sunlight — that 
old Nahali sat hovered over her fire one 
cx>ld day in December. It was a small fire 
— the same sort of a fire as the ones that 
had robbed her of her vision. A chunk of oak laid between 
two smoke-blackened stones, a bed of dull-glowing coals be- 
neath it, and gray and black ashes in a close circle arotmd it. 
The smoke, thin and light, rose straight to the small opening 
in the peak of the conical roof, through which it twisted as it 
were boring its way out. It was a poor fire, and after reach- 
ing around for some fuel to put on it and finding none old 
Nahali drew her thin, ragged dress more closely around her 
and bent her head over die coals. As she did so, the smoke 
struck her on her withered chin and seemed to feel its way up- 
ward across her trembling lips, along her thin nostrils, over 
her squinting, sightless eyes, and through her tangled white 
hair. As she breathed, it crept into her mouth also and she 
coughed — a weak, hollow cough that might have told its own 
story. For old Nahali was nearing the great river across 
which lie the Happy Hunting Grounds and she was very 
feeble. The smoke making her cough, she drew back a 
little ; but it was cold, bitterly cold, and soon with a shiver, 
she hovered again over the smoke. 

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Outside, the earth was covered with snow — not a great deal, 
but still enough to give things a very wintry appearance. It 
lay in little ridges on the limbs and twigs of the bare trees, 
and with its shroud of white, impressed a sense of deeper 
silence upon the half-dozen wigwams that stood in a circle 
around the hut in which old Nahali sat. For there was no 
one in these wigwams — no one in the whole camp except 
Nahali. They had gone away, bag and baggage, two days 
before to attend a **Big Soup," twenty miles over the mount- 
ains, and they had not yet returned to camp. They should 
have been home that morning, and old Nahali had expected 
them at that time, but they had not come, and it was now late 
in the afternoon. Nahali hoped that they would return be- 
fore nightfall, for she was very cold and the wood they had 
left her had been used up, and she had eaten nearly all the 
acorn bread that they had put by her. 

But they did not return. The gray, wintry sky grew 
grayer, the cold air became colder, and a dark shadow stole 
slowly over the white hills. The wind began to blow, and its 
icy breath made old Nahali wish again that her people were 
with her. She did not upbraid them for leaving her — she had 
been left too many times to think of complaining. The oldest 
squaw of the tribe, she had for some years been ** the keeper 
of the camp," being too feeble to go away as the others did, 
on trips after food, or to neighboring rancherias to attend the 
big soups that were of frequent occurrence. 

When they had left, two days before, her relatives had 
hardly thought it worth while to say good-bye. To tell the 
truth, they cared very little for old Nahali, for she had 
outlived her useftilness long years before. Her great-great 
grand-children were getting to be good sized pickaninnies; 
her great grand-children were men and women g^own ; her 
grand-chil£:en were of advanced ages ; and her two daughters 
were quite old. It was hard to believe that she could be the 
head of four generations and still alive, but it was really so. 

The wind increased until it moaned and wailed around the 
wigwam. But Nahali did not hear it, for she was as deaf as 
she was blind. She knew it was growing colder, however, and 
she hovered closer and closer over her little fire, which was 
almost entirely extinct. It was so low that it did not make 
even a smoke, and as for warmth — old Nahali, the keeper g[ 
the camp, was already becoming numb ! 

As she sat thus, over the two or three coals that were still 
feebly alive, squatted down like an old witch in her scanty 
rags, the sUn flap of the wigwam was pushed back and a man 
entered. He was a tall man, robed in a great robe of rabbits' 
fur, and in his hand he held a long wand covered with many 
scalps of the scarlet-headed woodpecker, and further decorated 

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with long feathers of the yellow-hammer and the bine-jay. It 
had been intensely dark in the little wigwam just before he 
came, bnt now it was all light and warmth. Old Nahali felt 
the change and raised herself slowly and felt abont her as if 
she would touch the source of it. And where did it come 
from — ^what was the source of it ? Ah, that was the strange 
thing I — it did not seem to come from anywhere. It filled the 
whole room as if it were sunshine, and it had a great warmth 
— a blessed warmth ! 

Old Nahali felt around her — ^felt the cold stones, the hard, 
brittle coals, the soft, smooth ashes ; then she raised her thin, 
bony arms above her head and groped through the air. Find- 
ing nothing, she let her arms slowly fall and began to mumble 
to herself— low, inarticulate sounds that had no meaning. 

Then it was that the chief — for the stranger's dress and 
bearing proclaimed him to be a chief--opened his lips and 
spoke. And though he spoke in a low voice, Nahali heard 
him and raised her head and was no longer deaf. 

** Can NahaU hear ?" asked the chief. 

" Nahali can hear," answered the squaw in an awed voice 
but with lifted head. 

The chief smiled and waved his wand slowly to and fro. 

" Can Nahali see ? '' he asked. 

There was a silence. The old squaw squinted her half- 
closed lids closer together, and the water from beneath them 
oozed out and rolled down her fturrowed cheeks ; but she could 
not see. 

*' NahaU cannot see," she answered him, at last. The chief 
smiled again — a soft, compassionate smile. 

'* It is as well,'* he said. ** Nahali has seen enough ! She 
has seen all that there is to be seen — sorrow, and joy, and love 
and hate, and beauty and ugliness. She has witnessed the 
rise and set of suns and moons and seen the yews of summer 
bloom and fade. To her eyes have been spread the glory of 
the heavens, and she has seen also, the grandeur and baseness 
of mankind. But there is one thing Nahali has not yet seen. 
May the curtains hapg before her face till she has passed into 
the Happy Hunting Grounds ! For there she will see much 
beauty, and will know much happiness. No more will Nahali 
be forsaken — no more will Nahali be left alone to sit in the 
cold ." 

For it was very, very cold — the warm light had disappeared, 
and the tall chief had gone ! 

It is strange what visitors one will have when one is old and 
the snow-burdened wind blows upon one with its icy breath. 
Strange visions, yes. But the Indians knew nothing about 
this when they came into camp next day, wading through the 
snow that had fallen heavily during the night. 

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They only knew that old Nahali, the useless, the unwanted, 
was dead— 4ying, just as she had fallen when the Great Chief 
left her, with her thin, bony arms outstretched, and her dark, 
wrinkled &ce turned to the cold, gray ashes. 

Pmeh Coml, 0»I. 

Early California. 


^J|#HB detailed report of the Count de Revilla Gigedo, Viceroy of 
^fS^ * Mexico oyer a century ago, is one of the clearest, ablest, most 
JL concise, most reliable early documents on the history of Cali- 
fornia and the northern coast. It has hitherto been inaccessible to 
American students, except in Spanish ; and the accurate translation 
which begins below will be of service to every student of California 

Of the sixty-two viceroys of Mexico from 1535 to 1822, few were the 
equals in statesmanship, activity and zeal of the second Count de Re- 
villa Gigedo — an American by birth, for he first saw the light in Habana, 
Cuba. He arrived on the frigate *'San Ramon*' in Vera Cruz, Oct- 8, 
1789, and the 17th of the same month took formal possession of his 
high office, which he held until July 11, 1794. 

To the Licenciado, don Carlos Maria de Bustamante, we are indebted 
for the preservation of this important document. Bustamante, who 
was bom in Oaxaca, November 4, 1774, and died September 21, 1848, 
did enormous service for the history of Mexico. True, his passions 
sometimes misled him and his editorship in some cases was careless ; 
still all, enemies and friends, are debtors to Bustamante's unceasing 


Don Juan Vicrntb de Guembs Pachbco de Padili^a, Count of 

ilEvii^iA Gigedo, 





The viceroy of New Spain, Count de Revilla Gigedo, compiles in this 
detailed report the events which happened in the peninsula of tlie 
Califomias and in the department of San Bias since the year 1768, and 
makes the suggestions he considers advisable. 

Most Excellent Sir : 

1. The maritime department of San Bias, the peninsula of the Cali- 
fomias, and the explorations carried out on its northern coasts, have been 
matters of grave consequence, and have received my utmost attention 
since the day on which I took charge of these vast dominions. 

2. Up to now the steps taken b^ me have met with success. I have 
undertaken them in conformity with the King's orders, with the most 
sincere desire of success and having in mind the actual state of afidrs. 

3. According to their kind and nature, I have, through the corre- 
sponding channels, rendered an account of everything to His Majesty, 
accomp^3ring same with testimonies of credit, explaming my reasons. 

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and asking for advice on those matters wbkh I consider moat important 
to the royal service. 

4. As a happj result thereof, I have had the satisfaction of receiving 
repeatedly the approval of the King on points relating to the undertak- 
ings in the California*. 

5. These enterprises have never been finished, and the only thing 
lacking is» that a new friendly agreement between our Court and the one 
in London shall put forever an end to the differences due to the events 
at Nutka, and preserve the peace and hannony so important to the sub- 
jects of both powers. 

6. So I hope ; and for this reason I take still greater pleasure in the 
extraordinary task of compiling briefly and clearly what has been done 
and carried out by the viceroys, my piedeceasors, in the Califomias and 
San Bias ; what I have reported and repreaented about these matters in 
my different letters ; and finally what remains to be done according to 
my opinion. Having these data present, Your Bzcellency can arrive at 
an understanding of everything, inform His Ifajesty thereof, and issue to 
me his royal orders. 

State of the Peninsula of the Calif ornias in 1767. 

7. In the year ]767> the peninsula of the Califomias embraced the 
territories which lay between the cape of San Lucas, situated in latitude 
North 2T 48\ and the mission of Santa Maria de Todos Santos, in lati- 
tude 31 >^ d^rees North. (1) 

It» State, Fortifications and Expenses Incurred. 

8. At that time the capital of the penkisula was the feeble ** presidio" 
of Our Lady of Loretto (2). It had as garrison a troop of cavalry, 
mounted and armed in accordance with the customs of the country ; its 
pay (including that of the crew of the vessel carrying supplies) amounted 
to $32,515, which paid out of the royal treasury. Tht Jesuits reallv coU 
lected and distributed this mone]^, and also took care of the disapHne 
and service of said troop, placed in commission for the sole purpose of 
definiding and preserving the fifteen missions established and adminis- 
tsffed by the Society of Jesus*. 

Special Fund (fondo piadoso) of the Missions. 

9s. These missions were founded and maintained at the expense of the 
capitals which the zeal and apostolic labors of the aforementioned 
fieitiiers of the Society of Jesus had acquired for the purpose of effecting 
the spiritual conquest of the Califomum Indians. The principal bese- 
faetortand founders of these special funds were the Harquis de Villa- 
pnente and the Marchioness de las Torres de Rada. 

The Farthest Northern Coasts of the Peninsula are in- 
eluded Within and Considered to be Under Spanish 

10. Although the most remote countries of New Spain, known under 
the name of the exterior or western territories of the Califomias, have 
not been occupied by any other formal establishments than the aforesaid 
fifteen missions and the presidio of the Loretto, they were included 
within and considered to be under the Spanish dominion, as also the 
coasts farthest to the North on the continent ; further the coastline had 

(i) The correct name of this mltiioii is Santa Maria de Los Angles, sitoatcd in 31° 
lat. North. It was esUbHsbed October 16, 1766. 

Santa Maria de Todos Santos is in lat. 24° 30^, and was originally founded in x7i9 at 
Lr Pas, and a lew years later removed to its present tocatioo. 

(2) Hare, on October », I697, the Jesuit Father Joan Maris de Salratiem estab- 
lished the ^ttodsslon in tower California. Lat.25'^8r. 

*In Lower California. 

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already been discovered up to 43^ latitude North (3), where the river, 
called " Los Reyes," exists. 

Duringr the Last Two Centuries Bepeated ]BxploratioiiS 
were Made for the Purpose of Settling: said Coasts. 

1 1 . Our Court had always in mind to advance the spiritual conqnest of 
California np to the confines of North America, by settling the coasts of 
its Pacific Ocean. This is proved by the manjr costly expeditions under- 
taken during the last two centuries, and especially by that one so well 
carried out in the year 1602, under the command of the general, Sebas- 
tian Vizcaino. 

The General Sebastian Vizcaino Discovered the Ports 
of San Diegro and Monterey, and Orders were Issued 
for Settlingr the Latter. 

(12). At that time he discovered the ports of San Diego and Monterey, 
and, ^though in consequence thereof, the second was to have been oc- 
cupied and settled at occe in virtue of a royal cedula issued by order of 
Philip III, this most important decree was not carried into efiect until 
the year 1768. 

It did not take place until the year 1768. 

13. The causes of this preindicial inaction are unknown. The wise 
and well combined rules Laid down in said *' cedula" would have 
smoothed over all the difficulties liable to arise in the enterprise, and 
these difficulties did in fact disappear as soon as it became known that 
the Russians had verified different explorations on the Califomian coasts 
from Hamts Kaska (Kamskatka), and that they intended to establish 
themselves thereon. 

Foreigrn nations could have occupied these places, as no 
armed force existed in California to offer Resistance. 

14 They might have been able to occupy, without resistance, our 
ports of San Diego and Monterey, if they had, at the beginning, directed 
their explorations to lower latitudes. This, for the reason that the very 
limited population of our peninsula of the Califomias could not have 
mustered a sufficient force for resisting a European army ; besides, there 
were no other ships in the Pacific Ocean than the small vessel used for 
transporting supplies, of which I have already spoken. ^' ,; 

We occupied these ports in the said year of 1768, and 
at the same time established the Department of San 

15. Finally, in the mentioned year of 1768. we successfully occupied 
those ports, and also established the department of San Bias for the 
main object of serving as a base of the military expedition decided 
upon against the barbarous Seri and Pima Indians which hostilized 
Sonora, and also for the purpose of opening later on commerce with 
this province and the one of the Califomias. 

Missions were erected and the Salines of Zapotilla placed 

under royal administration for the purpose of 

maintaining the Department of San Bias. 

16. The erection of missions in the immediate neighborhood of the 

(8) Sebastian Vizcaino in hia second voyage reached on Dec. 29, 1602, lat 43 North, 
near to which is Cape Blanco ; but he must have assigfned a wrong lat. to the river 
*' Los Reyes/' as no snch stream exists there. 

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presidioe of San Diego and Monterey was at once begun (4a). The 
expenditures incurred were charged to the special funds (4b) which 
the Jesuits at the time of the expulsion [June 25, 1767, in tiie City of 
Mexico. They left toreUo, Lower Cal., Feb. 3, 1768.] had left capital- 
ized (fincado), and it was considered possible that the department of 

Ua) The misaloDS established In California are : 

San Dieeode Alcala, June i6, 1769. 

San Carlos de Monterey, June 3, 1770. 

San Antonio de Padua, July 14, 1771. 

San Gabriel Arcangel, Sept. 8, 1771. 

San I^uis Obispo, Sept. 13, 1772. 

San Frandsco Dolores, Oct. 9, 1776. 

San Jnan Capistrano, Nov. x, 1776. 

Santa Clara, Jan. 18, 1777- 

San Buenaventura, March 31, 1782. 

Santa Barbara, Dec 4, 1780. 

Pnrisima Concepcion, Dec. 8. 1787. 

Santa Cms, Aug. 28, 1791. 

Soledad. Oct. 9, 1792. 

San Joae, June 18, 1707. 

San Miguel, 1797. 

San Luis, Rey. 1798. 

San Juan Bautista, 1799. 

Santa In^, 1804. 

San Rafael, i8i7« 

San Francisco Solano, 1823. 

(4b) The following is a translation of the Report made by the Prandscan friar, 
Father Francisco Palou on February X3, 1772, to the Superior of the convent San 
Fernando in the City of Mexico, Fray Juan Roman de Mora, and shows the financial 
status of the "Pious fund** at that time. 

Cofy of the pious works founded by the different individuals for the purpose of the 
spirrtucu conquest of the OUtfdmias : 

Year 1698 Don Juan Caballero founded the first mission and for this purpose gave.|xo,oeo 

'• 1699 the same founded the second xo,ooo 

" 1700 Don Nicolas Arteaga founded the third and furnished the same amount xo,ooo 

" 1702 different individuals through Father Jose Vidal, Jesuit, the fourth 7,000 

" 1704 the Marquis de Villapuente founded the fifth in the sum of. zo,ooo 

*• 1709 thesame founded the sixth in ^ „ ^. 10,000 

** 1713 the same founded the seventh in xo,ooo 

" 1718 His Bxcellency, Don Jnan Ruic de Velasco, founded the eighth in 

" 1719 the Marquis de ViUapuente founded the ninth in 10,000 

" 1725 the Jesuit, Father Juan Maria I«U3rando, founded the tenth in xo,ooo 

" 173X Dofia Maria Rosa de la Pefia donated to one of the missions of Villa- 
puente 10,000 

'• X746 the Marquis de Villapuente founded the eleventh in« „ 10,000 

" 1747 The Most Bxcellent Dofia Maria de Boya, duchess of Gandia, instituted 

the missions of Cahfomia as her heirs, but they have only received... 62,000 

Total of donations 1x79,000 

(4c) Balances found at the time of the Expulsion of thefesuiis : 
In cash found in the Atty Gen'l's office of California at the expulsion »....| 92,000 00 

Value of merchandise found in the same office .....^ 37,255 75 

Value of merchandise in warehouse at I«oretto 79,377 37^ 

Total balances... — |x99i033 X2}i 

Loans made by the Attorney GeneraPs office of California of the capitals of said mis- 
sions as appears by the corresponding instruments: 

To the College of San Idlefonso in the City of Puebla, at s% P«* cent $ 22,000 

•* •: ofSanlgnado " " •* at 4 per cent „ 5,000 

,' '' of San Pedro and San Pablo in the City of Mexico without int... 29,000 

** " of San Idlefonso in the dtv of Puebla, at % per cent.. 2^,000 

" " of San Geronimo in the City of Mexico, at 3 per cent 38,500 

" " of San Idlefonso in the city of Puebla, at 3 i>er cent 9,000 

Total loans „ |x26,6oo 


Total of donations » 1179,000 00 

Total of balances on hand 1991O33 12% 

Total of loans » ».... 126,600 00 

Grand Total „ .4504.633 X2ji 

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San Bias conld coTer its expenses with the prodncts of the neighboang 
salines, from now on to be worked on account of the royal txeasury, and 
with other resomoes of minor impoftance. 

These expeditions aod establishments were the cause 
of heavy expenses* 

17. This advantage was never obtained. The expenses of San Bias 
are constantly on the increase, and the costs of its establishment, and 
of the expeditions to Sonora and California, from 1768 to 1771, were 
necessarily large to the royal treasury, although part of the expenses 
weie defrayed by generous voluntary contributions and also out of the 
special mission funds. 

No Economy was practicable. 

18. To exercise anv cautious economy was an impossibility wktn 
everything had to be done hurriedly in distant countfies, without any 
settlements in the largest part of their enormous area, and with Sonora 
subject to the cruel hostilities of the Indian enemies ; and, to state the 
whole matter in as few words as possible, without troops, vessels, arms, 
munitions, utensils and provisions. 

Difficulties apparently insuperable were overcome: the 
Viceroy, Marquis de Croix, returned to Spain; and the 
Baylio Frey Don Antonio Bucareli took his place. 

10. Notwithstanding these difficulties— which might be considered 
insuperable — were overcome, and, as far as it waa possible to zeal and 
constancy, the important ends of the enterprises were accomplished. 
The Viceroy, Marquis de Croix, having finished his term of office, left to 
his successor, the Bailio (6) Prey don Juan de Bucareli, the glory to con- 
tinue the work and to carry it to the best state of perfection. 

Bvents which happened in the time of the Viceroy Bu- 

20. As in ever3rthing which had passed, the mental and personal 
labors of the In^>ector General, the Marquis de Sonora (7), had plaved 
an important part, and as this functionary still remained in the kingdom 
( New Spain ) f(»' a few montha after the Marquis de Croix bad sailed on 
his return to Spain, Galvez was enabled to Inform the successor, Don 
Antonio Bucareli, of everything which had taken place, so that the new 
Viceroy would find it less difficult to perfect promptly all the arrange- 
ments required in the department of San Bias and the peninsula of Sie 
Californias, economizing expenses and avoiding confusion. 

21. The hostilities of the Seris and Pimas had somewhat ceased in So- 
nora, but the Apaches created worse havoc in New Galicia (8) therefore 
the expenses which decreased in the first province augmented in the 
second owing to the formation of a corps of four flying troops of cavalry, 
and to other help furnished as well in soldiers as to the presidios. I refer 

(6) Bailio, a knight of the religiotis miUtanr order of Saint John, who has taken the 
VOW8 and is invested with the command and enjoys the usnff net of a castle, town or 
other mral or urhcm property. 

(7) Don Tob6 de Galves receiTed in 1764 unlimited power to inspect all the different 
branches of the government in New Spain, and make whatsoever changes of magis- 
trates and offidali he considered convenient. On Tuly 6, 1768, he arrived In Lower Cid- 
ifomia for the purpose of arranging matters in that province, and for the principal 
object of extending missions ana presidios to Upper California. His plans were suc- 
cessfully carried out by Father Junipero Serra ana the commander, Ported^. In 1776 he 
was appointed Secretary of the Indies and in this capacity had his brother, Don Matias 
de Galvez, and afterwards his nephew, Bernardo de Galves, appointed Viceroys of New 
Spain. Galvez died in 1787. 

■ (8) New Galicia, the present Mexican States of Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila, 
wmch by the royal order dated in Madrid on Dec. 4, 1786, were formed into the " inten- 
denda" of Durango. 

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only slightly to these matters here, becaase this compilation mnst be 
strictly limited to events and matters relating to San Bias and the Cali- 

New Rules for San Bias and the Oalifornias« 

22. New mles were made for the administration of both provinces. 
In San Bias a formal commisariat was established for making the pay- 
ments and keeping strict acconnts; a small arsenal was also pnt in 
operation for careening and repairing all the vessels of the department ; 
one frigate and two dispatch boats (paquebotes) were stationed there ; 
and, for all these purposes was assigned to it yearly the amount of (63,- 

23. Although the expenses of the presidial troops of the Califomias 
were estimated at {155,435, including the salaries and pay (haberes) of 
the governor of the Peninsula, commissary of Loretto, storekeepers or 
those acting as snch (habilitados) of the presidios, and of a small num- 
ber of carpenters, blacksmiths, and muleteers, the whole expenditure 
amounted to only $26,500 ; because a rule was established that payment 
should be made in clothing, goods, and provisions, and that there 
should be charged or added to the cost price of these articles, 100 per 
cent at the old establishments and 150 per cent at tlje new presidios of 
San Diego and Monterey. The only exceptions to this rule were the 
salaries of the governor, $4000 and of the commissary at Loretto, $1500. 

24. Lastly a Factor, with a salary of $2000, was appointed for collect- 
ing the amounts payable by the royal treasury in this capital (Mexico), 
and for making the necessary purchases and remittances of textile fab- 
rics and merchandise for San Bias and the Californias. In consequence, 
addins: all these items gives a total yearly amount of $92,476. 37 >4, pay- 
able from the royal treasury. The salaries assigned to the Franciscan 
and Dominican missionaries, their traveling expenses by land and sea, 
as also the necessary expenditures for the establishment of new missions 
are to be made from the special funds. 

New EnterpriseH* 

25. After finishing this matter, the viceroy, don Antonio Bucarelit 
thought it well to confine his measures to the preservation and tem- 
poral and spiritual development of the old and new Californias, toward 
improving the salines in the immediate neighborhood of San Bias. 
This for the purpose, that said department might also flourish as far as 
possible, and so be able to comply with its principal object, the fur- 
nishing and forwarding of the necessary supplies to the presidios and 
missions of the Californias ; but this quietness did not last long. 

26. Information was received about the excellent port of San Fran- 
cisco ; the old project of- discovering a land route was again taken up ; 
discussions were held in reference to opening the communication be- 
tween the presidios of Monterey and San Diego, blocked up by the 
Santa Barbara channel whereon numerous pacific and docile Indians 
dwelt ; attention was called to the immense number of pagans desirous 
of congregating in missions ; and, also to the fertility of the territories 
in tiie north, which invited Spaniards to settle and cultivate them. 

First Exploration to Higher Liatitudes. 

27. The Viceroy already flattering himself with the possible accom- 
plishment of these useful projects, received the royal orders of April 
1 1 and September 23, 1773, which increased his zeal and compelled him 
to put into practice more difficult and costly plans. 

28. The Count de Lascy, Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of 
Russia, notified our Court of the discoveries which had been made by the 

(9) This new *' reglamento " was formulated May 19, 1773: dlsciissed and amended 
July 8, 1778 ; approved by the viceroy July 23, 1773, and went into force January 1st, 

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ukmO' "z^^ suMsaz^B. 


r>^ JitfitvviM 4«si^Hr «ii< Jt)«» nur 3ur:«fli ifroBlii 

'^^'^nXf^^^ m rlw* ^wntm &( tixam am^fit be 

^, , 7' ;, Utt^tn^t ?H^^n tlw tg gM i t y of grvrst^ aaacbKr JbnK sa dee ^i- 
p(rff¥Mr9i^ ^ !M« I^Vm. «kt oif ffPpipiTTaif tt witii camifK»tat qAcbs of tbe 

f/»7«; MP7f ^ pr;%^ri4r;»t pt>>C», cs «i»»al mmm ^ »dcxs. ami j^Sam 

«H^ « («<jt^r iM«il><r f4 «tt««ei# wfKretndi to — riri.wii' the CiIiJanKEBs 

^>, >f« A)#ry fepfpmA tktA the sew p c m i d to s gC Sob Dk^o lad M om 
i^f0y w^« fr^nlr «ie4Mi#faise0U, opoly j(Md Uyr gtrio^ a title to tbe soQ 
'/| TO 4M<^ mf^^n pitfM iHlalar el ^kmsio . amd for keepm^ wirMn cer- 
Uin Vmn/W th* ^oomeraMe potfss Imtiimu tri^ 

, emiof to tbe b wi J ep o 
h^hnA tt/Ji 4o/iMe4 t/> Wftiff 

lUhm^nfii, w)tkfe, owiflw to tbe w wfcp o i»|wed npoa tiie rofal 

K/, Thirt h« ^!f>ori4 no ir«y of eroidtiif tlK iacrcaacd expeadxtmcs m 
Wltf^h fh^ /f^p«f tment of l^o BIm will isiroHe hhn, adepertmeat sit»- 
Alo/f f n </fi« of the ino»t otibealchy cliniatcs of tbe Ftcific ooait ; and 
ftnuUf )ff the Nirne letter, iraiober 1048, and in tboae written afterwarda, 
h^ <</mOnnH rrporUtifc apon tbe wke m eaaurea taken bj bnn. 

f1 Th« /H«roi^«ry of an orerlaod roote from Sonora to Monterey bad 
n)t¥H^f \fffn ma<l« (\()) Uter on tbe important occupation of tbe port of 
tintt Pfttnt\ to \0i9k plure (11), and all tboae measnrea were continued 
whif'h ipntU4 to nuf^jecting (aa waa later brought aboat> gradually tbe 
fti^intiAof th<* HMHta 0art>ara channel and to tbe establisbment of new 
ffilMion^ und Hpftolub •ettlementa (pueblos). 

J-T Th« f«fofindf»«nce of the Goatzacalcoa river on tbe Gulf of Mex- 
ico, Ati/1 the (*(nintry lying between its montb and tbe barbor of Tebnan- 
\¥pt^v on thit Ptkddc coftiit waa alto undertaken, and it waa aacertained 
(imt fl pOMn^Mlty cxlited for tratiaporting artillery over it, aa bad already 
iH»(*lt ilone, according to old tradition*, t^ Hem^n Cortes, for arming tbe 
vi*«N9lN Up hid ordered to be built in tbe barbor of Tebuantepec, and 
whh h dlHoovfrrd tha coaits of the Ctlifornias (12). 

(Ill) |)n|( (tmit nHiillitM (\9 AttKi, CNpUln of the preffidloof Tubac. on the frontier of 

XI hiriit-ffilrUrfrir AltNr with twenty of bU toldiersand accompanied by tbe 

U( mUoloiiai Un. futhrrii Ofirr^N and Juao Diaz, on Taouary 8, 1774, and arrived 

N«tnii (if MHtt (inbtlrt In CalKornla 011 May 22nd of the same year. Anza pro- 

miHHiii, UU (hriit-ffilrllrfrir Altar with tw«oty of bis aoldiers and accompanied by tbe 
' i«»l ' * " " '' -..---"-- 

Mtt OnbtlH III CalKornli 

, »^ ((t Moiitfirv for thr purpose _ ^__ 

M»*Mn A «f I <«Hi1 f^pvilKlon, rImu roiitmanded by Ansa, left Tubac on Oct. 23, 1775, and 

l'(M(irlA(itil HiUoloiiai Un. fathrrii Oarr^ii and Juao Diaz, on Taouary 8, 1774, and arrived 
Ml Ihf Hl(««tnii (if MHit Onbtirt In CalKornla oil May 22nd of the same year. Anza pro- 
rt p(1h1 niiHt Ihrit' ((t M<iiit«iirv for thr purpose of consulting with Father Junipero 

t^iit*ltt-«l AnH OnbHri (in tatiunty 4, 177(1. 

on me HmI HMlMWvif»HulU |uly'jn,177A; 00 the 28tta the first mass was said in the 
(fHUMMMty itinti**! I'l^f |H>f( wanm^upled AueuAt IH and formal possession taken on 
*^\\\\ tr, f. IV riir rhNprl ul Uir mlN«loti of Dolores was dedicated Octobers, and 
(lu ntiMbm nmunlty lUNUHurntva October H, 177A. 

\\'i\ ^^^9 fli«l tMMo\f»ivt or thv pmlnMila of California was the pilot Portun 
HUu» «>•♦. wh»»fini»iriHhr nuir sHnwartlscaUed "of Cort^," with the vessel ''Con- 
t-r\s\ \\s\\ \\\ \\\v tsHtt tmit ot )'\1i( U« and twenty^twoof his crew were killed by the 
i«»MrtH* M \ « \^*. I »m»'* OnKfondit 

VU» Ihtvf xr«a*U, iMutn Attur«ln, Aan Lastro and San Tomas. which Cortes had or- 
t\«*«ttt (mtM \\s \ ^ \\\\MS\r\sv\\ pM\Ty\\\\u\9t his peinnial command from Chiametlan on 
\iMit I \ I ^^\ «uil\^\ in X\\p Ivav ot l.a rat on Ma>* a, 15&\ and returned to Mexico in 
I V^T 

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36. Finally, for the purpose of examining if the Russians had settled 
in the most remote northern parts of our actual possessions, the Viceroy 
despatched the frigate **Santia|^o'' under the command of the brevet 
ensign of the second class, Don Juan Perez, first pilot of the royal navy, 
giving him the necessary instructions for carrying out the orders ; and 
this was the first exploration to higher latitudes. 

37. The frigate left San Bias on the 25th day of Jannaiy, 1774, stopped 
at the ports of San Diego and Monterey for the purpcMe of delivering the 
corresponding supplies ; set out again on its navigation June 7 ; arrived 
at 55° 49^ latitude north ; opened communications with the Indians of 
that coast; did the same in tiie port of Nutka, to which the name of San 
Lorenzo was given, and where it dropped anchor on August 8. The 
vessel returned November 3 to San Bias (13). 

38. It cannot be claimed that these reconnoisances were exact. They 
really only occupied a little more than two months and a half, and the 
ship's logs show doubts and uncertainties which impair their valne. 
Still the positive knowledge was at last acquired, that not a single foreign 
establishment existed on Uie whole of the coast explored. It was proved 
beyond doubt that the commander of the frigate ** Santiago" had taken 
possession of the port of Nutka. five years previous to the arrival of the 
English captain, Cook, at the same port, where he had careened his 
vessels, and finally this expedition facilitated greatly our future 


39. The second expedition took place in the year 1775, under the 
charge of the lieutenant of the first-class, Don Bruno de Ezeta, with the 
same frigate, "Santiago** and the little schooner (goleta) called *' La 
Felicidad " (alias '*La Sonora''), the command whereof had been en- 
trusted to the lieutenant of the second-class, Don Juan Francisco de la 
Bodega y Cuadra. 

40. Both vessels left San Bias February 11, 1775, and sailed in 
company to 47°, where they separated. 

41 . The frigate returned after having reached 50°, because the scurvey 
had broken out among the crew. The schooner went as far as 58°, and 
on the return both vessels joined again in the port of Monterey, and 
entered.the harbor of San Bias November 25. 

42. The department of La Trinidad, in 41° 6^; the open roadstead 
{ rada ) of Bucareli in 47° 24^ ; the archipelago and port of the same name 
in 55° 18^ ; and the one of Los Remedios in 57° 20^ were discovered and 
reconnoitered by this expedition and formal possession thereof taken. 

43. Furthermore, Ezeta came to the month or entrance bearing his 
name in 49°, (14) called by him '' Bahia de la Asuncion," but could not 
examine it. Bodega anchored and took possession of the port which 
has his name, situated in 38° 18^, and in the immediate neighborhood of 
the harbor'of San Francisco. 

(18) Juan Perez, the commander of the "Santiago" (alias **Nueva Galida"). was a 
native of Mayorca, and well versed in navigation on the Pacific, having made several 
voyages to the Philippine Islands. Pray Juniper Serra returned on this vessel from 
San Bias to San Diego. In Monterey Pray Juan Crespi and Fray Tomas Pefia de la 
Pefia joined the frigate as chaplains, and Father Crespi wrote the diary of this ezpe- 
-dition. On July 20, touched the extreme northwestern point of Queen Charlotte Island, 
near to 65° lat. North, and arrived on Monday, August 8, in the roadstead of Nutka, 
called afterwards, in 1788, by Captain Cook, King George's Sound, 

(14) The date of the discovery of the bay "La Asuncion de Nuestra Sefiora," or 
" Entrance of Hxeta," or "Columoia river," is August 17, 1775, and the correct latitude 
46° 11' north. 

The Royal Audience governed from November 30, 1786, to May 8, 1789. Don Alonzo 
Nufiez de Haro y Peralta, Archbishop of Mexico, was Viceroy of New Spain from May 
^, 1787 to August 16, of the same year. 

Digitized by 



Death of the Yiceroyy Bucareli, and compilation of the 
Measures taken by him. 

44. Althonffh preparations were made without delay for the third ex- 
pedition, which was to have started in the year 1777, for the pnrpose of 
making explorations from Bzeta bay to latitude 58°, and to finish same in 
latitude 65^ it did not take place until the year 1779, when the Viceroy, 
Prey Don Antonio Bucareli, was already desd. (15) 

45. This Viceroy attended with true zeal and efficiency to all the im- 
portant matters which occurred during his term of office, and he had 
besides the pleasure of seeing his orders complied with. The results 
would have been grater if, for reasons of economizing the overburdened 
public finances, he had been able to make larger expenditures. 

46. Notwithstanding, he was compelled to increase the expenses of 
San Bias and the Califomias, because neither the explorations to higher 
latitudes, nor the tmilding andcareening of vessels, nor higher salaries and 
eratuities for naval officers and other employes could be dispensed with, 
lor the reason that the occupation of the port of San Francisco, and the 
development of Old and New California were of the utmost importance. 
The increase of expenditure was al^o due to the recoonoisance of the 
Goatzacoalos river to Tehuantepec, undertaken for the purpose of econo- 
mizing transportation costs on artillery from Vera Cruz to San Bias ; 
to the double discoveries which by land were effected from Sonora to 
Monterey, considered by the Viceroy indispensable ; and to the expedi- 
tion ( which proved to be a failure ) from the presidio of Santa F^, in 
New Mexico, to the one of Monterey. (16). 

47. Bucareli asked for and was given ample powers to incur these 
expenses and all others of equal kind without the previous assent of the 
Royal Treasury Commissions. He reported upon the uselessness of the 
port of San Bias, proposed the temporary transfer of this department to 
the one of Acapulco, and was inclined to establish it later on in a more 
healthy and convenient location of those parts discovered in Northern 
California. All this was approved by the royal order of January, 1777. 

Brection of the Independent Commandancy General of 
the Provinces of the Interior, and Measures taken by 
the First Oommandant, the Chevalier de Croix, in 

48. At this time the independent Commandery General of the Pro** 
vince of the Interior, including the Californias, was formed and placed 
under the command of the brigadier. Chevalier de Croix, who established 
in 1780 and 1781 the presidios and missions of the Santa Barbara channel, 
founded the settlements (pueblos) of San Joe^, Guadalupe and Pordun- 
cnla ri7), and issued a separate new set of Vules (reglamento) now in 
force at that peninsula, and which His Majesty approved October 24r 

(is) The Bftilio, frey Don Antonio Maria de Bucareli y Urst!ia, former Captain Gen- 
eral of Cuba, arrived in Vera Cruz on August 2^, 1771 ; took possession of the Vice 
Kingdom on September 7, i77i> and died in the City of Mexico on April 9, 1779. His 
remains are buried in the Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe. 

(16) The Franciscan Friars, Francisco Atanacio Dominguec and Francisco deiVelez 
Bscalante, left Santa P6, accompanied by eight residents of that town, on July 20. 1776, 
and followed the route discovered by Don Jusn Maria Rivera, in 1761. After having 
traveled 320 leagues (960 miles) they arrived at Lake Timpanogos (Salt Lake, in Utah) 
on September 23. Owing to the lateness of the season the project of reaching Califor- 
nia was abandoned, and the expedition turned south in search of the Colorado river, 
which they crossed October 7. On November 6, they arrived at the Moqui •• pueblo " 
of Oraibe, left it on Nov. 21, and reached Santa F6 on January 2, 1777. 

(17) The settlement of San Jos€ was established at the instance of the Viceroy in 
November, 1777, and the one of Porciuncula, or more properly, Nuestra Sefiora de Lc» 
Ange!e8, in 1781. ^ 

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New Buleii. (18) 

49. Thev were drawn by the governor, don Felipe de Neve, and all 
the precepts of economy were strictly adhered to ; for although he ez- 
clnded or abolished the odious unreasonable overcharge of so many per 
cent on the supplies furnished to officers and soldiers, he also diminished 
their salaries and pay ; consequently the extra balance which resulted 
against the royal treasury was very small. But as during the time of 
the Viceroy, Frey don Antonio Bucareli, the little maritime department 
of San Bias had been enlarged ; a greater number of artisans and a few 
more soldiers assigned to the presidial companies of Monterey and San 
Diego ; the new companies of San Francisco and the immediate mis- 
sions formed ; and as afterwards the Chevalier de Croix established the 
settlements on the Santa Barbara channel (19), therefore the yearly ex- 
penditures of the peninsula of the Californias amounted to tiie sum of 
|85,616, which compared with the amount of $26,579, the first appro- 
priation, shows an excess of $59,047 without including the expenses of 
the settlers of Guadalupe and Pordnncula, who during the first three 
years vrere assisted with salaries and rations. 

Events which Occurred on the Colorado River. 

50. Neither are included in the above expenditures those incurred 
during said years of 1780 and 1781 for enlisting recruits, families of 
settlers, purchase of mules and horses, and the transport of all of these 
from Sonera to Monterey. Nor do these expenses contain the amount 
fruitlessly expended upon a settlement on the Colorado river, which the 
Yuma Indians destroyed, killing the greatest part of the unfortunate 
settlers, the captain appointed u>r conveying the supplies of the Cali- 
fornias, together with nine men of his escort and four friars of the 
Apostolic College of the Holy Cross of Queretaro, who attended to the 
spiritual welfare of said settlements. 

61. The absolute ruin of these settlements closed the door to com- 
munication between Sono^ and the Californias, and although it was the 
intention to open the route again by baUding a strong[ presidio on the 
banks of the Colorado river, His Majesty ordered this project to be 
kept in suspense until a more convenient time, which now truly is ap- 
proaching ; because the Dominicans in charge of the missions of Old 
(Lower) California are extending their labors to the countries of the 
Colorado river, a step very opportune and in conformity with the royal 
"cednla." substituting these missionaries in the place of the exiled 
Jesuits. (21) 

(18) This '* Refflamento ** was formulated June 1, 1779 ; approred by the King Oct. 
21, 1781 printed in Mexico in 1784. Thb I«and of SxmsHiifa published a fac simile 
and translation Jsn.-May, 1897. 

(19) The " Presidio " of Santa Barbara was esUblished in 1782. 

(20) After Ansa's expeditions, the General Commander of the Interior Provinces 
with the consent of the court of Madrid, permitted the establishment of two missions 
**La Purisima Concepdon" and*' San Pedro and San Pablo "on the actual Califor- 
nia side of the Colorado river under the precise condition that each mission should 
have 10 soldiers and 10 settlers But the Yuma Indians did not take kindly to this new 
state of af&drs and rebelled, killing the four missionaries, Fathers Prandsco Garces. 
Juan Beroneche, Juan Diax and Matias Romero, and the largest part of the escort and 
settlers, sparing only the women and children. Other victims were the sergeant Juan 
JOf€ Robles and Captain Fernando Rivera, who were awaiting there the arrival of a 
part of the families he had recruited in S^naloa and Sonora for the purposing of settling 
ho* Angeles, Buenaventua and Santa Barbara. Seven California soldiers also perished 
at the hands of the Yumas. The buildings were destroyed by fire. He, soon as the 
commander, don Pedro Pages, received notice of this misfortune, he went with troops 
to the Colorado river, recovered the bodies of his murdered compatriots and retook or 
ransomed most of the women and children kept in captivity by the Yumas. These 
events happened during the middle and end of March, 1782. 

(21) The Dominicans by virtue of a rqyal cedula of November 4 1768, claimed a 
part of the missions of the CaHfomias for their share. After a dispute of four years 
with the Franciscans, an agreement was entered into between both on March 21, 1772, 
and on Ausrust 19, 1778 the dividing line between the missions of both orders was fixed 
at a point 45 miles south of San Diego. This point was marked by a crofs, bearing this 
inscription : *' Division of the missions of our father Saint Dominic and of our fatiier 
Saint Francis, Year 1778," and the cross was securely fixed in the crack of a large 
boulder or rock which stands up exactly on the high road. 

(TO BE CONTINUED.) Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The patronizing Bookman^ edited by Prof. Peck, remarks amid an other- 
wise rather incompetent book-review : 

"CallfornU teemB to be a fertile field for the novetiat. and we in the East, blessed 
with the opportunities afforded by our advanced civilisation, should certainly take an 
interest in onr less fortunate brothers in the far West, struggling against heavy odds 
to gain for themselves equal privileges." 

Which ** privileges," pray ? The privilege of being instructed by the 
underdone ? The privilege of laughing at the sort of '* scholar " who 
can translate Latin with a dictionary, and who thinks California walks 
abroad clothed in a G-string and a little brief authority ? That we need 
not ** struggle for." The U. S. mails reach even unto the far West, and 
we can read the Bookman as regularly as a New Yorker, if we have 
nothing else to do — or if we do not grudge time in pursuit of humor. 
The privilege of living in a city distinguished mostly by having the 
rottenest government and the vilest newspapers and two of the most un- 
weaned reviews on the habitable globe? Well, we can stand that de- 
privation. God made California and Croker is making New York. 
Every man to his own. 

Now it is a matter of truth that, for the whole State and for every city 
in it, California has a higher percentage of literacy, culture and morals 
than New York city. It has as good colleges, churches, schools (and 
more of each per thousand population.) It hasn't as big libraries, but 
uses its libraries 500 per cent. more. It has fewer and less splendid 
theaters — but it has more than our fathers had, which is enough. It 
has as good water, police and hygienic and charitable service ; incom- 
parably better street transit and lighting. It has an incomparably 
larger percentage of citizens who own their own homes; of citizens, 
who have something to show for their lives ; of college- bred men and 
women ; above all, of people who are not provincials lost in their own 
back yard. And every Easterner who is fairly leavened of intelligence 
knows this. He need not have traveled. The statistics and history of 
his own country are enough if he is really a scholar, and not a preten- 
tious dunce. 

We do not lack even that ** blessing of advanced civilization " which 
the Bookman really means — for all our people come from the East. Only, 
out here, we do not put unleavened dough into * 'literary journals." We 
sometimes elect it to a city council — and are properly ashamed of our- 
selves after. So the Bookman need not **take an interest'* in us. 
We have our compensations. One is remembering a matter we learned 
in the East (and are thence reminded of). Namely, how many Pecks 
it takes to make an honest bushel — the smallest thing a Californian ever 
counts by. 

8LAVE8 A Republic is a country where people discuss things. A despot- 

OR FREE ism is a country where they do not. An idiot asylum is a place 

CITIZENS. where they don't even care to. 

So when yon hear some one crying that we must shut our mouths and 
eyes and follow the flock and its temporary bell-wether, you can know 
that that person it only half an American. He may have been born in 

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this oonntrj, bnt he has never sot acclhnated. He really believes in 
the divine right of kin^ ; only his king happens to be the crowd or the 
party. Honest discnssion is the difference between serfs and freemen, 
and the party or the cause that cannot bear it is bom to be drowned — and 
already feels itself sinking. 

The organized effort of the administration papers to scare as not 
ont of discussing the Philippine question is as foolish as it will to be 

be fruitless. To yell ** traitor*' to every American who dares scared. 

to think without asking Mr. Hanna's permission, shows that the yellers 
know as little of business as of morals. For this is not a nation of slaves. 
We like fair play and free speech, and we are not so stupid as not to 
know when they are assailed. We are not ready for a Kaiser and \es€ 
majesty and all that. Kaisering, in a Republic, has to be very judicious, 
else in a moment we shall turn and laugh in his face, and the '' divine 
robes" will fall away, and the servant of the.people wiU stand naked to 
the rebuke of his masters. 

They are either not very thoughtful or not very honest who NOT yet 
are crying, ** Sh ! you mustn't think in time of war !" treason 

Every sober man knows that in the intended sense this is no to think. 

** time of war." The argument rests on such war as menaces the country, 
and then, indeed, a patriot may have to fight first and think after warcfs. 
But to pretend that Uiis nation is in such danger from the Filipinos that 
we must put our reason under martial law is a little too absurd. I<awton, 
and there is no better fishter, has had twenty-two ** battles " in thirty 
days, and got six men killed and thirty wounded. The only danger 
this country is in, or ever will be in, is from the citizens who think self- 
government is a sort of blind man's buff, and that all they have to do is 
to shut their eyes and minds and grope in the wake of the gentleman 
who is "It." 

The ScienHfic American has proved that conscience and com- late 
petency can give an ancient and honorable name to the ' * organ " and 

of a firm of patent-solicitors, and this is a hiehly creditable silly. 

achievement. But the 5. A. would better stick to cog-wheels and let 
ethnology alone if it has to get its ethnology from a hotel tout. It can 
hardly be expected to understand how idle the signature of G. Wharton 
James in type looks to any student or to any long-time Califomian, bnt 
it is expected to know the gross misspelling and structural ignorance of 
the article in its Supplement of April 22, It ought also to know that the 
Bnchanted Mesa has been settled by scientists, and that it is nearly two 
years too late for discredited fakirs to exploit their ignorance. It is ex- 
pected not to print so imbecile an argument : *' There was an Enchanted 
Mesa, but the Enchanted Mesa is not the Enchanted Mesa — ^bc^^ause its 
ruins are less visible than some other ruins 200 miles awav." Might it 
never occur to a scientific editor that erosion varies with tne hardness of 
the rock ? In the self-same valle^r of Acoma, 10,000 acres are eaten away 
500 feet deep. That's why there is a valley, amid which the table rocks 
of Acoma, Katzimo and other mesas tower mightily aloft. By the 5*. A, 
logic they cannot have survived the waste of all that giant valley. 
Therefore they have not survived. Ergo, the rocks we climb and photo- 
graph, and that people live and die on, are figments of our and their 
imaginations. Of course Mr. James is not entitled, by scholarship or Iw 
other reputation, to speak to any scientific question ; but the Scientific 
American is entitled to take a little better care of its readers. 

Every true American must wish a seaching investigation of the let 
charges made bv scores of American soldiers, that some of our us have 

troops in the Philippines are looting houses and killing pris- liqht. 

sonerfr— and no Algerian investigation will do. These charges are made 
not by mugwumps at home, but by our boys in the field. The thing 

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seems beyond belief. Certainly most American soldiers do not do these 
things. Yet, anyone who saw me Tennesseeans, for instance, terrorize 
San Francisco knows that there are two kinds of American soldiers. At 
any rate, these things shonld be looked into. Some of the boys may have 
written home a little boastfolly, but if they have lied about our army 
they should be shot ; if they haven't lied, someone else should be shot. 

NOT The abolitionists were "traitors'* to the same notch of intel- 

ALL THE lects that now call the anti-imperialists so, and for the same 

TIME. .reason — because they believed that even presidents and parties 

should obey the eternal laws of justice. The same degree of ministers 
preached then for the ** Divine institution'' of slavery as preach now for 
civilizing the Filipinos by killing them, and for the same reason : namely, 
because they thought God was a crowd. The same sort of people who 
braved unpopularity and mobbine then, for conscience sake, are doing it 
now. They will be as fully vindfcated by time, and for the same reason: 
namely, that ** You can't fool all the people all the time," as Lincoln 
pithily expressed the final truth about American sense and conscience. 

OUR Apaches, before now, have tried in their blundering way to 

OWN be impolite to prisoners; and the Inquisition — that remarkable 

SAVAGES. and unpleasant religions police — had certain methods not 

wholly neighborlv* But never did Apaches, Spaniards, Hottentots nor 
pirates remotely rival the postgraduate fiends of Palmetto, Ga.; citizens 
of the United States, assembled on the 23d of April, in the year of grace 
1899, to show their true nature. In the name of all the gods at once, 
what do we need of new Cannibal Islands, so long as we have Georgia? 

LETTERS The Den has well over 50,000 readers. Undoubtedly not all 

AND of them agree with the Lion. But being Americans — or free- 

LETTERS. men wherever, for many are in foreign lands — they respect 

independence. Being educated people, they are tolerant of thought ; 

and e^en in a difference of opinion they are not blackguards. 

Out of these 50,000 and odd, the Lion has had three scurrilous letters 
— or rather two ; for a Florida gentleman who values a cent above his 
dignity, committed his vulgarity to a postal card. 

If this little magazine, on the Far Edge, has 50,552 readers who are 
men and women that believe in free thought, and only three who are 
hoodlums that do not, there is large hope for our experiment of a re- 

In the same time, between 700 and 800 letters of earnest godspeed 
have come to the Den. Prom United States Senators, from ex-cabinet 
officers, from college presidents, from scholars, poets, and all sorts of 
plain Americans. Conscience isn't a matter of arithmetic. This beast 
would think, and *' think open," with what little tools God has given 
him, if he were the only molecule in the universe that thought so. But 
it is comforting to find oneself in good company. 

The interesting Mr. Denby, one of the Liberator's commissioners, 
assures us that the commission's sophomoric ''Proclamation " to the 
Filipinos " is the most important proclamation since the Declaration 
of Independence.*' Of course it is. Precisely as Mr. Denby is a more 
important person than one A. Lincoln, who once issued an obscure pro- 
clamation — to emancipate slaves, not to make them. 

The proclamation to the Filipinos justly observes that '* there can be 
no real conflict between American supremacy and the rights and liber- 
ties of the Filipinos." Of course there cannot. Shooting a man down 
has nothing to do with his rights or liberty* Only a dude or a mug- 
wump could imagine for a moment that it had. Aren't we going to 
give him a better government — and incidentally a home in heaven? 
Even if we must (as Shafter pleasantly observes) kill off five million 
Filipinos to pacify the other five million. 

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IN THE L10N*S DEN. 45 

Summer ! How the word has reformed since we used to know summer 
it ! For nearly every one of us now out here in God's country in qoo'S 

knew summer where it was a profane word — back yonder, country. 

under the humid skies where it swelters and stews and sweats and 
swears. We knew it as a synonym of discomfort not unmixed with 
danger ; of sultriness and stickiness, of boiled faces and mopped brows ; 
of peril from the sun and scant betterment by the shade. We knew 
breathless days and gasping nights ; and every now and then a neighbor 
snnstruck. Summer was a season to ** get away somewhere. " 

But now we have got away for good from that whole bungling dic- 
tionary. We have come to a land in who&e bright lexicon winter and 
summer are heavenly twins, words of good cheer. Here, summer is a 
word to conjure by. We are never knocked down by the sun, never 
enervated, never wilted. Children play and men work daylong in the 
ardent sunshine ; in the shade the weakest invalid never has to gasp. 
And the summer nights t This beast has known Southern California 
for fifteen years ; and in that time has never seen a night there when he 
needed less than two heavy blankets. That is one reason why a decent 
climate is not enervating. And if in any Eastern August a divine reve- 
lation could show the benighted what a California summer actually is, 
no one would be left in the Bast, except those too poor to buy a ticket 
or too lame to walk. 

These pages ^o to press when it cannot be known what the which shall be 
Hague shall bring forth. We have sent good men thither— the more 

though with a strange sound in their ears. Let us hope that a eniiqhtenedt 

republic — (Ae Republic — shall do as well as the heaviest monarchy on 
earth for the hopes of humanity. And we shall have more grace in 
doubting the Czar's sincerity when we have shown some of our own. 
Universal peace is only another word for universal common sense. 

. The movement to found « great Wommn's CoUeffe in Pasadena will win if NOTHINQ 
Califomia brains are half as endemic as th^ tblnk they are. There are .. «oq aooo 

plenty of rich people In Southern Califomia, and some elsewhere, with wits ^ at^o^ 

enouffhto recognize the value of such an investment— its value for the ^O" H£R. 

country and for the ffirls, if American girls might be coUeged in a decent climate ; if, in 
tbe most critical period for themselves and for the next ffeneration thev might not only 
acquire algebra but good bodies, and be noiselessly reUeved of the hideous nervous 
system which the present generation has invented fbr women. ProC Bragdon. who is 
at the back of the plan, is no ignote Squeers out of a job, but head of the old LaseU 
Seminary at Aubumdaie, Mass., and a man, East or West. He would make a worthy 
ooUege. A girl on the average would Uve longer and happier who was educated in a 
"country'* college in Califomia than in the rarest hot house of the refrigerated East. 
But we can have just as good colleges here as there. And the Lion thinks nothing is 
too good for a good American girl. 

A coast publication regrets that Stanford University has a president whose BRAINS 
soul 18 his own ; and by contrast lauds Pretldent Harper of Chicago Uni- ^^^q 

versity for being too smart to have any opinions on crucial public questions. o^ abtmc •© 

Every man to his sort, of txwirse. But there are Americans who do not SMARTNESS, 

think the hiffhesf qualification for a college president is that he be an artful dodger or 
a moral fngitive. And— leaving aside Dr. Jordan's safe plurality in brains— there are 
CaUfomians proud of having for our head teacher the better citizen of the two. 

When the average newspaper does any serious work in American econom* PRETTY 
ics— tariff, finance and the like— it generally borrows Edward Atkinson's small 

brains. This lends peculiar humor to the present newspaper assault on 

that auiet, dry but brave Old man. There is perhaps no American whose BUSINESS, 

learning is more universally in circulation ; for he happens to be the first authority on 
topics we handle every day. The most childish thinsr ever done officially in the United 
States was to suppress him. Atkinson mailed /ijs'^/ copiss of his pamphlets (which 
are documents of the U. 8 Senate) to Admiral Dewey, Gen. Otis and six other officers 
in Manila. He notified the government what he was doing ; and the government was 
worried enough to tamper mth the mails— our mails, not Mr. Atkinson's nor the ad- 
ministration's—and stop documents of congress for fear they would corrupt Dewey! 

The packers who sold the beef are commended. The Commisary General LIKE 
who bought it gets a vacation at 16500 a year The Secretary of War who oni iTir« 

fixed the contracU is ''vindicated." The American soldiers who ate the , ' - 

beef are not, indeed, exonerated ; but there seems to be no disposition to UKE. BEEF, 

punish them— or such of them as survived it. The only man found guilty is the Com* 
manding General who otrjected to having American soldiers eat rotten beef. But this 
is a merciful country. In Guatemala Miles would be dungeoned or shot for proving the 
War Department as spoiled as its beef. Here we let him off with a reprimand. 

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So good a thing ne?er befell letters iia 
will happen thcin if the time shall ever 
come ngain when people write oflly becaii.^ they 
have to. That is, becanae they contain aometbioiEr a^nd it 
won't be contained longer. If it were made a felony to 
write anything, donbtless literatttre would become nobler at once. 
Those whooe lava bnmed in them would risk prison ; but the present 
itching 90 per cent, would hold in their dust. We have nowadays few 
bursting reservoiis; but many gilded pumps fetching up soda-water 
from unknown shallows. 

Qooo Stanley Waterloo, whose S/ory of Ad, the cave-man, was so 

SHORT much out of the ordinary, and withal so interesting, now pub- 

STORIE8. lishes a volume of short stories under title of TAe Wolffs Long 
Howl, The twenty tales are of a rather wide assortment, some tragic, 
some mirthful, some touching — and nearly all good reading. Their 
leading quality is ingenuity. Well-taken and unexpected plots are 
decidedly Mr. Waterloo's best hold. There is also an attractiveness in 
his medium, by force of its directness mingled with a certain whimsi- 
cality. The most intimate criticism to be made is that his stories do not 
happen^ while we read them. We are never quite able to forget that 
they are being told. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

OARLANO'S As to the strength of Hamlin Garland's unusual novel. Rose 

STALWART of Dutcher^ 5 Coolly ^ there can be no two opinions. It is full of 

ANIMAL, power, in description and in human character. As to its taste, 
there may very properly be quaYrel. It is clearly not of the virgini- 
busqufox^^x\ yet older people are not less vulnerable. **Rose" is a 
strong figure. Every girl, doubtless, has had something of her contacts, 
but we do not account it needful to record, in life or in fiction, every 
time she hears an obscenity, nor every intimate animal tide that may 
surge in her. Unless we are disembodied we can take certain things for 
granted, and I think Mr. Garland has not helped his large story by 
yielding to what he thought frankness. The Macmillan Co., New 
York, $1.50. 

ANOTHER ^ A year or so ago a sensation was made by a novel of immacu' 

'* WITHOUT late conception up to date. Its title was Without Sin, and its 
6IN " author, *' Martin J. Pritchard," turned out to be a handsome 
young woman. A new novel from her hands, TAe Passion of Rosamond 
Keith, is as unconventional in its plan, which involves the naked cruci- 
fixion of the heroine in the Albanian mountains. Yet the book is not 
in any sense prurient; and despite a good many impossibilities is very 
good reading. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. |1.50. 

An unnoted slip in the March number merits correction. The Fran- 
ciscans of the Mission Santa Barbara of course would not permit any 
desecration of the Mission. They did not count it a desecration that 
the Princess Louise and President Harrison's wife stepped into their 
beautiful garden. Therefore the garden did not need to be, and was 
not, ** reconsecrated." 

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A LiUU Legacy^ by Mrs. L. B. Walford, is a collection of seven sweet, 
unaffected English short stories, somewhat of the fairy godmother com- 
plexion but so well told that no cynic need mind the secure triumph of 
love and virtue — and without even a villain. The volume is one of the 
dainty ** Blue Cloth Books. ' H. S Stone & Co., Chicago, 75 cents. 

Charles Battell Loomis, an undeviating humorist whose pranks 
reach from Dan unto Beersheba — yea, verily, from the Independent even 
so far as Town Topics — has made a very attractive little book of Just 
Rhymes, They are clever rhymes themselves, and greatly exalted by 
Miss Cory's unusual drawings. R. H. Russell. 

D^Arcy of the Guards is a very taking little novel of the War of Inde- 
pendence, by Louis Evan Shipmau. The adventures of the fighting 
Irishman 4nd his defeat by a lovely '* rebel " of Philadelphia, are good 
reading. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago, $1.25. 

Chas. Dexter Allen the well-known bibliophile and student of book- 
I>late8 has begun the publication of In Lantern Land, a sound, sane 
little monthly bent to letters. It is bright, courageous and interesting. 
Box 1 147, Hartford, Conn. $1 a year. 

Wm. Geo. Jordan, who made Current Literature what it was, has just 
resigned the editorship of the Saturday Evening Post^ of which he was 
equally the pith. It will be interesting to watch for his breaking out 
in a new place. 

J. C. L. Clark, of Lancaster, Mass., has issued a booklet of Verses. 
And very good verses, too. Probablv the neatest is his retort to Kip- 
ling's bitter sarcasm of * ' Adam-Zad. ' ' The Czar's message of peace is 

'* Christ speaking through a man 
And— perhaps you understand him as well as an Bngllshmnn can.** 

La Creme^ a tiny but beautiful monthly bibelot, publishes one com- 
plete story per issue. No. 1 contains Kipling's ** My Lord the Elephant." 
Chas. E. Brown & Co., Boston, 25 cents a number. 

Edwin Markham's The Man with the Hoe^ and other poems, fill a vol- 
ume now in press with the Doubleday & McClure Co. It promises to 
be an important addition to California literature. 

Sonora Ilustradoy by J. R. Southworth, ** writes up " another North 
Mexican State from the commercial standpoint ; and has a large number 
of half-tones to illustrate the text. 

The Advocate of Peace, Boston, surprises one by the vigor and breadth 
of its speech. It is the kind of speech that appeals to any sober man. 

Mansfield & Weasels, N. Y., issue the Kipling Note Book, a neat and 
interesting series of jottings. 15 cents. 

The Philippines Co., N. Y., issues a map and a concise sketch of 
Manila and the Philippine Islands, 

A small book of Poems is published for H. A. Farrand, Philadelphia. 
There are passages of strength. 

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SELF-MAOe Discontent is the offspring of irresponsibility. The self-made 

RESPONSIBILITIES, generally trace results to their rightful coarse, and desiring 
credit for their triumphs are fain to shoulder their defeats as 

The man who holds himself responsible for himself is withheld from 
bemoaning his failures by the same modesty that forbids him to boast of 
his successes, but the rickety soul that fastens its faults upon circum- 
stanoe fills the air with its egotistical ferment. 

Self-depreciation is a crude form of vanity, an endeayor to make others 
say what we should like to think of ourselves. To accept our limitations 
with dignity and spare the world their reiteration is almost to overcome 
them. One cannot know himself too well, but he should remember 
that society has need only of his virtues — ^his shortcomings are for those 
who love him. 

THE MORE If women complain more than men it is because they have put 

coMPLAiNeRS. their lives out of their own hands. Their rewards are not ac- 
cording to their deserts. Having shifted their responsibility 
they have no personal pride in the result. A married woman's poverty 
merits no more severe reproach than ** poor thing." Her success elicits 
no higher praise than *' fortunate creature !" Some one else makes 
heaven or havoc of her life. If the latter she is answerable for but one 
mistake — ^her marriage. And who has not made one mistake ! She may 
complain if she be so minded. Unfortunately she is often so minded, 
and she will remain so while life U not her own to make or to mar. If 
personal responsibility is ever merged into political socialism we may 
expect our men to become what the best of our women are striving to 
escape. Already we see will and character crumbling at the edges from 
the corrosion of paternalistic theories. 

CIRCUMSTANCES If the '* downmost man " is down by reason of the weight of 

OR GRAVITATION, circumstances, and not from gravity, every man above becomes 
part of his burden, and may reproach himself theretor accord- 
ing to the sensitiveness of his moral cuticle. This svmpathy and self-re- 
proach do no harm to him who feels them ; it Is wnen the man below 
begins to feel sorry for himself that trouble brews. Self-pity is the first 
sti^ in moral dirinte^tion. The real danger of the trust Is not economic 
but moral — the substitution of ** somebody should*' for *' I must." And 
yet the inherent moral force of humanity generally proves ^^reater than 
we foresee. There have been countless unfulfilled prophecies of evil in 
the world's history, while the best that has come has seldom been 

ALTERNATE Not Icsst amougst the evils of partisan politics is the tradition 

PESSIMISTS. by which half uie press of the country is foresworn to pessim- 
ism white the opposing party is in power. Society already 

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doubts itself more than the facts warrant. We say human nature does 
not change, but every reform bears witness to the contrary. Possibly 
with the world, as with the individual, reform is rather an increase of 
discipline than a change of heart. Humanity learns to handle its forces 
better, to check benevolence in the interests of justice and modify justice 
in the interests of benevolence. 

Just at present society has reached the stage of the ''good-hearted 
fellow*' who gives to beggars because he thinks it '* awfully hard lines" 
to beg. The beggar meanwhile lets his benefactor work for relatively 
the same reason. Bach saves himself pain. By-and-by each will learn 
that he cannot help himself or another by hurting either. 

We are manifestly a people of great things. We abound in 
material for bluster. Our size, our numbers, our wealth we 
have always with us. Even onr frauds are gigantic. Individual 
knowledge that these things have little to do with happiness does not 
perceptibly affect our national burliness. You and I know that the map;- 
nificence and perfection of our battle* ships are an infinitesimal factor in 
daily comfort compared with the excellence of our door-locks and 
hinges, but we maintain a discreet silence concerning these domestic 
worries when we are in the society of nations. 

In the privacy of onr homes it sometimes occurs to some of us why, 
to wonder vaguely why a i>eop]e who lead the world in ^reat indeed r 

enterprises cannot have their streets cleaned and their dishes 
washed with less irritation of soul. Why the merchant, the farmer and 
the honsewife still have for their motto, " If you want it done well do it 
yourself.'' Why we paint such glowing pictures of our national future 
and say, '*Of course you can't expect — " of every political and social 
reform. Why we are hopeful of the mass and hopeless of the individual. 
Why the ** flower of our young men" will gaily give themselves as tar- 
gets for Mauser bullets and hide themselves behind a desk or a eame of 
golf to escape an Australian ballot. Why we have so few rough riders 
over official corruption among those who ''still have their way to 
make." Why the men who brave hnng[er, exposure and death for glory 
and the women who applaud them for it turn pale at the thought of a 
little poverty for principle . Why we cannot put an end to lynching in 
the South and to political pilfering in the North. And as the wonder 
grows there comes to some of us an unpatriotic impulse to have one 
Fourth of July in ten set aside for the public recital ot what we have not 
done. A day for the nation to afflict its soul ; not because it cannot 
mend all these things ; not because it is not slowly mending some of 
them, but because in spite of its greatness it is mending so few of them 
and those so slowly. 

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An Afternoon in Chinatown. 


*UST across the historic little Plaza of the old town of Los Angeles 
and opposite the quaint old Church of Oar Lady of the Angels, 
is a fascinating bit of the Orient. It is the Chinese Quarter, fa- 
miliarly called Chinatown i 

Here, in the narrow, sunless streets of Our Cathay, are the pictur- 
esqueness of the Par Bast and its wealth of pure, rich colors ; here, also, 
are its squalor and its odor. 

Gliding silently along the streets or posing about the gloomy door- 
ways, you see brightly-clad creatures, whom you have previously met 
only on tea-chests and fans. That wonderful personage standing there 
in tl^e shadow-box of his own doorway is a wise and great doctor, skilled 
in the healing virtue of dragon's blood, bodies of lizards and snakes. 

C. H. DsTis Bnff. Co 


dried bugs and blood and teeth of the tiger. Look at his immaculate 
white socks — at his queer shoes and pale-green trousers tied down around 
his slender ankles ; and under his sleeveless wadded jacket of violet 
brocade he is wearing a splendid yellow tunic. His extreme haughti- 
ness of manner is eminently becoming to one in such garments clad. Only 
coolies laugh and chatter on the streets or in the presence of * 'foreign 
devils,' those strange beings who travel for mere pleasure and who act- 
ually walk in public side bv side with women. 

That little fellow in the faded green silk frock and Chinese shoes, and 
American-made sailor hat and rusty corduroy pants, is creeping back to 
school at the prescribed school-boy pace. His primer is the same as that 
adopted by the Board of Education a thousand or two years ago and, as 
his lessons must be all studied aloud, he develops lung power while the 
immediate neighborhood dreams of machine-shops and saw-mills. He 
memorizes what the sages have writ about ancestor-worship, filial piety 
and avoiding evil company — be writes with a brush and India ink — and 
is altogether strangely interesting. He is as self-conscious as the school- 
boy of any other nation when visitors are present — and compels atten- 
tion by shrieking his lesson louder than the combined others or by pull- 

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infif the queue of his neighbor. He evidences a healthy interest in fire- 
works, ice-cream and circus processions. 

You pass the Chinese theater, where is billed one of the popular plays 
of one or two hundred acts — where is offered one of the few remaining 
opportunities for the study of the drama in its pristine freshness. In 
m>nt of the vendor of sweetmeats on the comer, is a butterfly cluster of 
bright-eyed, bright-robed children who, as you approach, cease their 
blackbird chatter and inspect you with interest. If yon carry no camera, 
you may be favored with a few little smiles and friendly monosyllables. 
But with a camera how can you expect to be popular among these well- 
informed little people who very well know that the picture-taking ma- 
chine brings nothing but evil fortune to the living and distress to the 
spirits of meir ancestors, at whose tablets they worship ? 

This dame who stops and buys some sugared cocoanut shavings and 
roasted melon seeds, is on her way to the joss-house — where she feels 
impelled to go and bum some incense sticks and to pray for The Three 
Happinesses, long life, a family of sous and wealth. She did not come 
from the foot-binding section of China and so her feet are of natural 
size. She is a fine lady and does not whiten her face with rice powder, 
nor redden her lips, nor wear gay flowers in her hair — like the poor, 
pitiable riave-women. Her frock and her trousers are of poplin of some 
inconspicuous color* and her little elegancies of dress seem to be onlv a 
bracelet and ear ornaments of jade. She wears no hat — therefore her 
hair is wonderfully dressed. She screens her face from the-gaze of the 
curious with a fan of pheasant feathers. 

You follow at a respectful distance and stand at the joss house gateway, 
listening for a time to the clang and the quiver of the gongs and sniffing 
the incense clouds. Then you pass along the many strange little streets, 
where the buildings are sunless yet not cheerless — for gay lanterns swing 
from the balconies and wooden awnings, mysterious placards of red> 
green, yellow, adorn the walls— and on the window-ledges and balcony 
railings are rows of china flower-pots in which bloom showy flowers. 

That butcher-shop is decidedly less attractive than its bric-a-brac 
neighbor but, from various standpoints, it is quite as interesting. The 
Chinaman can roast a pig, dry a duck or make an amazing sausage — all 
in the most distinctly original, skilful fashion — yet, withal, an array of 
these delicacies does not appeal to the fastidious Yankee, however 
hungry. The discreet Yankee is not severely critical — while sight-see- 
ing in Chinatown. That stupid, uninteresting coolie standing there on 
the edge of the unswept pavement (apparently unaware of your appear- 
ance) mav suddenly turn and in very plain English hurl the old fact at 
you that his nation was civilized before the advent of Abraham, Isaac or 

In the curio-shop next door, you will find tea-pots, the apparent mod- 
els of those first imported to Europe (such as were used in the day of the 
interesting Mr. Pepvs) that have proved very satisfactory to the Chinese 
tea-drinker for hundreds of years. Why, pray, should a change be made ? 
There are infinities of tea-cups, all handleless, saucerless ; there are 
brandy-pots with their accompaniment of thimblebowls ; there are brace- 
lets and ear- and hair-ornaments and fans and vases and sandalwood- 
boxes ; there are silks and embroideries. These curio-shops are a fasci- 
nation, even after you have cheerfully handed your last car-fare over the 
dusty counter. 

If you are particularly adventuresome or thirsty you end your after- 
noon ramble in Chinatown with a cup of tea d la Chinoise. A haughty, 
dark-robed Celestial, with his queue coiled in a Psyche knot, a scarlet 
napkin in his hand, places a little bowl of clear, fragrant tea on the 
marble-topped, teak-wood table before you. His unapproachable Dig- 
nity brings you no spoon, no cream, no sugar — not even a slice of lemon; 
but he does bring you a pretty little dish of sugared mysteries. Then you 

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remember that the Orientals take sweets with their tea and coffee, in- 
stead of bread and bntter and many other things — and while you wait 
for the scalding beverage to cool, you experiment with the sweetmeats 
and speculate about the Chinese inscriptions on the wall hangings. 

Next best to a trip to Hong Kong, or any of the other Heavenly Cities 
of the Celestial Empire, is a ramble in Chinatown — Cathay in miniature, 
and on your side of the Pacific. 

iM AofelaSfCU. 

C. N Davis Kng. Co. 


Photo, hy Talwr, 9. F. 

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War Views in the Philippines. 



C. ■• DsTia Eng. Co. Photoe. by 0«o. C. Dott«r, Battery D. (J. 8 V. 

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CM. Dftvis Eng.Co. 

A STREET IN MANII^A. ^^°^°- by Oec. C. Dottw, B«ltwy D, U. 8. T. 

(Calle de Sun Pedro.) 

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CM. Daviii Eag.Co. 

Photo, by Mrs. P. A. Stanley 


The derrick U 49 ff. hiijli, and tin- caoiiiif lO-inch. This tiiycs a ntandard for estimutinK the height of the jet. 

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C. v. D»TiB Eof. Co. 


Photo, bf Schumacbar. 

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VUi\k\i lif^t*t\i*\. 

C. M. Davis fng. Co. 

' WHO SAID DINNER ? " ^^''^ *»> "ojonier. 

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M^uMTd^oUier En». Co. «'oNE SHOE OFF AND ONE SHOE ON." Photo, by SchoU 

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||*ui«rd^ollier Enf . Co. *' qNE SHOE OFF AND ONE SHOE ON.** Photo, by SchuU 

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A Great Mountain Resort 


^HE monotain resorts within convenient reach of 
*Los Angeles are numerous and interesting. Kich 
JL has its own individual charm and merit ; but 
among them all Bear Valley is unique. Nothing 
could be more wholesomely satisfying. No en- 
gine shriek disturbs its quietude nor does the dis- 
Unt hum of business life recall care and excite- 
ment. Voices there are, but of nature undis- 
turbed, nature not out of tune. The chirrup of 
the chipmunk, the cough of the squirrel, the call 
V. of the quail, the bubbling of the brook, the sough 
of the wind through the pines, blend in a ca- 
dence of restful harmony. There are all the good 
things too for the outer and inner man — homelv 
comforts. There is rest a plenty and hard work 
enough for the seeking, but of the demands of 
fashionable society and reminders of business per- 
plexities none. Free from unnatural restraint 
body and mind recover tone, while nature be- 
comes purified and the soul expanded as is only 
possible when removed from narrow ruts and self- 
ish ends and surrounded by "Ood*s first temples." It will renew the 
interest of those who have enjoyed its trout brooks and lake, its mineral 
springs and pine-scented ozone to learn that the time and distance of 
the trip have been shortened by half through the construction of a new 
route. Heretofore the visitor was compell^ to spend the night at San 
Bernardino and then undergo a stage ride from sunrise to sunset. Now 
one can breakfast at Los Angeles and dine the same day at Ous Knight's 
Bear Vallev Resort ; or returning, breakfast in the regions of the snow- 
plant, luncji amid the orange groves of Redlands and dine at Los Ange- 
les or the ocean. 

By the new route Bear Valley is but 24 miles by sta^e from Mentone, 
on the Santa P^, or Crafton on the Southern Pacific railway. The stage 
leaves the former station at 10:30 and the latter fifteen minutes later, on 
the arrival of the first morning train from Los Angeles, beginning June 
13th, 20th, and 27th, and thereafter on each Tuesday, ThurMlay and Sat- 
urday until October. The stage leaves Bear Valley on Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays and Pridays, arriving at Redlands at noon. 

Regular round trip tickets for the stage can be secured for $5.00, or one 
way for $3 00 at 132 South Spring street, Los Angeles, or from the Santa 
P^ ticket agent at Pasadena or Redlands. The toll for private convey- 
ances is the cheapest of any mountain road into the same regions. 

Excursion tickets for Uie round trip from Redlands, including one 
week's board and lodging,, are $13.00. The regular rates for board and 
lodging are |2.00 a day, or $10.00 a week, and include hotel apartments, 
private or adjoining furnished log cabins, fresh beef, milk, butter, fish, 
game and vegetables and fruits in season. Tent nrounds, horses, sad- 
dles, vehicles, guns and fishing tackle can be rented, and provisions pur- 
chased. A log-cabin dining-room, and the pleasure-hall with its piano 
and huee fireplace compete for popularity, while recently-completed 
golf links (one of the best in California) near the hotel, divide honors 
with fishing and hunting, driving and mountain-climbing. 

The new Bear Valley and Redlands Toll Road enters the Santa Ana 
Caiion and crossing over into Bear Creek Canon ascends the summit near 
Bluff Lake, a point noted for its commanding view, extending from Red- 
lands and San Bernardino to Perris and Alessandro, and out to the 
islands of the ocean. Here, too, is the last glimpse of the haunts of men 
before disappearing into those of the grey timber squirrel and deer. 

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C. M D«vis Eng Co 


P. A. Schnell. Plioto 

Often passing refreshing springs, crossing snow- fed trout-brooks, skirt- 
ing deep gorges and traversing fern glens and endless park-like forests 

of stately pine, spruce 
and hemlock, the route 
in itself more than re- 
pays the undertaking. 
In Keller's Canon the 
road passes for two 
miles through a veri- 
table arbor of large 
alders and emerges at 
the head of the canon 
of beetling and rug- 
ged cliffs. 

Unlike the old route, 
this one has no ad- 
verse grades. It is a 
steady ascent of the 
south side of the range 
to an altitude of 7600 
feet and as steady a 
descent into the heart 
of the mountains to 
the 6000-foot level at 
Gus Knight's Camp. 
This lies within about 


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a mile of Bear Valley Lake, which has for years supplied orchards forty 
miles below. Its borders encroach upon the surrounding timber during 
the winter, but receding in summer provide excellent pasturage for 
hundreds of fine cattle. Mountain beef is noted for its tenderness and 
flavor — and the air at this place is so pure and dry that the unsealed but 
screen-lined log meat-house rivals all the mechanical refrigerating pro- 


cesses of the lowlands. In fact the purity and dryness of its atmosphere, 
its mineral springs, the magaificeut surroundings and opportunity for 
rest and recreation must soon render the present facilities for seventy 
guests but the beninning of a growth to an immense patronage. f. p. 

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A Unique Ocean Resort. 


H ETHER the Terminal Railway Com- 
pany knew wbat a good bargain they 
were getting in the purchase of the 
long strip of sand dunes, between San 
Pedro Bay and the Wilmington Estuary, 
is not a matter of definite record. The 
company needed this piece of land to give 
them an outlet to the harbor that was des- 
tined to be constructed at San Pedro : that 
was all ; but, in acquiring it, they came 
into possession of the most complete and 
satisfactory watering place and seaside resort to be found anywhere in 
the vicinity of Los Angeles. 

In a comparatively small compass, Terminal Island combines all the 
advantages that go to make the various other resorts severally desirable. 
It is accessible, well improved, surrounded by a beautiful outlook in 
every direction, with perfect surf* bathing, calm water for boating, op- 
portunities for yachting, fishing either by boat or from the wharf, with 
good golf links, and with hotel accommodations of the most satisfactory 
character — what more can one ask of a beach resoTt ? 

This strip of land is called an island only by courtesy, so to speak ; 
for the narrow thread of tide water that formerly divided it from the 
mainland has long since been filled in. Here is something that many 
of us have long been seeking — an island that one may reach without 
going aboard ship. You may ride all the way comfortably iu the cars 
of the Terminal railway, making the trip in about forty minutes, and 
the trains are so arranged as to allow the man of business, who takes his 
summer vacation on the installment plan, to spend his nights at the 
beach and his days in town. 


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The ocean bench of the Island faces to the southeast, for the coast-line 
from Long Beach to San Pedro takes a southwesterly turn Thus the in- 
habitants of the Island may behold the sun of a morning rise out of the 
Pacific. To the southward lies Dead Man's Island, and beyond that, 
Catalina. San Pedro is to the northwest, and Wilmington and Los 
Angeles to the north. 

The ocean thus enclosed is 
calmer than at most other points 
along the seaboard near Los An- 
geles. There is a surf, of course, 
and at rare intervals — perhaps ten 
days in the year — good-sized 
breakers come in ; but as a rule, 
the waves are just the height to 
give the bathing a zest that still 
water can never impart. As the 
water is shallow — for the beach 
shelves slowly for a considerable 
distance — the temperature of the 
water is exceptionally warm. 
There is no undertow or danger- 
ous deep water currents, and no 
rocks mar the smooth level of thb old breakwater leading to dead man's island. 
the sandy beach. A more per- 
fect combination for bathing purposes it would be impossible to 

Prom the ocean side to the interior bay is a five-minute walk, for the 
Island is narrow and flat. The Estuary is a perfectly calm sheet of 
clear water, with a background of gray hills and picturesque old build- 
ings. The view strongly suggests Holland, and is a favorite one with 

('. M. Davis Bog Co. 


Photo, by Piere*. 

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local artists. Here are boats and motor launches to be had, of all kinds 
and sizes, and one may cruise about in the interior bay, or may round 
Dead Man's Island or Point Fermi n into the open sea. There are also 
many sailing craft, and in the summer months, famous yacht races 
take place in the bay in front of the Island. 

The fishing is excellent, either from the end of the wharf, where one 
may land surf fish, rock bass, smelt, or whiting, or from a boat where 
he will get barracuda and yellow tail. 

There are good golf links, and the game is much played on the Island. 



('. M Davis Eng Co. 


Photos, by Dtu^herty. 

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If' the visitor is disposed to explore the surrounding country, he may 
visit San Pedro and the light-house at Point Fermin, or do a three mile 
walk on the shingle to Long Beach. Dead Man's Island is a favorite 
place, in spite of its grewsome name, for beautiful natural aquaria are 
to be seen there. Considerable shipbuilding is under way at the west- 
ern end of Terminal Island ; and the harbor construction is beginning 
near the Point. 
Although the building of summer residences on the Island began 
only three years ago, the beach is now im- 
proved for nearly a mile, with a broad, firm 
siHewfllk, electric lightii, and several score 
of cottages. The latter are, for the most 
part of artistic desig", f^ll of individuality, 
a ad are muc!i more elef^ant than the struct- 
ures one usually beholds at 
seaside resorts. A high stand- 
ard wns eatablished in the be- 
gin a iug, and it has been pretty 
steadiJy maintained. Of course 
all these manifold advantages 
of Terminal Island would 
amount to but 
little to the gen- 
eral public — es- 
pecially to those 
dwelling in the 
interior towns 
— if there were 
no large hotel 
for the accom- 
modation of 
visitors; and un- 
til this year, the 
Island has lack- 
ed that one 
great and im- 
portant feature. 
Thanks to the 
enterprise o f 
Mr. Frank S. 
Gordon, the 
want is now fill- 
ed. *' The Gor- 
don Arms,*' 
which will 

open about the first of July, is one of the most beautiful and most per- 
fectly equipped hotels to be found at any Southern California watering 
place. It can accomodate about 100 guests. There are no inside rooms 
and all are unusually fine in arrangement and furnishings — twenty of 
the suites being connected with private baths. Card rooms and ladies* 
parlors are connected by folding doors with a most inviting office. There 
are huge clinker-brick fireplaces both in the office and on the second 

The 36 X 60 foot dining room occupies the end of the ell of the build- 
ing and thus commands a good view of the ocean and the inner bay. 

As the cuisine of the hotel will be first-class, it is furnished with a 
perfectly equipped kitchen with all the latest improvements. 

The hotel is lighted by electricity and is provided with call bells in 
every room. 
One of the most popular features of this hotel will be the porches. 


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American Ed^ Co 



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From the upper terrace, which is reached from the 
second story, one may sit out in the air and enjoy the 
view of the ocean, which roils up just below, or the 
bay to the north. The lower porch, 18x360 feet in 
size, is much of it enclosed in glass, and this portion 
will be used for the purposes of grill rooms and caf^. 
North of the hotel there are a number of cottages, 
with rooms arranged in suites with separate outside 
entrances. These are for the use of guests, who will 
take their meals at the hotel. They are supplied with 
electric bells and every convenience. 

In front of the hotel runs the beach promenade — a 
broad walk over a mile in length and lighted from 
end to end by electricity. 

Sixty feet of frontage near the hotel will be devoted 
to the hotel's surf bath house. This will have forty 
dressing rooms, a ladies' hair-dressing pailor and a 
barber shop. Its upper story will be converted into 
an observatory and roof-garden with seats, etc. 

Fine golf links near the hotel will prove an addition to such other 
outdoor amusements as surf bathing, fishing, bicycling and driving on 
the hard beach, promenading on the long walk, yachting and still 
water boating. 

The manager, Mr. S. P. Anderson, a well known hotel man, formerly 
connected with the Van Nuys Annex, will conduct the hotel after the 
most approved methods. It will be a first-class house of the same grade 
as the Coronado, Van Nuys and Green, but the prices will be as moderate 
as the entertainment furnished will allow. 

A convenient and attractive new depot has been added to the railway 
facilities of Terminal Island, so that trains to and from the city can stop 
within a few hundred feet of The Gordon Arms, and it is only a short 
walk from it to the golf links and the boat-house. 

There is no doubt tliat this will prove one of the most popular sea- 
side hotels to be found anywhere on the California coast, attracting 
visitors both in the summer and the winter months ; for the winter 
climate of Terminal is warm and pleasant, as its summer climate is cool 
and bracing. 

Ye Terminal Tavern is a comfortable beach house, containing a 
number of pleasant rooms, where visitors may be accommodated, and 
providing a good fish dinner for the man who visits the Island merely 
for the day. It is near the wharf and the 
Terminal bath house and pavilion, where 
the band plays on Sundays and holidays, and 
it is here that the great crowd of daily visitors 
from the city congregate. It is under new 
management, Mr. McCament, the well known 
Pasadena caterer, having recently leased the 

The still water pastimes made possible by 
the inner harbor have indeed been an attrac- 
tion enjoyed by no other coast point within 
easy reach of Los Angeles, but the real pop- 
ularity of the place dates from the establish- 
ment of its shore conveniences. 

With its new and beautiful hotel, and with 
a number of new cottages and other im- 
provements, the outlook for a lively and 
entertaining season at Terminal this year is 
certainly most promising. photo i.y Marcou 


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Wben answering rndtwrtiseracjiti* plemac mention ihal you ••«■» it in the hAttn of Sonshinb.'* 



. ^^P 


Arlington Hotel and Annex 

Perp«tufll Mmy Clllliftte 
Ocean Bathing Bver]' Day 

Jt ^ J* 




^^^ R»Dohefl,» R«AldQn«e> and all 
kinds of R«iil £:«tat.« in RedUndj itreaBonable 
rate*. See RedlaadH b^for« buying. Call upon 
Qraddrns JOHN F. FISK, 

Koomm 1 and a Union Bank Bloek. 

Redlsnda, CkI. 

We Sell the Earth- 


We deal in all kinds of Real Estate. 
Orch«rd and Resident Propert j. 
Write for descrlptiva pamphlet, 


These, " The 
of nealth/* 
are to be 
fcMiod at 

GflMP STURTEVftNT S3Si"'"''- 

The place to Uve in summtrr 1i in Ihe taotiDtams. A Itnt is ideal sheller. Appliances for comfort 
at Camp Siurlevant art complete ; Jlie water is fine; the forc*t, beaulilul. Day tcmperaluje» nrc 
from 10 to V* lower than in Los Angeles, and the evenings are warm auil dry. The trip to Camp in 
delightfiit. Mr. antl Mrs. Citley arc in charge. Hottl nccDni]iiQdation!!<. $1 '2S per day, $' W per week. 
Tent and coraplelc outfit for camping, fur I wo persons, SH' l>er month. Burro hire, $lM^ eliher way ; 
|l,.'jtt round Inp, up one day and down the next For illustrated circular addrens 

W. M. «TUKTEVAXT. Sierra M«iCri=V-^Cul^T^ 

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Underwear i§ a Hi>ecialty at Hilverwomris. 

WbffD mniireriiig advcrtlftemeDU, plcmse menticm that you " Mtr ii to the Lavd of 


HOl'LD you visit San Diego, yon 
will have missed one-balf your 
life if you fail to take a trip to 
La Jol!a, the seventh wonder^ with ilB 
seven mammoth caves. **La Jolla, the 
Gem," is fittingly named. Nowhere otj 
the Pacific Coast can be found the varied 
natural scenery which is had here. The 
?^even famous caves, hollowed out by the 
action of the mighty waves, in the huge 
cliffs, over one hundred feet high and 
jutting into the ocean, can be explored 
at low tide. There are also other weird 
and fantastic freaks of nature formed along the rocky shore, which must be seen to 
be appreciated, such as Cathedral Rock» Alligator Head, Goldfish Point, etc. Fish- 
ing and bathing here are unsurpassed. Shells and sea-mosftes, tinted with raiubow 
colors, are found here in great abundance. Every hour spent, when not fishing, 
boating or bathing, or viewing nature's marvelous work, cau be enjoyed in various 
ways. La Jolla is Situated ] 4 miles from San Diego, on the ocean, and is reached 
only by the San Diego, Pacific Beach and La Jolla Ry. 
Three mail trains each way daily. 

For further information apply to GRAHAM E. BABCOCK, 
San Diego, Cwl. President and General Manager. 

AN Education 

is secured by travding 

EAST^or West 

Via nri O j_ ( SUNSET ROUTE 

- o. the 1 hree Routes ] ooum^ route 

of the 

Southern Pacific Company 

Through mountain gorge or across level plain within sight 
of many historic and wonderful beauties. 


G. W. LUCE, Ass'l Gen. Frt. and Pass. Agt. 


F. B, Hllverwood niake^ a spi'ciali.v of ShiriS'or ^llkiind. 

JL-V. 1599 

.^r^y ^>^B^X^ Vol. XI, No. 2 

li ikA & _v_ ■^<;r.\ 


AMONG THE YAQUIS^^^ ^f ^'^ ' '""" 



^'^?!I. •C ^^^ 















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When answeritiK advcrttaemcnts, please mention tbal yoy '■ mw It In the Lawo of SuniBiiiff. 


T^ii^Etiuf. A' I lit; ■>ti rjlif 


No other Pump Can 
furnish the Same 
AmoMRt of Water 

At a recent test this 
type. No. 33, with an 
8-inch cylinder, in a 
I2'inch well, delivered 
414 gallons of water 
per minute without 
jar or injury. 
We can furnish I hem 
up to 90 M. L capac- 
ity from R 14-in. well. 

THE M. & E. CO., AG»Ts ( 

351-353 N. main St. Los Angeles. Cal^ 

"California Babies*' 

can find just what they need down at the '* big 
store/' Whitney's celebrated carriages — tke 
latest go-Cflrls. High chairs and little rockers. 
** American Home Futnishings^'' free. 

Niles Pease Forniture Co., 

439-441-443 S. Spring St., Los Angeles. 

Five Floors. Reliable Goods, 


Flexible Rubber, 

When used as a base for artificial tceih. c»iisc» unequal pres- 
sure, ibsorplioD, 5ore guui5, and, in lime, a cracktd or broken 
plate. Perhapa you know ihis frotu peisctial expctieuce. I 
mitke the lialnest, Btrongeat, best filliiiif, perraanently pleasing, 
vulcanized lubber plates u^ouey bu>'s al any price. 

Lei me s^ive you figures. %\ 


Block » 
oor. 6th 
end Hill 

Sts. Tel. 



F. B, SUverwood makes a specialty of SlH*^^^?wR0S^ 

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I I I w 

Vol 1 1 No. 2. 


JULY, 1899. 

A California Aquarium and 
Zoological Station. 


* OOLOGY is so universally taught in all schools at the 
present day that it is safe to say that hardly a teacher 
attending the convention held in Los Angeles in July, 
but is more or less interested in the subject. 

The fauna of the Pacific ocean off Southern California is in 
many respects unique, and, especially in its fishes, differs from 
that of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, or the waters of Europe. 

To anyone who has visited the zoological station at Naples 
the resemblance will be striking, as, especially at Santa Catalina 
and San Clemente islands, the animal life reminds the observer 
of Naples and its immediate waters. 

Avalon bay at Santa Catalina island is a miniature bay of 
Naples, and is one of the most interesting collecting grounds 
in America ; seemingly the neutral ground upon which many 
varied forms, semi-tropic and otherwise, exist. For years the 
writer has hoped to see an attempt made to place this interest- 
ing fauna within reach not only of the general public but of 
students and teachers, and as a result of some of his experi- 
ments made during the past six months, the Banning Com- 
pany has built a temporary building sixty feet by twenty on 
the water front at Avalon, and equipped it with forty or fifty 
tanks, in which will be exhibited this summer as many differ- 
ent forms as can be obtained, ranging from sponges and corals 
to the large fishes. This building and its equipment will con- 
stitute the nucleus of a fine zoological station and aquarium 
which will grow and be elaborated if the interest taken justi- 
fies it. Aquannms are luxuries, and even the smallest costs 
a large sum for construction and maintenance, and the Santa 
Catalina aqtiariura is no exception. Yet as an educational 
feature tt is one of the most important movements yet made in 
Soutberu California, will give a fresh impetus tosci^otificinvesti- 

Copyright 18M by Land of Sooshioe Pub. Co. 

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gation, and provide the student and teacher with a wide 
field for study and observation, and present an interesting ob- 
ject lesson, telling the graphic story of the marvels of animal 
life on our shores. 

The aquarium of the station will have one tank facing the 

sea sixty feet in 
I L^ length. This can be 

^9 divided off into small 
^^ tanks of any size by 
glass plates. A tank 
for large fishes will be 
twenty by six feet. In 
this it is hoped to ex- 
hibit sharks and a 
large black sea bass of 
at least loo pounds 
weight* the largest 
^ bony fish, with the 
exception of the tuna, 
in these waters. Be- 
sides this there will 
be a double row of 
tanks thirty feet long, 
« * and various independ- 
ent tanks with smaller 
ones ultimately, for 
purposes of study. 
Only a glance can be 
taken at the many 
interesting creatures 
that will be shown 
there in July. In the 
smaller tanks we shall 
find the noctiluca, one 
of the most brilliant of 
the Rhizopods ; the 
salpa and its chains, 
that sometimes so fill 
the water off Avalon 
that they can be dip- 
ped up by the bucket- 
ful. There will be 
shown the delicate Physophora hydrosiatica^ one of the most 
beautiful of the jelly-like animals and one of the fastest swim- 
mers of the group. The writer has kept this radiant creature 
for days in the experimental tank, also velella and physalia. 
Another beautiful and delicate form is Carinaria, a mollusk 
(Heteropod) having a delicate shell; and Pterotrachea and 








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many others. In the 
sponge tank we shall 
see a rare and interest- 
ing glass sponge with 
glass-like spicules ex- 
tendingfrom it in every 
direction, sponges in 
deep red, yellow and 
brown tints. Corals 
are not common in 
California, but there 
are several specimens, 
one large branch — a 
foot across -^ covered 
with polyps, and an- 
other species is seen 
growing on the shell 
of a hermit crab, while 
delicate coral resembl- 
ing Polyzoan, like 
2 Retepora^ are. dredged 
oi from deep water along 
';^ shore. 

The cousins of co- 
rals, the sea anemones, 
have a tank by them- 
selves. Some are four 
or five inches across. 
Many are a vivid 
green, others look 
like ripe strawberries 
so vivid are their hues 
— the animal flowers 
of the sea. The worms 
are attractive crea- 
tures. Some are in 
huge tubes, others 
form tunnels of sand, 
and show 'great skill 
in hiding. Many are 
brilliantly phosphor- 
escent, and one of the 
smallest produces a 
light that sometimes 
resembles that of a 
candle floating on the 
bay. In the crab tank 
we may see great spi- 

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der crabs dec- 
orated with 
algae, a deep 
crab, and the 
sping lobster 
waving its 
whips like a 
fencer. Here 
are crabs of 
odd and beau- 
tiful shapes, 
some from one 
thousand feet 
down ; her- 
mits dragging 
huge shells 
about, while 
scores of 
young fill 
every shell in 
the tank. At 
the surface is 
a crab (grap- 
sus) that re- 
quires the air, 
and spends 
most of its 
time out of 
the water. 
Pink shrimps, 
crabs of vivid 
green that 
mimic the 
kelp in which 
;, J^ i. I o they live, and 

many more 
make up this strange family, the study of whose growth and 
development is of the greatest interest. In the shell tank we 
find the great black velvet-colored key-hole limpet, the beautiful 
haliotis, and many more. Perhaps the most interesting creature 
here is the so-called (incorrectly) ship worm — teredo — which 
is shown eating into a pier, completing its work of destruction, 
that costs the government thousands of dollars annually (the 
life of a pile at Avalon being about three years). Among the 
interesting shells is a natica that builds a nest of sand (sea collar), 
and the delicate cowry that covers itself with a fleshy cloak. At 
times, though rarely, the paper nautilus will be seen here, and 





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in a tank by themselves are the members of the group without 
shells ; the octopods, or devil fishes, with their bird-like beaks 
and bags of ink. Large squids are found here, and the pen of 
one a foot long is shown in the accompanying illustration. 
The squids can be kept for a short time in the tanks. Among 
the interesting forms is the sea hare, Aplysia, that becomes so 
tame that it readily feeds from the hand, eating the green ulva 
so common here. The waters here are particularly rich in these 
peculiar mollusks. Some are vivid blue and yellow, others 
yellow, green and black, and one beautiful form is pure white. 
Many of them have deposited their eggs in the experimental 
tank, affording excellent opportunities for study. Here we 
shall also find the Ikmp shell, a shelled worm dredged in deep 
water off there, and known as Terebratdulina, interesting as 
being closely related to fossil forms. 

The other forms, sea urchins and sea cucumbers are well 
represented. Some of the former are a foot across, and the lat- 
ter a foot long. The deep-sea forms are particularly interest- 
ing, rich in color and shape. 

The fishes, from their size and beauty, attract the greatest 
attention, and as the first exhibition in Southern California, 
they will be most conspicuous. 

One tank is a blaze of red gold, due to the golden angel fish, 
and in the same tank are its young, beautiful creatures spotted 
with blue — so far as appearances go, an entirely different fish. 
This point is to be carried out in the arrangement, the idea be- 
ing to make each tank, so far as possible, tell the story com- 
plete of the animal and its habits. 

Among the rare forms we shall find the hag (myxine) cov- 
ered with slime, sharks, and rays of various kinds, some with 
spines; and one of the most interesting is the Port Jackson 
shark, peculiar to the Pacific ocean. It is a member oi the 
Cesiradonidae, a near ally to many extinct genera that lived 
before the oolite. This shark is shown, with its peculiar 
twisted eggs of so much interest to the zoologist. One of the 
most interesting fishes found here is the Myciophum, or brill- 
iant lamp fish. The writer secured about twenty specimens 
this past winter. They have a light upon the head, and 
numerous phosphorescent spots along the ventral surface. They 
are dredged in water six hundred feet deep, but come in shore 
in winter and rise at night. 

It will be impossible to give a list of the many interesting 
and beautiful fishes which can be shown here, for a greater or 
less time depending upon their nature ; but the writer has ob- 
served the Regaleeus, or band fish: the opah, a large Anten- 
nainus ; the famous nest-building fish (see illustration), sun 
fishes, two species of sword fish, the hippocampus, or sea-horse, 
and many more which are not commonly seen. 

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One of the most interesting exhibits will be of the large 
California flying fish and the kelp fishes. One variety of the 
latter is a marvelous mimic standing upright in the tank, 
and in color and its dorsal fin resembling the sea-weed so ex- 
actly that it is difficult to distinguish it. The flat fishes, 
flounders, sand dabs, etc., will afford an interesting study, as 
the eye changes from one side to the other during growth. 

The spotted moray, or eel will be shown — a veritable sea- 
snake — while other curious fishes are the gobies, some of 
which seem to require air part of the time, and invariably 
drown when forced under water for a long period. Those col- 
lected were all found at low tide clinging to the under side of 
rocks ten or more feet from water. 

The many rich bass, perch, sheep's-head and white fish 
not only thrive well in the tanks but become very tame, perch 
and rock bass feeding from the hand. The sculpins and the 
large **kelpcod," a great **bull-head," are the grotesques of 
the collection, covered with barnacles and tangles, mimidng the 
bottom, and devouring everything within reach. 

An interesting fish is the surf fish which gives birth to its 
young alive. Several species are found here, all of which 
have the same habit. Among others that will be shown are 
the Remoras, the fish with a sucking disk, that follows sharks ; 
the Chimaera, or rat fish, which lays remarkable eggs ; the 
"puff" shark," the sting-ray, angle fish, and many more that are 
rarely seen alive by either scientist or layman. 

The embryo zoological station will present, in its aquarium, 
a most interesting exhibit to the general public; one that will 
be unique, as never before have the marine fishes and other 
animals of this section been shown, and it is hoped that the 
movement will be of benefit to students everywhere, who will 
be given every facility to prosecute their studies. 

Pasadena, Cal. 

Among the Yaqui Indians in 



jHE most pleasant feature of my travel 
through the west-coast States of Mexico, 
last year, was a brief visit to the section oc- 
cupied by the Yaqui Indians, in Sonora. 

Our route lay directly over one of the old 
Apache trails, made famous by the numer- 
ous raids of renegades from Arizona and 
New Mexico in the days when Geronimo 
and ** Apache Kid*' were a terror to two governments. The 
country, after leaving the railroad station of Ortiz, until the 

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Yaqui river is reached (with the exception of the Bacatete 
mountains) is almost as barren as the great Colorado Desert, 
of which it is really an extension. The vegetation is sparse, 
with here and there bunches of cactus, chaparral, greasewood 

L. A. Enf.Co. 


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I. A Ens ^'0 


and palo verde, and an occasional 

grassy mesa, dotted with fat cattle. 

Our riding animals were mules 

and the pack animals burros. The 

mozos in charge of the pack-train 

walked the entire distance, some- 
times passing with bare feet over 

sharp rocks and cacti, without 

apparent injury. The trail being 

good, the weather superb and no 

accidents befalling, we often 

covered thirty miles a day, start- 
ing at early morn, resting an hour 

at noon, and camping before dark. 

With commodious tents, camp 

beds and an excellent cook, there 

were few of the hardships we had 


Our first stop was made at the 

hamlet of San Marcial, on the Rio Matape. It is a typical 

collection of adobe huts, with flat roofs, a tumble-down church 

and a general air of unthrift. 
Two days travel from San Marcial 
brought us into the Bacatete 
Mountains, an almost barren 
range of comparatively recent 
birth. These isolated mountains 
have for ages past been the ren- 
dezvous of renegade Indians, 
who have been at war with the 
Mexican government for the past 
three hundred years, until the 
treaty of peace, made a few 
months ago. The Indians have 
now abandoned their stronghold, 
and the country is safe for travel- 
ers and prospectors. 

Where water is abundant, the 
cafions are redolent with the odor 
of rare flowers, and an infinite 
variety of ferns cling to every 
rocky ledge. The streams cut- 
ting through the mountains and 
forming almost impassable bar- 
rancas, are generally small except 
during the rainy season, when 
they are transformed into raging 
A YAQUI "DUDE." torrcuts. In several instances we 

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were forced to make detours of many miles around the head of 
a barranca. There are vast deposits of beautifully tinted gran- 
ite in these mountains that would be eagerly sought for build- 
ing material could it be transported ; and I was told that rare 
marble and onyx are found in abundance to the north. Wild 
turkeys, bear, deer and ** lions ** were frequently seen ; and not 
least among the delicacies of our daily menu were venison 
steaks and turkey breasts. There were no fish that pleased 
our effete palates, but many varieties highly pleasing to the 
mozos, who concocted divers savory dishes of fish, chile and 
wild garlic. Occasional ranches supplied us with milk, 

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chickens, and eggs, and as a rule both natives and Indians 
refused to accept payment for any articles of food, though 
they were delighted to receive small presents of canned meats, 
bits of rope or nails. 

One evening as we approached a deep barranca where the 
mesquite and palo verde grow to the size of respectable trees, 
there arose a cry as of thousands of wild ducks. As they bore 
downward, with hoarse, deafening cries, the glint of crimson 
and green and gold dazzled the eye. It was a flock of parrots, 
thousands in number, and indescribably beautiful in the bright 
sunlight, as they circled round and round before alighting in 
the treetops. After dark, the mozos succeeded in trapping 

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three gorgeously-colored birds, which were carried with us in 
an ingenious cage of bamboo. 

The first view of the Yaqui river was from the crest of a hill 
about half way between San Jos6 and Cumuripa. It is a slug- 
gish stream here, easily forded in the dry season, but a rush- 
ing torrent after the first summer rains. The river is lined 
with Indian huts, a few of adobe, but the majority of brush 
and dry grass. A small space in front of the house is gener- 
ally enclosed by a rock wall, not so much to keep other ani- 
mals out as to keep those of the proprietor in ; for men, 
women, children and animals live together in sweet content 
along the Yaqui river. I was surprised to find the inhabitants 
of these humble homes so well dressed and so up-to-date in 
their cooking utensils, agricultural implements and weapons. 

A fine modem rifle stood in the comer of the first house I 
entered. All the family wore shoes, and the mother and three 
little girls wore neat, lace-trimmed calico dresses. They had 
just come from church, it being Sunday. Though we were 
invited to dine with the family, we declined, as our time was 
limited in the village. Many other huts were visited, and all 
were far cleaner and their occupants more intelligent than I had 
been led to expect from my reading about the the Yaquis. 
Both men and women are above the average Mexican in 
height. Many are extremely tall and all well proportioned. 
Their features are pleasing, their eyes large and piercing, their 
noses straight and their teeth white as ivory. The carriage of 
a Yaqui woman would fire the heart of a Delsartean with 
unquenchable envy, so tall, so straight, so well poised is the 
entire figure, especially when the olla is placed on the head on 
returning trom the well or river. The constant carrying of 
burdens on the head preserves an erect position of the torso, 
and the act of walking is performed from the waist downward 
— a method employed by the Greeks for beautifying the human 
form divine. 

The Yaquis are the backbone of the population of Sonora. 
They are the best workmen in the Republic, commanding from 
ten to twenty per cent higher wages in many localities than 
Mexican or other Indian labor. There is not a lazy bone in 
the Yaqui body. They are a peaceable, law-abiding people 
when justly treated. From time immemorial they have been 
hunters, miners and tillers of the soil. They have the nomad 
instinct in less degree than almost any other Indian tribe. 
When oppressed they have simply risen to redress their 
wrongs. In their mountain fastness they could no more be 
conquered than the Scotsmen before the battle of Bannock- 
burn. The government at last recognized the futility of con- 
tinuing the struggle to conquer them, and at the invitation of 
President Diaz, the old chief of the Yaquis, Tetabiate, visited 

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the City of Mexico, where the terms of a treaty of peace were 
agreed to. The signing of the treaty took place at Ortiz, a 
military station near Guaymas. It was an impressive sight, 
with hundreds of Indians, all carrying white flags bearing the 
word paz (peace), surrounding the old chief and Colonel 
Peinado. Tetabiate gave his word that the life and property 
of all Mexicans and foreigners should be held sacred within 
his domain, and that he and his people would uphold and 
obey the laws of the Republic. Colonel Peinado promised on 
the part of the Government that certain lands claimed by the 
Indians should be theirs absolutely, to hold or to sell, and that 
they should be granted all the rights held by the Mexicans. 
The treaty has never been violated by Tetabiate, and he caused 
to be shot several Indians who killed an American prospector 
in the Sierra Madre near the Rio Aros. His word is law 

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among his people, and his decisions are accepted as infallible. 
He is said to be considerably influenced by the priests, who 
have dwelt among the Yaquis since the days of the Spanish 
conquest. All the Yaquis are Catholics. 

During the past two or three years the government has ex- 
pended large amounts upon irrigation canals. Much native 
and foreign capital is being expended in developing the 
country, sugar planting being considered especially re- 

The government has also sent among the Yaqui Indians, 
during the past month, two male and ten female teachers from 
the City of Mexico to establish primary schools for boys and 
girls in several of the larger native villages. Suitable build- 
ings have been erected and well equipped with text-books, 
maps, globes and other supplies, all of which, as elsewhere in 
the Republic, are free to the pupil. 

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L. A. ing.Co. vAQi'I BEGGARS. 

There are many quaint, old 
churches throughout the 
Yaqui country, many of which 
have been wholly or partly 
decorated by the Indians, in a 
strikingly original and bizarre 
style. At one of the villages I 
saw copper bells, weighing 
almost a ton each, bearing the 
date of 1763. These bells 
were removed from the church 
during the late wars with the 
government troops and pre- 
sented to a church near Her- 
mosillo, but on the demand of 
the chief they were returned, 
and they still peal sweetly for 
morning and evening service, 
just as in the old days when 
Spain was mistress of the land 
of the Aztecs. 

At Tonochi I witnessed a 
marriage ceremony, which was conducted strictly after the 
ancient Yaqui plan. A handsome young Indian of about twenty 
was the groom, the bride a maiden of some thirteen summers. 
The legal marriage age for women in the tierra caliente is 
thirteen, although girls are frequently mothers at eleven or 
twelve. The parents of both were in favor of the marriage, 
but it is not Yaqui etiquette to appear anxious. Therefore, 
the young man was put on probation for a period of about ten 
days, during which time the men tried to induce him to drink 
and the women tempted him with smiles and flattering words. 
But Pancho deported himself with becoming decorum and came 
forth unscathed. Then there was a great pow-wow at the 
house of the oldest man in the village — a sort of local chief, 
elected by the people as judge and arbiter in disputes. He in- 
vited in four other old men of the tribe, and Pancho was ordered 
to appear. As he stood with bowed head before his judges, the 
eldest man rose and made a long harangue, in which he re- 
viewed the young man's history from his birth, expatiating at 
length on his faults, follies and poverty. Then the next eldest 
man rose and recited all he knew or had heard to the detriment 
of the poor fellow, and was followed in turn by the other old 
men, according to aee, who accused him of every crime in the 
Yaqui decalogue. Then Pancho was commanded to speak and 
answer the charges, and relate any deeds of charity or bravery 
he may have performed, that they might mitigate the terrible 
reputation given him by his elders. Pancho threw back his 

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head, planted his broad back against the wall, and answered his 
accusers. At the end of his defense the old men clapped their 
hands in approval, and a messenger was sent for the bride and 
her family. Not anticipating an unfavorable verdict, the 
bride was dressed for the ceremony and was waiting outside 
the hut with her parents and friends. The chief handed the 
groom a loaded gun, which the young^man discharged into 
the air, after walking to the end of the stone corral surround- 
ing the hut. The bride then fired the gun and the ceremony 
of marriage was at an end. This was to signify that the 
wronged one was to have the privilege of killing the unfaithful 
consort, should either violate the marriage vow. This pagan 
ceremony was followed by festivities at the house of the 
bride's parents, which lasted till morning. There was dancing 
to the music of a sweet- toned guitar aou a rude harp of native 


manufacture, played with consummate skilljby two stalwart 
Indians. The guitar was of cedar, with an armadillo shell 
back. The harp was uniquely carved with fishes, such 
as never existed save in the bizarre imagination of a Yaqui 
Fndian. Many of the Indians are skilled performers on 
stringed instruments, and their voices are sweet and true, 
though not strong. 

The status of women among the Yaquis is higher than of any 
Indian race I have ever been among. They seem to be on a foot- 
ing of absolute equality with the men. A woman's word is 
law in her own house, and the father has practically no voice 
in the control of the children. 

Divorce is infrequent among the Indians, and the only cause 
therefor is unfaithfulness. The wronged party has the privi- 

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lege of killing the unfaithful one, and is not amenable to the 
law for the crime. This privilege, of course, holds good only 
in the districts beyond the pale of the Mexican law, and re- 
mote from the immediate influence of Chief Tetabiate, who, 
since the treaty of peace, has made earnest effort to stamp out 
ancient superstitions among his people. 

That witchcraft and idol worship are not yet dead among 
the Yaquis I soon discovered while wandering among the peo- 
ple of the small villages along the river. At an Indian hut I 
was shown a ** bruja/' or witch doll, by an unusually intelli- 
gent Yaqui woman, the mother of seven children, whose hus- 
band had been put to death, she averred, on the accusation of 
having the ** evil eye.'' The doll was ten inches long, made 
of black cloth and stuffed with wool. It was stuck full of the 
sharp thorns of the maguey plant, and it was believed that the 
enemies of the family suffered excrutiating pain so long as the 
thorns remained in the doll. The story that the mother told 
me was pathetic. She said, in excellent Spanish : ** My 
husband was a good man, a miner at the placer diggings on 
the Rio Aros. He was away from home most of the time, and 
came to see us only two or three times a year. I lived at the 
village with the little ones so that they could go to the padre 
to learn to read. It cost almost all my husband earned at the 
mines to buy us food and clothes and pay the padre. But there 
were those in the village who were jealous of me and the 
little ones because we had more than they, add the reason was 
that we drank no tequila, and they, our enemies, spent all 
their money for drink. One day when my husband came to 
see us and brought money, old Pedro and some of the other 
men came and asked him to join them at the cantina, where 
other miners were drinking and spending the money that 
should have gone to the wives and little ones. My Diego re- 
fused to go, and the men went out and one of them fell down 
on the ground and declared that he was hurt in his head, and 
that my Diego and I and all the little ones had the evil eye ; 
that we were all as the people that they used to burn as 
witches. And that night when Diego went to the corral after 
dark to look after the burros and cow, some men seized him 
and dragged him to the river, where they tied rocks to him 
and threw him into the river to drown. And when I and the 
little ones tried to save him, the men beat us and drove us back 
to the house. After that they made us leave our house in the 
village and come here, half a mile away. And then it was 
that I made the dru/a to protect us, and the people are now 
afraid of us and each one in the village gives us so much of 
his corn and frijoles not to name the bruja for him ; for when 
it is named for anyone and the thorns stuck in, the person 
suffers great pain and soon dies. They killed my Diego, and 

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they must support his wife and little ones, so I scare them all 
the time with the witch doll." 

I wished to purchase the witch doll, but nothing would 
tempt her to part with it, as she said it would bring me bad 

At Onovas we saw two Mayo Indians, with fair hair, red 
beards and very light blue eyes, very much resembling Swedes 
or Danes. As they looked so much like white men, I was 
amazed to hear our guide address them in a strange language ; 
and he afterward explained that they were descendants from 
the survivors of a Danish ship that was wrecked on the coast 
near the mouth of the Mayo river, between forty and fifty 
years ago. The survivors were kept in captivity and took 
native wives. The ordinary Mayo Indian resembles the Yaqui, 
though inferior in height, and considerably darker of skin. I 
have been told by the Yaquis themselves that their physical 
superiority is due to the ancient practice of putting to death at 
birth all weak or deformed children — a practice still adhered 
to in the mountains of the Sierra Madre, remote from the 
influence of the law, though strenuous effort is being made to 
abolish it, both by the native chief and the government. 

One can scarcely close an article of any description relating 
te Mexico, without paying a tribute to President Diaz, who, 
thirteen years ago, began his great reforms in a country preg- 
nant with brigandage, lawlessness and intrigue. To day the 
clear light of peace, progress and contentment is as notable 
in the isolated lands of the Yaquis as in the capital city itself. 
And so firmly founded are the great principles of the president 
that no intelligent observer will for a moment concede that ret- 
rogression will be possible, even when Diaz no longer guides 
the ship of State. 

Temoetoehio, Mexico. 

The California Redwoods. 


JlEQUOlAS, or redwoods, are said to be not only the 
largest but the oldest trees in existence ; scien- 
tists sitting the maximum age of living specimens 
to ^>e about 2000 years and claiming them to be 
descendants of yet mightier forest giants. 

Their original habitat was the countries sur- 
rounding the Arctic Ocean, where their fossilized 
remains are still to be found ; but they were driven 

southward by advancing glaciers, finding a conge ■ 

I niifarnii t^«uti ca^. nial cHmatc in California, to which place they arc 
now exclusively confined. 

There are two varieties in the State ; the coast redwood {Sequoia Sent- 
pervirens)^ which grows in irregular groves in the Coast Range from 
Monterey Bay to the Oregon line, and the famous ** Big Trees '* {Sequoia 
Gigantea)y natives of the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, at an ele- 
vation of from 5000 to 8000 feet. 

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Photo, by Lowdon 

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Among the exploring Franckcan friars, at Santa Cnszy in 1769, the 
former Taxiety was known as the "Palo Colorado," or ** red tree ; *^ and 
the estate of Stanford UniTersity derives its name of Palo Alto, or *' tall 
tree,*' from, a lofty redwood landmark, the last of its race is that vt- 

The Sierra species was formerly described by English botanists as the 
Wellingtofiia gigantea and by Americans as the Washingtonia gigantea; 
but it is now generally called by its Indian name of Sequoia. 

The two kinds are closely allied, the main diflferenccs being in size 
and environment ; bnt they are never found growing together, though 
often mingling with other trees. 

Both have fine, rich foliage and rigid, tapering trunks, often branch- 
less to the height of 100 feet ; and the reddish, velvety bark, which is 
naually twisted spirally from apest to base of the great column, varies 
from six to eleven inches in thickness. 

The cones are borne in great numbers but seem remarkably small 
for snch huge trees — those of the Sierra sequoias being not more than 
two and a half inches in length, while the cones of the C€>a8t redwood 
do not exceed an inch and a half or two inches. 

Gray squirrels are especially fond of the seeds and store away im- 
mense quantities for winter use ; but their haunts are often unceremo* 
niously invaded by the proflessional seed gatherer, who, taking advan- 
tage of theiK industry, supplies orders from foreign countries irom this 

Were it not for their phcsnix-like powers of reproduction, the coast 
redwoods woold be doomed to final extincticm by the lumbermen ; but, 
unlike other timber trees, they are not destroyed by felling. No sooner 
is one of ttoese primeval giant* laid low, than from six to twenty vigor- 
ous young saplings spring up in a circle around the demolished stump, 
as though Nature were tiying to hide the ugly scar ; and so rapidly do 
these herculean infants grow, that they are ready for the saw when up- 
wards of twenty years of age, at which time they are about two feet m 

Another peculiarity of redwoods is that of forming natural halls, or 
cathedrals, the pillars of which are rugged trunks and the domes arches 
of living green. 

The vitidity of sequoiss is simply astonishing, logs having been 
known to send out fresh shoots, after they have been cut for several 
years ; while hardy young trees have actually been found growing out of 
mossy trunks, that have fallen over mountain streams. 

An area of about twenty acres in the Coast Range is covered by the 
Santa Cruz Grove, which contains trees rivaling in size their famous 
eonsins in the Sierras, some of the largest specimens being 300 feet in 
height and twenty feet or more in diameter. 

Many of these trees have historic names. The ** General Fremont " 
is a hoUow sequoia 275 feet high and 46 feet in circumference, in which 
the Pathfinder made his hom# feir aevetal months in 1847, the cavernous 
interior being 14x16 feet. 

The ** President Harrison," the ''General (Uiermaa," and the ''Daniel 
WebstttT " are all mammoth redwoods of magnificent bearing ; and the 
" Giant " once boasted the altitude of 375 feet, but was deprived of over 
50 feet of his lofty crest by a furious winter gale. 

*' Jumbo '* is s^K^alled from its fancied resemblance to an elephant. 

Among clamps of trees in this grove are the '* Robert IngersoU** 
group, the united girth of which is 95 feet ; the *' Nine Muses," form- 
ing a cool arbor-like retreat; the ** Y. M. C. A." group, and the **Three 
Sisters '' — a graceful trio 200 feet high, springing from the same root. 
As straight as masts are the colossal trunks, any one of which is capable 
of producing sufficient lumber to build a good-sized house. 

Not fldl at once do their proportions impress the visitor, but little by 

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little their gtandenr grows, like the immensity of Mt Shasta or the 
beauty of the Yosemite Palls. Gazing upward into their deep, green 
recesses, through which the wind roars with a sound like su|:f on a sea- 
beach, one is overpowered with a sense of one's own littleness. 

The Sierra groves of *' Big Trees '' are about twenty in number and 
cover an area of nearly 200 miles. The Calaveras grove is 50 acres in 
extent and contains over ninety trees, twenty of which are over 25 feet 
in diameter. 

Some of the largest specimens are also named after prominent people 
— among them being "General Grant/' "Andrew Jackson," " Florence 
Nightingale," ** Abraham Lincoln," "General Sherman," "Professor 
Grey " and " WilUam Cullen Bryant." 

" The Pride of the Forest " reaches a height of 300 feet, and is twenty- 
three feet thick ; and " Hercules," which was blown down some thirty 
years ago, in a winter storm, measures 325 feet in height and 95 feet in 

Among other prostrate trees are "The Fallen Monarch," "The 
Miner's Cabin," and "The Father of the Forest," the height of which 
has been estimated at having once been 450 feet. It is 112 feet in girth ; 
and through its hollow interior riders are accustomed to pass on 

Near by is " The Mother of the Forest "—a noble tree, which has 
been wantonly stripped of its bark, to a considerable elevation, for ex- 
hibition at fairs. 

" The Pioneer's Cabin " has an opening cut through its massive 
trunk, enabling a four-horse stage-coach to drive through the growing 

About seven miles from the "Mammoth Grove" is the "South 
Grove " — which is three and a half miles in length and contains over a 
thousand trees, including a number of pines and firs. 

Here are to be found "New York," the largest living tree, 104 feet in 
circumference, " Columbus," " Old Goliah " and other forest giants. 

In the Big Tree Grove at Mariposa are about four hundred sequoias 
ranging from 150 to 300 feet in height, among the most conspicuous 
being " Wawona" and the " Grizzly Giant." 

The various logging camps scatter&l alon^ the coast are full of in- 
terest to the visitor. The trees are felled with axes and a huge saw, 
skillfully operated by two men, who stand upon a rough scaffolding, 
several feet from the ground. 

Their hazardous task accomplished, and the sylvan monarch having 
fallen crashing into the " bed " prepared to receive it, the branches and 
bark are stripped off, and the trunk which is sometimes eight or ten 
feet in diameter, is cut up into logs varying from twelve to twenty feet 
in length. 

If the forest is choked with boughs and dead brush they are set on 
fire to clear the way ; for as redwoc^ contains neither pitch nor resin, it 
smoulders rather than bursts into a flame and there is little danger of 
conflagrations, although they are sometimes started in this way. 

In most of the larger mills, a locomotive and flat cars are used for 
hauling the logs from the woods to the mill or river, one huge log often 
occupying an entire car. 

But in many of the lumber camps, eight or ten yoke of oxen or a 
dozen pairs of horses or mules are employed — ^ten or fifteen sections of 
the great trunks being attached together with heavy chains, forming 
what is known as a " train." 

As a wide, smooth and even track is indispensable, a " skid " road is 
made by placing logs, corduroy fashion, upon a cleared space and keep- 
ing them wet to r^uce friction and to enable the train to glide along 
smoothly — the process being called " snaking out." 

Slowly the oxen plod along until they reach a declivity* when the 

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teamster with snapping whip and not a little profanity, urges them into 
a mad gallop, which becomes a veritable race for life, the immense logs 
booming along behind them, till thej reach the foot of the incline. 

In yery steep places, the locomotive is usually removed and the 
mighty freight allowed a wild ride down the grade ; or if the terminus 
of the railroad is on a high bank above a stream, the logs are sent down 
a long chute, plunging into the water with a tremendous splash and , 
sending up great showers of flying spray. 

When tne logging camp is situated near a wide river, the logs are 
floated down the current to the mill in the form of enormous rafts ; or 
large cigar shaped cages of logs are towed by streamers to distant ports 
on the ocean. 

Being extremely durable and never swelling or shrinking, when once 
thoroughly seasoned, this wood is very valuable for telegraph poles, 
fence posts, shingles, and railroad ties, and is also much prized for the 
interior decorations of houses on account of the richness and variety of 
its grains and the high polish of which it is capable. 

One Day at Pacheco's. 


fOU think because I don't grow enthusiastic over 

this horserace today that I don't know what it is 

to enjoy seeing a good horse tun, and a good rider 

keep his seat ? Why, my dear boy, I have seen riding 

and running that stirred a man's blood so that this 

sort of thing wasn't to be mentioned in the same day 

with it ! 

You men of a younger generation miss what we 
old fellows remember. 

Just sit down, sit down now, and let me tell 
you about one day at Pacheco's. 

The Major and I had been over to Antioch, 
and on our return accepted the Don's invitation 
to turn aside at his rancho and witness the sport 
of a Spanish gala day. Casa Pacheco was one of those big 
delightful old houses of the early Califomians, standing on 
rising ground in the center of his domain, where fine oaks 
dotted the rancho as far as the eye could see. But no house 
of old Spaniard or newer Gringo was ever big enough to ac- 
commodate the crowd we found there that day in July. Men 
and women were thick as bees swarming about the place in 
the honey-sweet air. Tall, handsome caballeros, and pretty, 
plump sefLoritas, nifLos that were as happy and healthy as only 
children can be who breathe the salt air that comes in from 
Pacific seas ; old men and women with the fire of life still shin- 
ing in their bead-bright eyes, though their skin was withered 
and flesh shrunken ; young men and girls, laughing and gay, 
and m love. These and the Indians — scores upon scores of 
them — and the horses (such as you never see now on the 

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rancho), these, I say, made tip a mass of moving, glowing life 
that day at Pacheco's, 

In the corral were two or three hundred head of wild cattle ; 

steers, stags, and old bulls. Hot— untamed — restless — they 

surged back and forth in their narrow confines, while a per- 

•petual cloud of light dust hung over them in the heat ot the 

summer sun. 

There was movement, excitement, life everywhere! The 
attitude of your race-track habitu6s here today would be called 
apathetic in comparison with what those flesh and blood beings 
— the old Spaniards — showed and felt. Ah, my boy, you 
missed a good deal not being bom at least a quarter of a cen- 
tury earlier ! And I would have missed it all too, had I not 
sailed in through the Golden Gate in the 'Fifties. 

Well, the crowd at Pacheco's had flocked in at his bidding 
from the country for leagues and leagues around. From 
Ciprian's, and Moraga's, and Briones', and from San Ramon, 
and Alamo and Castro Valley. From Wvermore they came, 
and Romero Valley too, and Martinez ; from everywhere the 
people poured in that day to Pacheco's. 

Every vaquero rode a good horse. Why, men like ]ob6 
Moraga and Martinez wouldn't have taken a hundred and 
fifty dollars a head for any one of their saddle horses, and H^my 
numbered them by the hundreds ! Vou never saw such horaes, 
my boy, as we used to have in California in the old days. 
Great, big, fine animals, every one of them a picture. Miule 
of muscle and bone, and, more than all, mettle. Those w^e 
the kind of horses they rode in the days when to be a Spaniard 
was to be a first-class vaquero. There were no * 'cowboys'* 
then ; the word hadn't been invented. Why, sir, the horses 
these fellows use now would fall down under the weight of the 
old Spanish saddles— the kind we used to have in the 'Fifties. 
They were embroidered with silver and gold threads ; made 
heavy with such embroidery, and worked with silks in beauti- 
ful colors. The tapaderos almost touching the ground ; and 
the saddles made with great ''macheers" that half covered a 
horse. All heavily mounted with silver. Conchas on the 
spurs that were big as saucers, and silver chains jangling from 
the bit to make silvery music. 

A horse in those days seemed to possess more intelligence 
than your horses of the present day do, and when he got fitted 
out with the fixings the old Spaniards used to put on, why, by 
George, sir, he carried himself like a king I 

Every one used to ride in those days, just as no one rides 
now. What's that ? Yim f You ride ? Nonsense ! What 
do you know about riding, when the most that you ever do is 
to throw your leg over some pretty, prancing saddler for a 
canter out through the park and the presidio, or along the beaoh 

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in the sunshine of a Sunday afternoon ? Get on a horse, a 
horse, sir, and ride in a storm, or at night, as we old chaps 
nsed to do, time and time again, forty years ago, and you'll 
wake up to some new sensations. 

I can remember riding at night with the wind shrieking in 
my ears, and the slap of sleet in my fiaioe as I rode neck and 
neck with the storm. Forked lightning flashing in my eyes, 
and a flying road under my feet. Fording a river, findhig my 
way through a caflon, climbing a hill, then descending into a 
guUy — on, and on in the night ; riding, riding, riding ! Wet 
to die skin, but aglow with excitement and the electric current 
tlMit made myself and my horse a part of the st<M:m with the 
elements ! Ah, but it makes a man young again only to think 
of it I 

But you fellows who go for a gallop over a macadamised 
road on days when it is sunny and pleasant, and then come 
home and tell what you know about riding, you Oh, ! 

About that day at Pacheco's ? Why, that's what I'm telling 
you. The fellows there who were to ride (and there must have 
been a couple of hundred of them), had their horses trimmed 
up so that it was worth a day's journey just to look at them 
where they were standing, to say noUiing of what it was 
when they were responding to tlu^ touch of hand and heel. 
That was as fine a sight as you could imagine, and such as 
you never have seen. 

The riders who were to take part in the contest, where 
each would try to excel in the display of fine horsemanship, 
sat in their saddles forming two lines on either side of the 
evening of the corral. Lean, lithe feUows they were, wearing 
their clothes as only a Spaniard can wear them. Girt round 
the waist with silk sashes ; most of them a vivid crimson, but 
sometimes wearing blue ones. And every face was shaded 
with the stiff*, broad-rimmed sombrero worn with a chin strap, 
and tilted on to the forehead. 

The horses pawed at the ground, tossing their heads and 
rolling their bits under their tongues. Quivering with excite- 
ment, and twitdaing with nervous expectancy they were as 
eager to be <^ as their masters. 

Then the bars are let down ! 

An old steer — ^big, broad-homed, his eyes red and ugly, and 
his mouth slavering — comes to the opening of the corral. He 
stops, motionless he stands, eyeing the multitude outside for a 
moment. Then he takes a step or two forward, shaking his 
head and lashing bis tail. Again he stops, and, putting his 
ttose down, smells of the ground. Smells and snorts, afiraid 
lo pass through. '* Hoopa I Hoopa !" The shouts startle 
him into action. '' Hoopa ! Hoopa !" There is a rush for- 
ward, and he is out into the open ! It is a dash for liberty ; 

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and he makes stndglit away br the bottom, down where Ae 
oaks aie the thidcest 

Then there is a shont from the people, and another, and 
another ; and ont of the crowd of waiting vaqueros two— one 
from each side of the line — dap spnrs into the flanks <^ their 
horses and are off after Ae steer, which is nmning with head 
np and tail stiffened at a pace which needs a good horse to 
keep up with. 

But one of the men is graining — ^more and more — doser and 
closer — almost up to him — only a length behind — half a length 
— now he is there, dose, running with the steer, side by side I 
Then ! Then there is a quick movement of his arm as he 
bends low from the saddle and (just how it is done you cannot 
see), he has caught the animal's tail, and taken a turn around 
the horn of the saddle. Spurring his horse, that leaps forward 
at the touch, he whirls the steer's hind-quarters around as he 
rushes past and, releasing his hold at that instant, the animal 
is tripped and thrown to the ground ¥^ere it roUs over and 

There is a burst of cheers from the hilltop ; wild hurrahs 
for the victor. 

But the steer has bounded to its feet and is up and off again. 
Away go the pursuers after it. They have forgotten the 
danger, and only remember to be daring. If, at the moment 
of releasing the turns that have been taken, the long hair 
should catch on the horn and hold, it would hurl horse and 
rider down with the steer. 

The fellow acts quickly ; and is as cautious as he is quick. 

The supple figure leans from the saddle, there is a dextrous 
turn of the wrist, and the steer is down once more ; this time 
thrown by the other vaquero. 

Again the air is filled with the cheering. The Major and I 
are dieering too. 

Cuidado! Look out there I The steer is up again, maddened 
and eager to fight. Ready to make a quick rush and gore 
man or beast that may stand in his way. But he turns, and 
is off, and they after him ; and again he is thrown. He is 
getting bewildered ind exhausted from the repeated quick 
falls. Sometimes he starts up the hillside instead of on down 
to the bottoms. He is dizzy and dazed, scarce knowing which 
way to go. Tired and pandng, with tongue lolling, he has no 
strength left to run. So, at last, they let him trot off while 
they turn back to rest themselves and thefr horses, and then 
follow a fresh one. 

But ere the bridle reins are drawn across the necks of the 
blowing, sweating horses, another wild ydl goes up to the 
heavens, and another steer is let out, followed by two fresh 
riders. The two coming up from the bottoms swing out — one 

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to the right, the other left — to give a free sweep to the others 
who are charging like a whirlwind after the steer that is run- 
ning straight for the lowland. Steer after steer is turned out — 
steers, stags and old toros. And each one is made to run a 
hard race for his freedom again down in the oak trees. 

There is yelling, and cheering, and laughter. And the 
vaqueroe race down, and ride ba(^, and rest, and eat water- 
melons. Those who fail in the throwing are good naturedly 
derided and jeered at by those who sit under the trees and eat 
watermelons, and smoke cigarettes, and laugh and are happy 
— ^these children of a summer land 1 

And the winners ? Their reward lies in dark eyes ; in soft, 
melting glances that bear to each victor a promise. A message 
that goes forth ere long lashes fall on cheeks where the blood 
blushes when two paiis of eyes meet. Bach knight has his 
lady ! All day long in the warm summer sunshine — 

Eh ? What's that you are saying ? " It's a go ! They're 
off!" They have started? Bless my soul, so they 
have ! There they go ! Ah, it's a fine thing to see a fine 
horse ; but the finest sight in the world is to see such a horse 
on a dead run ! 

How I wish, my dear sir, you could have seen them — ^that 
day at Pacheco's ! 

Early California. 


CONTINUATION of the report of the Viceroy of Mexico, the 
Connt of Reyilla Gigedo, on the history of California from 
1768to 1793, follows: 

Government of the Viceroy don Martin de Mayorca^ 

52. The events which I have related happened daring the time in 
which the Viceroy don Martin de Mayorca governed New Spain, aid- 
ing with efficacious and prompt measures those taken by the Com- 
mander General of the Provinces of the Interior, Chevalier de Croix, in 
the peninsula of the Califomias, and on the frontier of Sonora, both of 
which provinces are bounded by the river called Colorado. (22) 


53. As I have said before, the Viceroy don Antonio Bucareli had de- 
dded upon a third exploration to be made up to latitude 70° North, and 
for this purpose the following vessels were detailed : the frigate * 'Prin- 
cess'' built in Son Bias, and La Favorita " purchased in Peru, under 

that of Guatemala, a distance of more than 1200 miles in seven days I Don Martin de 
BCayoroa gorcmed from Aogost 25, 1779, to April a8, 1783. 

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the orden of the lieutenant of the first class, doni Ignacio Aiteaga and 
don Joan de la Bodega Cuadra, who had just been promoted to the same 

54. These -vessels sailed from San Bias on Pebmary 11, 1779, and 
stood in shore on May 18 to the Bncareli arehipelago in 55^ 17^ latitude 
North, anchorijig in a well protected and ample (comodo) harbor, to 
which they gave the name of Santa Cmz. There they remained until 
June 1 2, for the object of resting from the hardships of the Toyage, cur- 
ing their sick, and for minutely reconnoitering the bays, ful6, wlands, 
channels, coasts and immediate ports. 

55. Afterwards they sailed up to 61° latitude, taking possession in 6(f 
13^ of the port of Santiago on Magdalena island, from where they dis- 
covered at a distance of ten leagues (30 miles) the great bay situated on 
the main land, and which the English captain Oook, in his yoya^e in 
1778, had named Prince William. 

56. After the pilots, don Jos6 Canlza and don Juan Pantoja, had to- 
connoitered the island, they could not find the strait (pass) towards the 
North, which appears on Russian charts in about this locality, and con- 
sequently abandoning the course to the nortii, they steered west and 
made another stop in the bay, called by them Our Lady of la Regie 
and situated in 59"" 8^ latitude. 

57. With the customary formalities they took possession of this port. 
Under the pretext that the scurvy had broken out among the crew of 
'* IfS Prinoesa," that " La Pavorita" hod strict orders to keep in com- 
pany, and that time was pressing fior their veturn to San Bias, the com- 
mander Arteaga decided upon turning back immediately, fijaiahing his 
voyage on November 25, and the frigate ^'Pavorita*' on the 21st of the 
same month. 

58. His Majesty was well pleased with the information imparted by 
the Viceroy, don Martin de Mayorca, about the outcome of the expe- 
dition and ability displayed therein, and the ofiScers and pilots of both 
frieates were remunerated with different favors and promotions. By an 
order of May 10, 1780, the King commanded that the voyages of ex- 
plorations to higher latitudes should cease, and that the lieutenants of 
the first class, don Juan de la Bodega and don Prancisco Quiros should 
go to Habana and report for service in that department in the war which 
had been declared against England. (23) 

Report of th» Pepartment of San Bla«L 

59. Par from thinking of new explorations, strict economies began 
to be practiced since the year 1780, by reducing the expenses of San 
Bias, which anew was restricted to its primitive objects ox reconnoiter- 
ing and succoring the Californias. 

60. In consequence of this new state of a£Qurs, the formulation of an- 
other set of rules for the economic government was commanded in re- 
peated royal orders issued from 1781 to 1786. This is the only matter 
having any bearing upon the present compilation which happened dwr- 
ing the government of the Viceroy, dou Martin de Mayorca ; his suc- 
cessor, don Martin de Galvez ; the governing "Audiencia" ; and the 
Very Rev. Archbishop. (24) 

(33) KBflrlmnd and Pranoe were at war, and th« English under the pretext that Tca- 
' aelt fiying the U. S. colors had been admitted in epanish potts, insaUed 00 dilfercnt 
occasions the flaur of Spain. This together with the continued inslsteDces of Louis XVI 
upon the treaty of Madrid in 1761, caued *'the family pact", decided Charles in of Spain 
to declare war against Bnaland on if ay 18, 1779, which ended wHh the treaty of peace, 
made January 30, 1783 at Versailles. 

(a4) Don Martias de Galves, brother of the former inspector general and then actual 
Secretary of the Indies^ don Joa6 Galvex. governed from April 28, 1783, to November 3, 
1784, at which day he died at 8 p. m., and on the 8th of the same month was buried la 
tne church of San Fernando in the City of Meadco. 

The Royal Audience governed from November 3, 1784 to Tunc it, xTfifi* dale of the ar* 
rival of the new viceroy, don Bernardo dc Galves, son or tht otosMtd, d*» MaMa» 

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New Roles for San Bias, prepared by the Yleeroy Gomit 

de GaJvez. 

61. The seceMitry preHmutary stepa were taken tor for»ulAtin|r the 
pnetcxibed aet of rules, which were fiaiihed in ]786» redvdxigtheaalariea, 
pay and gratuities to ilie limited amounts in the ordinances of the South 
Sea. The Vioefx>j, Count de Galvez, commuided this " reglamento*' to 
go into force without the previous assent of the Royal Txeasury Com- 

Gk>Yerament of tbe Vioeroy Don Manuel Antonio Flores. 

62. In this state my predecessor, Don Manuel Antonio Flores, found 
the matters relating to San Bias and the Califomias, but they again 
changed to wlmt they were before, occasioning new expenses, cares and 
attentions (25). 


63. Throujgfh the Count de la Peionse, commander of the French 
frigate " Bmjula" and " Astrolabio", information was obtained that tbe 
Russians had formed four establishments on the American continent, 
north of the Califomias (26). In the royal order of January 25, 1787, re- 
peated on July 21st next. His Majesty commanded that two vessels, 
with the two biest pilots of San Bias, should be detailed for the purpose 
of undectakingthis fonrth exploration. 

64. My predecessor did so« and necessity compelled him to place the 
expedition m charge of the brevet ensign of the first class, Don Bstev^n 
Jos^ Martinez, for Uie reason that no navy officers were in the depart- 
ment, which was reduced to its quota of pilots, and therefore the Viceroy 
had no opportunity to choose a penson in whom he could place more 

65. Martinez having been detailed to the oommand of the expedition 
in the frigate *' Princesa", and the pilot, Don Gonzalo Gabriel JU>pez 
de Haro, to the despatch boat (pa^uebot) "San Cirlos'*, they were 
handed full instructions, furnished with all the necessary supplies, and 
started on their voyage on March 8, 1788. 

66. Both vessels sailed north until reaching 61°. On May 16 they 
stood in shore toward Port Prince William, sailed down to Trinidad 
Island, and finally arrived at Onalaska. The ships had not kept com- 
pany, twice th^ became separated, joining again at the two last named 

67. They remained in Onalaska until August 18, and the commander 
Martinez advised the pilot Haro, in case they ^ould again become 
separated, to proceed with the dispatch boat nnder his command to the 
port of Monterey, as the advanced season did not permit reconnoitering 
the harbor of Nutka. 

Don Bernardo d« Galvez had been sfovemor of I<ouitlana at the breakinsr out of the 
war with Hnfl^land. Uavlnff recognized the independence of the American colonies on 
April «9, 1779, ^Mttly after he marched at the head of his trooM ap the Miasissippl, 
and after a siege of nine days took Iberville on September 7, and later on Natcbes. On 
March 14, 1780, Mobile surrendered to him, and Pensaoola in 1781, and Galres took pos- 
session of Florida. He died in Mexico, Noyember 30, 1766, at 4:20 in the morning, and 
is buried in San Fernando opp<^te the grave of his fatner. 

(26) Don Manuel Antonio Flores governed from August 17, 1787, until October 16. 

(26) Captain Behring, who was sent out in 1783 by the impress Ann of Russia, dia- 
covered the mainland of North America in lat 08° 28^ on July 18, 1741. Captain 
TsdMrikow. his companion, being separated from him in a storm, sighted the same 
coast in lat. 56^ on July 15, 1741, while Behring sailed up the coast discovering many of 
the islands of the Aleutian Archipelsgo, some of which however he had seen during 
Us previous vospage in 1728. The united States pnrdiased Alaska fh>m Russia on Maich 
W, UB07, and took formal possession thereof at half-past three in the aftamaon of 
October 18, 1867. 

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68. In fact, the ships did part company on the same day on which 
they left Onalaska, and finally terminated their voyage in San Bias, the 
dispatch boat on September 22 and the frigate on December 5, 1788. 

69 On account of the notorious discord between these two command- 
ers, this expedition might have ended disastrously ; but at least it verified 
the notices about the Russian establishments, although differing some- 
what from those contained in the general report of the Count de la 

70 According to the information acquired by Martinez and Haro, 
the Russians counted twenty years since establishing themselves on their 
island of Onalaska, which is the capital or headquarters, recognized as 
such for military and political purposes, collection of the tribute from 
the Indians, commerce and its consequent advantages, by their other 
small establishments situated on the mainland, the adjoining islands 
and on Cook river. 

71 It is believed that, including Onalaska, the mentioned establish- 
ments do not exceed six, with a population of about hundred 
Russians, whose settlements, on account of the trade with the Indians 
along the extensive coasts of the continent, are scattered from the 
harbor of Nutka in 49° 36^ to Port Prince William in latitude 61° north. 
They are also masters of the islands extending from that of Onalaska in 
61° to Montagu Island in 54°. 

72 Saicof Potasf Cosmichi, who was the chief or commander of 
said establishment, assured our officers that the English captain. Cook, 
had not made an exact reconnoisance of the river bearing his name, 
and, that after the expedition effected by the Russians, &hring and 
Tschirikow in the year 1741 in 55° latitude north, no subject whatso- 
ever of that power had passed to the east of Cape Saint Elias. He also 
stated that they awaited two frigates from Kamts-Kaska for the purpose 
of settling Nutka, and to impede the trade and settlement of the En- 
glish who claim it by right of the discovery made by Captain Cook, as 
he, the commander, had been informed by an Englishman, Grec, cap- 
tain of a vessel, which, on its return with a cargo of furs from Nutka 
to Canton, had stopped at Onalaska. 

73 Thisj and different other information of small importance is 
contained in the reports and diaries of don Estevdn Jos6 Martinez and 
the pilot Haro. These two officers in the course of their explorations 
took possession as customary of the following localities ; Two on the 
western shore of the island of Montagu, one of them opposite Prince 
William strait, of a bay they named Plores (in honor of the viceroy) in 
59° 49^; of Trinidad Island in 60° 7^; of Kodiac Island, to which they 
gave the name of Florida Blanca, in 56° 44^; of the eastern extremity of 
Uie Onalaska Island in the same latitude ; and of a port situated on the 
said island in 53^ which they called Port of the Princess of Asturias. (27) 

Occupatioii of the Port of Nutka. 

74. My predecessor, don Antonio Plores, reported upon all these 
matters in the letters of November 4 and December 23, numbers 672 
and 702, accompanying maps, diaries and other documents; in same he 
expressed his sound opinions, and ended by stating the causes which 
compelled him promptly to occupy Nutka. (28) 

(27) Humboldt speaking of this Expedition says, that in the viceroyal archiTes in the 
City of Mexico he found a tliick M8S. entitled " Recognoisance of the four Rnsslan 
esUbllshmenta to the north of the Califomiaa, made la 1788," and adds : " this his- 
torical compendium contains very little in reference to the Russian Colonies in 
America. None of Martinex's people understood Russian and none of the Moscovites, 
Spanish ; their conversation, if so it may be called, was carried on by signs." 

(28) The port of Santa Cruz de Nootka, Noutka, Nutka, called San I«orenso by its 
discoverer Peres, and King George's Sound or rather Friendly Cove by Cook, was 
known to the natives under the name of Yocuatl. The origin of the word Nutka is 
unknown, as the language of the Indians has only one word resembling it : "Nondii* * 

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75. Therein, as also in former and later communications, he pre- 
sented just and founded reasons for placing at the head of the depart- 
ment of San Bias a captain of the second class (capitan de fragata) who 
should command and govern it assisted by some other officers of the 
royal navy, good pilots, surgeons, chaplains and other necessary per- 
sons, to whom competent salaries should be assigned. He also recom- 
mended an increase of vessels and that the required artillery should be 
brought from Peril ; all this in case, as seemed necessary, that the ex- 
plorations or voyages to higher latitudes should be continued. 

76. The occupation of Nutka was undertaken immediately and con- 
fided to the commander of the fourth exploration, don Bstevin Jos^ 
Martinez, because there was no one in San Bias to relieve him, nor any 
other vessels ready than the frigate *' Princesa ** and the dispatch boat 

77. Therefore, these two ships left in charge of Martinez Gonzalo 
and the pilot, don Gabriel L6pez de Haro, on February 19, 1789. The 
frigate entered Nutka on May 5th and the dispatch boat on the 12th of 
the same month. 

78. Although they found within the harbor, the frigate "Columbia" 
and the Inlander (balandra) " Washington ** belonging to the American 
colonies, and a Portuguese dispatch bort "lyaBfigenia nuviana,'' sol- 
emn possession was ts^en and the post fortified with a battery of ten 
guns, which was established at its mouth or entrance. 

79. Martinez inspected the passports of the American vessels and 
finding no just motives which might compel him to detain the ships, he 
notified their captains, that they should not return to the seas and coasts 
of tiie Spanish dominions, without the permit of our sovereign. 

Seizure of flngrlish Vessels. 

80. The same he intended to do with the dispatch boat, "I^a Efigenia, ' ' 
which sailed under the Portuguese flag, with a passport of the governor 
of Macao, and with instructions, written in Portuguese, from Juan Cara- 
ballo as owner of the vessel ; but as it seemed to Martinez that these 
documents were not in good form, and that they contained hard (duras) 
and insulting phrases, he made the captain a prisoner. 

81. Afterwards Martinez became aware of the difficulties of trans- 
ferring his prisoner to San Bias, for he could spare none of his people, 
as he required all for the defense of the establishment at Nutka. There- 
fore he permitted the dispatch boat to return to Nutka, stipulating first 
with its captain and master, who signed the corresponding obliga- 
tion, to pay the value of his small vessel and insignificant cargo when- 
ever it should be claimed as a fair price. 

82. Finally, the dispatch boat *'£figenia** was far from experiencing 
any damap;es, its officers and crew provided themselves with fresh pro- 
visions of which they were greatly in need, and sailed away in liberty, 
having been generously helped with everything they required. 

83. The same did not happen with the English vessels : the dispatch 
boat "Argonauta" and the bilander " Princess Royal.** They, like **La 
Bfigeuia,** had come under the command of James Colnet to take pos- 
session of Nutka to fortify it and establish a trading post (factoria) and 
settiement, bringing for this purpose everything necessary, and twenty- 
nine ''sangleyes** [tiie name of "sangley** was given to those Chinese 
who went to the Philippine Islands for the purpose of trading], skilled 
in different mechanical arts. 

84. Colnet intended to begin work at once on those establishments, 
claiming that he derived his right from the supposed reason that said 

which signifies mountain. The port is situated on the eastern coast of an island, 

harlnglengthof 20nau"' " ~" "' ^-^^^ ._-,.. . ^ , 

and Vancomrer lalands. 

harlng length of 20 nautical miles, and is separated by the Talis Chanc el t from Cuadra 

Digitized by 



conntry had been discovered by Captaiii Cook ; and atill farther be- 
canae the Portugnese had ceded to the Prec4Tlrade Company of London 
(compafiia del comercio libie de Londres), (29) the right of iratdiacov- 
ery, insisting that same had been made by the admiral Ponte (30); bnt 
the commander of our expedition demonstrated to the English com- 
mander how erroneons and nnfoanded his ideas were. 

85. Colnet, pertinacionsly adhering to the same, refused f o show the 
patents which authorized him, and the instructions by which he was 
governed, giving always very proudly his «xplanatioas, but consider- 
ing that he could not sustain the position taken by him, he decided to 
leave Nutka and sail away. 

86. For this imrpose he asked for a boat to help him raise anchor ; 
and then Martinez fearing that the Hoi^ieh captain might occ upy some 
other port on the coast from where it might be difficult to dislodge 
him, again asked for hia passport, patent and instructions. 

67. Colnet continued in his stubborn lesistance, making matters 
worse by his insulting kinguage and actions. Therefore, the saondl 
stock of Martinez's patience being exhausted, he detained the dispatch 
boat '*Argonauf ' as also the bilander ''Princess Royal*' and Immediately 
sent both vessels, with pilots and i^rews of his own, to San Bias. (31 ) 

Arrival of the Engfllsh vessels at San Bias, and meas- 
ures taken by the Viceroy. 

86. The dispatch boat left Nutka July 14, and the bilander July 27. 
The first arrived in San Bias August 15, and the second August 27. 
Having been informed of these events, the viceroy, don Manuel An- 
tonio Flores, decided that the cargo of both vessels should be discharged 
in the presence and with the intervention of their captains, James Col- 
net and Thomas Hudson ; that both should sign the formal inventories, 
and that the corresponding authorized copies thereof should be deli vexed 
unto them for their security and guaranty at all times^ whether the ves- 
sels should be declared legitimate prizes or not. 

89. He also ordered that those goods and provisions liable to be 
spoiled, damaged or lost should he sold for their just price, and the re- 
mainder deposited separately and safely in the royal storehouses. 

90. Furthermore, he commanded that after the dispatch boat and bi- 
lander had been unloaded, they should, pending an estimate of the 
costs, undergo the necessary careening ; that a strict account, accom- 
panied by vouchers, should be kept; and that all this should be done 
with the acquiescence, intervention and knowledge of said English 

91. Finally he ordered and insisted thereon specially, that the cap- 
tains and their crews should be left in a "discreet" liberty ; that they 
should be well treated and lodged ; and that each should receive the 
pay or salary corresponding to his rank or emolument, in accordance 
with the rules then governing in San Bias. 

(39) I:i 17S5 a compuiy was formed in London called ^Kiag Oeorge*8 Sound Oom- 
pamr*' for the purpose of eatabMshhig a colony at Nutka and mooopoHaing the inr 

(30) As fabulous as tbe noyaffes of Lorenoo Pcrer Maldonado in 1588 and |nan ihioa 
in 1502 is the one of Ponte The Admiral Bartok>m6 de Ponte, or Pttentes, was aap- 
^sed to have left Callao (Peru) April 3. 1640 and to have sailed along the coast of New 

Spain and the Califomias up to 77^ lat. North, discovering the i^and of Cotn&OMt, 
many inlets and sounds, the lake B^lh on the south shore olwhich was located tbede- 
Udous town of Canauit besides many other paradisiacal localities. The expeditiaas of 
the XVIII century proved the absolute fiilsehood of all this fable. 

(31) This procedure nve rise to mutual exaggerated recriminations, and as Hum- 
boldt sava : *'A few huts built on the beach, a miseiable battery of swivel gnna and a 
few cabbages planted within a stodbade, cama v«ry near aa u si ag « snagwliinij mmt 
between Spain and England." 

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Boyal Orders of His Bfsjestr approviiiir these measures, 
and commandinsr what should be done* 

92. These orders wete carried oat with utmost exactness, parity and 
generosity. The sovereign commands of the King» issned April 14, 
1789, and January 26, approved, with the concurrence of the Supreme 
Commission of State, the steps taken by my predecessor, don Bftanuel 
Antonio Flores, for the purpose of exploring the Pussian establish- 
ments and occupying the port of Nutka, as afio everything in relation 
to the English vessels detained in that port by don Bstevdn Jos^ Mart- 
inez and transferred to the harbor of San Bias. 

93. The first royal order empowered the Viceipy to make the expendi- 
tures required by these matters without the necessity of providing for 
same in a meeting of the Superior Treasury Commission, and to proceed 
at his discretion with the due caution to which my predecessor had re- 
ferred in his letter, number 745, of January 12, 1789. 

94. The same royal order contained the notification that the captain 
of the first -class, don Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Cuadra had been 
appointed commander of the department of San Bias and of his 
proximate arrival at these kingdoms with six other officers of the royal 
navy and four surgeons ; that it had been decided to build the neces- 
sary vessels in Realejo ; that orders had been issued for forwarding a 
sufficient number of guns from Peru ; and, finally, this order contained 
the complsint (reconvencion) whicih His Majesty had lodged with Rus- 
sia, stating therein in general terms that the subjects of that power 
should not found establishments on our northern coasts of the Califor- 

95. The second royal order, of January 26, 1790, referred exclusively 
to the matter of the restitution of the English vessels ; commanded the 
mointenanee of the port of Nutka, the arrangement of the department 
of San Bias, and informed about the complaints laid before the Court of 
St James by our ambassador, the Marquis del Campo. 

Government of the Present Vieero-y» the Count of 
RoTilla Gigedo. 

96. After I had taken possession, on October 18, 1789, of the com- 
mand of these dominions, I received and informed myself of all the 
sovereign decisions of His Majesty ; and so as to be able to comply fully 
with thinn, I applied myself to those matters requiring prompt atten- 

Steps Taken by Him to Occnpy Agfain the Port ot 
Nntka which had been Abandoned. 

9T« Tht most importaiit point was to secure our establishment at Nutka, 
sad ss I was aware that den Bstevin Tos^ Mortines had peremptory 
ofdets from my predeccosor to aboadon the port and return to San Bios, 
I provided for the immediate fitting out of three vessels to relievs those 
in chaxvs of Mifftines ; but this officer returned ahead of time, ondior^ 
ing in San Bios on the following 0th of December. (32.) 

96. In my letter. No. 194, of December 27, I communicated this 
bad news, and enclosed the captain's diary, which contained nothing 
new or of special interest In another letter of mine, No. 195, under 
the same date, I reported upon the executive action taken by me for the 
purpose of occupy mg again promptly the abandoned port of Nutka. 

82. Martinez having dismantled the fortifications and made a present of the build- 
ingt to Macnina. tajrs or chief of the Indians, left Nutka Oct. 81. Before retiring from 
that port, he had reported to the vicerpr, that the pilot Narvaex had again discovered 
the straits of Pnca, the existence whoreor had nntil then been denied by the navigators 
of those coasts. 

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Sailing: of the Bxpedition by Order of Bevilla Giiredo. 

99. In fact on the 3d day of Febrnary, 1790» the frigate "Concepdon", 
the dispatch boat "San Carlos" and the bilander ''Pnncesa Real** sailed 
from San Bias, under the command of the lieutenant of the first-class 
(teniente de navio), don Francisco Eliza, and arrived at their destina- 
tion April 4 following. (33.) 

100. These three vessels, well manned, and reinforced with the first 
c<Mnpany of volunteers, left provided with artillery, arms, ammunition, 
war material, medicines and provisions for one year. 

101 . The commander, Bliza, carried with him the corresponding in- 
structions for fortifying the port, and for constructing unpretentious 
buildings required for storehouses, quarters and arsenal. 

102. He was ordered to procure the friendship of the Indians by 
treating them with discretion, love and prudence ; to defend our estab- 
lishments against the aggressions of these natives or the vassals of what- 
soever foreign power ; not to insist on registering too scrupulously for- 
eign vessels, neither to annoy nor make them prisoners ; also not to in- 
sist upon disloging (without previous and peremptory orders of EQs 
Majesty) the Russians from their existing establishments, and finally, 
his special attention was called to detailing, at the proper time, the ves- 
sels of his expedition for minutely reconnoitering the coasts, islands and 
harbors up to 60^ latitude, as also Cook river and Juan de Fuca straits. 

103. In accordance with these orders, the port of Nutka was fortified; 
a suitable town, as comfortable and pleasant as possible, was built ; the 

food will of the Indians was obtained through the medium of trade and 
arter, and by a few small presents ; and the explorations, as I will re- 
late in its proper place, were also carried out. 

104. Although several English and American vessels frequented the 
immediate coasts and harbors, some entering Nutka, nothing happened 
which might have occasioned troubles or difficulties, and the foreign 
ships always respected our new establishment, which was kept supplied 
with everything necessary by the other vessels from San Bias, which at 
the same time carried the required funds, merchandise and provisions 
to the "presidios'* and missions of the Californias. 

New Rules for San Bias. 

105. Not less urgent was the matter of reorganizing the department 
of San Bias ; first because such were the King's commands, and second 
because nothing useful could be accomplished with any degree of suc- 
cess, unless the department was placed on a footing enabling it to ren- 
der efficacious service, and therefore I issued my first orders for this 

106. Its commander, the captain of the first-class, don Juan Fran- 
cisco de la Bodega, and the six officers of the royal navy, appointed by 
His Majesty, had already taken charge of their offices. In Vera Cruz, the 
required number of officers, soldiers and sailors, who enlisted volun- 
tarily, had been gathered, and they were now on the road to the depots 
(depositos). In Guadalajara all necessary preparations were made for 
transferring the first company of volunteers to man the vessels, de- 
tailed for the occupation of Nutka. Now it was necessary to assign to 
all the salaries, pay, rations and reward which they should enjoy. 

107. The quota si>ecified in the rules, made for the sole object of 
carrying the necessary funds and supplies to the Californias, and which 
the Viceroy, Count de Galves, had ordered to be enforced, were now in- 
adequate. It became indispensable and just to augment these quotas 
owing to the rank of the officers, the increase of their work and ex- 
penses in a dear and unhealthy country. 

33. The other two oflBicers in command were, don Salvador Pidalgo of the "San 
Carlos" and don Matiuel Quimpetof the "Princesa Real." 


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Under a despotism, it is treason to think, 
treason is not to think. 

Under a republic the worst 

To some it means 

To some people patriotism means love of countr7. 
blind obedience to the politicians. 

The National Bducational Association is welcome to California. Here 
is a country in which even the most hardened teacher should be able to 
learn something. 

A good many well-meaning citizens make the mistake of lest 
thinking that the government of this country is the politi- we 

cians — a blunder which the politicians do their best to en- forqet. 

courage. If everyone would remember the fact that in the United 
States we are the government, there would be no more of this curdled 
imbecility of its being '* treason *' for the people to dare meddle with 
the Office Holders. 

Doubtless it is unavailing to talk of skies to them that never the land 
saw any, or ( what is much the same thing) to describe the of the 

California heavens to such as know only the second-hand tin sky 

firmament of the humid East. But it is just as well to jog those be- 
nighted souls now and then, lest they forg^et how they have swindled 
themselves. For the ** Far West" (how quaint that timid provincialism 
sounds, now, to us who have graduated from the Remoteness I) is the Land 
of the Sky. Not the malarial Middle West, girthed by the quinine belt. 
But from where the lands of Uncle Sam be^n to slope toward heaven 
(not in scattered warts of peaks but in contmental uplift) ; from where 
earth and air alike begin to wring out their muddy garments and put on 
the dry, sweet robes of altitude — from there on to where they stoop at 
last to meet an unreeking sea, and linger there, undrenched and unde- 
filed and dry, why that is the sky coun&y. 

We cannot wholly expect the Far Bast, cuddled unetiessingly under 
its junkshop welkin, to study the reasons of this our a^antage. It can 
be learned in science why a sky sweating over the wash-boiler of the Gulf- 
Stream, water-logged and smoke-logged, pricked with some sample 
stars and haunted by a sun to which it acts as burning-glass — why such 
a sky is different from a clean dry one ; but study is work. There are 
doubtless some Easterners who have made the empiric discovery that 
the kitchen on clothes-boiling day is not so amiable as a dry-heated 
room. But it is also an effort to carry this logic along to a bigger case. 
So the simplest way is to come and see. 

The arid skies are the skies to live under — ^for many and all reasons. 
They are more inspiring, more uplifting, more sane, more healthful. 
They are the heart of a climate as much nobler and tenderer than that 
of the humid skies as an angel is above a sandbagger. They fill our 
eves with gloiy and our lungs with power. They mature flowers beyond 
the wildest deurinm of the East, and turn the multiplication-table loose 
among the stars. They double the reach of the eye and give it ten times 
as much that is worth seeing. They kindle to the rising and the setting 

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mm ; snd b etween times bask in his ny tempered by its very directn e ss 
for there is no focusing glass in the air. They are no "canopy," bat a 
sapphire space that one can call '* The Heavens*' withont conscientioas 

Under such stellar spaces we all ought to be saints. And doubtless we 
would be — but alas! California cannot digest the men of humid skies 
quite so fast as she has to swallow them. 

HYPHENS A great deal of neurotic nonsense is being printed in abuse of 

AND " German 'Americans'' and other "hyphenated citizens.** Now 

HYSTERICS, a hyphen is of just about the right calibre to scare a peanut 
mind. '* German- American *' is simply a handy way of saying "An 
American of German origin.** The newspapers made the term, and 
are mostly responsible for its abuse. It has been abused — but it was 
nevermore insolent or more un-American a phrase than our usual'* Anglo- 
Saxon ** which, as used, would indicate that all Americans who amount 
to a whoop derive from England, and that no one else has any business 
here. Only a clotted mind would wish any American to be ashamed of 
his birthplace or deny his mother. Every true American prefers this 
country to all others, no matter where he was bom. A man shall leave 
his father and his mother and cleave unto his wife. But it does not 
follow that he shall spit upon his mother or let any vagabond do so. 
No bad son was ever yet a good husband. 

A LARQc The University of California is in order of promotion and con. 

HEAD ON gratulation. It has just clapped upon its broad (but long un. 

WIDE SHOULDERS, sequeled) shoulders a head as is a head. The which is Ben 
jamin Ide wheeler, of Cornell ; not only a gentleman and a scholar* 
but an educator of national repute and a leader of men. There is 
reason to believe that he will succeed in giving the University — despite 
our politicians — ^the thing it most needs and has never had. In other 
words, that Berkeley is to have, as Stanford has, a first-class modem 
college president — ^which is a very different matter from the old type. 
California and President Wheeler can do one another good. We need 
him and we know it. He may not know that he needs California ; bat 
in a few years he will have learned. He may possibly not love all Cali- 
fornians ; but when the State which shines alike on the j ost and the 
unjust gets into his blood, he will have new ideas about the redness of 
life. Meantime he has back of him a huge student- body of good tissue, 
a sound corps of lieutenants, and the warm godspeed of every fit Cali- 

In the election for this presidency the only vote for a '* home man '* 
was for Prof. Wm. Carey Jones. It was a merited tribute to a quiet 
man who has long been a very latge part of the backbone of Berkeley. 

RRisiOENT The reason why we all love Teddy Roosevelt is that he is a 

TBDDYr man, not a graphophone cylinder. The reason that we can all 

respect him is that he is unconsciously better than he wishes 
the nation to be. He does not practice what he preaches, except collect- 
ivel>. He wants the nation to fight — and he fights with it and for it 
like a Greek demi-god. But as to seeking the "strenuous life*' and 
avoiding " base inaction ** for himself Teddy does not perambulate the 
streets in quest of a nose to pull. He does not swat people on the side- 
walk nor have a rough and tumble in the club. In a word, he is too 
much a man to fight as a personal affair. He doe8n*t need to. Teddy's 
eye is enough to keep the other fellow from wishing a muss. 

Well, so it is with nations — and Teddy will know so, seme day. 

Meantime, it grows more inevitable that he shall be a figure in the 
next presidential campaign. And the Lion hopes he will be. Unless 
as good an American and a little older comes forward, the Lien hopes 
Teddy may "get there.*' Not from admiration for his war notions; 

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but becftttse he seems the likeliest way for ns to get a president who 
knows his own mind and has a mind to know. 

The latest victim who didn't know it was loaded is the irre- looked 
pressible Prof. Harry Thnxston Peck, editor of the Bookman, down the 

In the June Cosmopolitan Prof. Peck looked into the muzzle wronq qun. 

of Charlotte Perkins Stetson's Woman and Economics^ and made faces, 
after the clever £ashion for which he is famous. In the July Cosmopoli- 
tan the gun went off; and it is a poor bush in the surrounding landscape 
which does not sport a scrap <^ Prof. Peck's ear or scalp. His article 
was bright, lordly, somewhat brutal, considerably illogical and rather 
''cocky." Mrs. Stetson's rejoinder is cool, rather contemptuous and 
generally crushing. Prof. Peck is not a sensitive man. He will not be 
tamed by this logical flaying. But he can never learn too soon that he 
doesn't carry club enough to meet the Stetson rapier. Whether or not 
one believes in *' Woman's Progress," only the unintellectual can fail 
to find tremendous mental stimulus in Mts. Stetson's startling insight 

Several officials who either did not tell the truth before or do unexpected 
not tell it now, assure us at last that Gen. Alger is the greatest, lackeys. 

noblest and most efficient Secretary of War tliis country ever 
had. Maybe. Maybe, also, confluent idiocy is upon the nation. The 
American people, regardless of party, believe that this man is neither 
honest nor competent. He was officially branded as a coward in our 
big war of 30 years ago. Now we look upon him as worse. But we 
may be in error. Carlyle, I believe, spoke of England as *'a nation of 
twenty million people — mostly fools." This may be a nation of seventy 
million people, all fools— except the cabinet and the gentlemen right 
under the plum-tree. 

Ninety per cent, of Funston's brilliant regiment wish to be more 
mustered out. Are these "dudes" or ^mugwumps" or of those 

"traitors?" The Lion would like to see the administration ''traitors." 

organ that dared call them so. Yet their choice, though within soldierly 
bounds, is the loudest, sharpest protest against the war. They are not 
failures as soldiers. They know that the amanuensis of the " Hand of 
God " wants them to stay in the field. But they " want out." Do you 
fancy for an instant that you could drag 90% of Funston's boys away, 
if they were fighting for the Union ? 

For yeais the best brains and conscience of the United States a blow 
have been working for Civil Service Reform — which means at qood 

nothing in the world but honest and business-like government. government. 

The opposition to it means nothing in the world but rascality and spoils. 
President Cleveland enormously extended the Civil Service. President 
McKinley was elected on a solemn pledge to take no steps backward in 
the cause of honest government. He has just broken that pledge by 
taking ten thousand positions away from the Civil Service and giving 
them to the spoilsmen. 

If any American administration ever did a childish thing, the 
it is this ^nseiship in the Philippines. In a little time now ostrich 

our volunteers will be at home ; and then all this government game. 

concealment of the truth will be brought to naught. The truth will 
become notorious — for our volunteers are American boys, not liars nor 
serfs. They know the truth, and will not be bullied out of telling it. 
And as Americans are not fools, they will be angrier than if the truth 
had been told in the first place. 

Imi>erialist papers would hardly be quoting the little Filipino as we 
Tory, Ramon Reyes Lala, as an authority on the Philip- might 

pines," if they had time to read. This young gentleman, who expect. 

wishes his country to lose its independence, has as little conscience in 

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literatore as patriotism in fact. His imperialistic book is a cold-blooded 
steal from John Foreman. That is, the brains and learning are borrowed 
from Foreman's weighty book ; the toryism is Lala's own. 

A VERY " Freedom of the Press " of course means only the freedom of some fellow 

gi, , Y to print a daily newspaper full of rapes, piize-fifirbts and charlatans. It 

does not entitle a scholar to print a sober Dook or pamphlet. 80, oews- 

THREAT. papers that would crack the welkin if warned to inint no more rarisb- 

ments, are gleeful over the suppression of Atkinson. Of course his little pamphlets 

are merely cold, dry statistics. They are not '* sensational,*' and they are true. What 

business has a man to print figures, in a republic ? And the Administration mumbles 

terrible but indefinite Uireats (which it dare not carry out) of its intention to fMinish 

other '* treasonable" Americans if they dare print facts, if the Administration could 

change all minds as easily as it changes its own, this would be not a democracy but a 


THE A flsM e e d poultice is useful on a boil, but a poor substitute lor brains. It 

ABUSE Of seems, however, to satisfy the needs of the people just now engaged in 

^_^ yelping *• Treason " at every American who stops to think. As everyone 

WORDS. knows whose head is lined with anything sounder than mush and milk, the 

Constitution of the United States precisely defines what treason is. It isn*t free 

thought or free speech ; and in this republic it never will be. It is not treason even 

when a newspaper— with a pocket for a conscience, a mustard plarter in place of a 

brain, and a party cellar for a moral code— blasphemes the memory of Washington 

and Lincoln. It is simply venal idiocy. 

People whose world is horizoned by their oneprovincial paper are Ukdiest to think 
that Imperialism is "the American policy." Those who read a liftle more broadly 
know better. Many of the ablest newspapers in the United States are against the *'ex- 
pansion "crsse ; and so are all the leading weeklies and monthlies. In fact, if you 
know the standing of a periodical, for brains, you know pretty wdl on which side of 
the fence you will find it. 

Itisafatjoke when"an old Boston crank's" mail is stopped. It is so funny that 
many of the unthinking fail to remember that the United States has never been used 
to seeing anyone s mail meddled with. Such things have been left to Prance, Russia 
and other lamentable countries of the spy-system. The trouble is that the next Ad- 
ministration might happen to think \hAtyou were a crank. 

As to "encouraging the Filipinos" will they be more likely to desire our "good gov- 
ernment" when th^ learn that we have just flung 10,000 Civil Service pearls befbre the 
Spoils swine ? President McKiuley should have thought twice. Atkinson never did 
anything half so likely to make a patriotic foreigner fight against being ruled by us. 

You have noticed, very likely, that the newspapers which today account it High 
Treason to deny, ever so respectfully, the infallibility of their Pope m Washington are 
the same newspapers which, when the United States had another president, daily 
blackguarded him, and still pursue him in private life with vulgar gibes. 

This is the first time in our history that the nation has ever waged war upon a coun- 
try against which Congress has not declared war. It may be necessary to inform those 
who never heard of the Constitution of the United States that Congress is the only 
power in this country that can legally declare war. 

It is particularly meet that the country's teachers should be holding their annual con- 
vention in this State. As some of them are aware, California taught the Union fully 
half the geography it knows— and a still larger share of its financial arithmetic. 

All initials and tailpieces used in this magazine are Califbmlan. A new and very at- 
tractive series, now beginning in these pages, is of California wildflowers ; and is 
drawn by Leonard Lester, whose work in this line has never been surpassed. 

There are men in the United States who would not fight if they were in the Filipinos' 
shoes. But luckily there are not many. Every American knows that, if he ever stops 
to think what he would do if England tried to civilize us. 

ALon Angeles court has just founds "sport" guilty of cruelty for chasing jackrab* 
bits with greyhounds for an admission fee. And our "rabbit drives" in the Philippines? 

O Liberty I How many Benevolent Assimilations are committed in thy name ! 

A man is known by the company he keeps. The Administration keeps Alger. 

' ' Destiny*' is the excuse of cowards. Brave men make their destiny. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 

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Perliapfl one reason why so many revtew- 
era of tiie day are so optimistic ts that tlicy 
do not read tbrough (if they tealiy read at all) 
jt^^*^' the books they '* review/* It is hard to conceive of any 
mind eo resilient that it could return instantly to lienevti- 
lence horn such a test. On the other hand, these critics who can so 
easUy acquit them of a duty probably know nothing of the keen com- 
fort their more slavish fellow finds in a sound book amid the weary 
wilderness. It is a very cheap critic who is afraid to find fault ; it is a 
very miserable one who likes to. 

Wha— ->Wha — what ? Is things what they seem, or is visions another 
about? Here for years we have gone hungry for a California California 

novel big enough to make a mouthful ; and of a sudden the novel. 

whole table falls on us, a comestible avalanche. In thirteen years there 
have not been as many California novels of serious consideration as al- 
reaJdy punctuate this year of grace and odd numbers — TA^ Procession 
of Life^ A Soul in Bronze — and now McTeague^ a Story of San Fran- 
Cisco, Evidently civilization is not a total failure, nor the Caucasian ir- 
remediably played out. For here are three books that California can and 
will add to its slim fiction shelf with pride. And the best of it is, per- 
haps, that all three are growth in the unforeseen. It would not be half 
so promising if Bret Harte got back a flash of his old fire. 

Precisely like Mr. Vachell and Miss DuBois, Mr. Prank Norris has 
emerged into open type before, and with credit. But precisely like them, 
again, he bursts upon us now with every quality of a surprise. All three 
have yxxX turned out their ma^rpieces — to date. There could be no 
sounder fulcrum for the hope that all three will astonish us again— and 
we shall not again be so easy. 

McTeague is a hideous story. It deals wholly with humans so unin- 
formed of humanity at their best, so sodden at their worst with the 
thing we flatter ourselves to call brutali^ (meaning something so base 
that no brute but man ever dreamed of it), as to be haunting. In the 
whole 450 pages there is not a rift in the sullen horizon. It is a depress- 
ing story to the humanist ; and as to California it is about as characteris- 
tic as any Peter Punk shop on Kearney street. 

But it is a story. *'McTeague," the giant quack dentist, **Trina" 
his sordid doll of a wife, '* Marcus Schouler'' the man whose brains as 
well as his heart are in his mouth — ^they are genuine characters. 
"Schouler" doubtless is more a caricature than a character ; yet at times 
he is the one thing needful. The ancient lovers are also a Dickensesque 
exaggeration, but a tolerable one. And the story as a story is literally 
strong. Above all, it is character drawing of a high order. A simple 
but consistent plot, a firm hand in its development, and generally ad- 
mirable restraint in the tragedy — ^these are part of Mr. Norris's endow- 
ment. Far less than either of the stories ranked with it, is McTeague 
of California. But quite as much as they, it is a human document, a fine 
and a powerful piece of work, an honor to its smith and a matter of 
pride to those of us who love literature, love California and respect 
honest craft. The Doubleday & McClure Co., N. Y. |1 .50. 

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AFTER Charles A. Keeler ooald afford to wait for jnstioe to his remark- 

MANY able book on 7^ Evolution of Colors in North American 

DAYS. Birds. At the time a veteran closet-naturalist named Allen 

abnsed his authority to discourage the young man who dared to think 

ahead of him. Now the highest authority m the United States points 

out that the CaHfomia stripung knew more in 1893 than the arm-chair 

Goliath knew then or has learned since. For it is Dr. Elliott Cones to 

' tiie rescue — a scientist who is also a man, and free from the mean little 

cowardices which mark too many library ezplorexB. He vindicates 

Keeler and leaves Dr. Allen in the pillory, after a fashion to delight 

every lover of truth and fair play, llie April Osprey (Washington) is 

the scene of this handsome and just adjudication. 

A BOOK A most extraordinary book, a book which will never be dropped 

AMOftQ out of the reckoning so long as its problem is a problem, an 

A THOUSAND. enduring meteor in Its sky, a flaming sword which wise ene- 
mies will shrink from (and now and then a wise friend be nicked with- 
al), is Charlotte Perkins Stetson's Women and Economics. Mrs. Stet- 
son has long been known for brilliancy almost beyond her kind ; as 
easily the satirist of her day; and as a strenuous crusader in several 
causes not yet popular. Her poems are sui generis — and a mighty good 

Senus, though against the established oider, we may sometimes fear, she 
oth protest too much. But this grave, deep, high-thinking and far- 
thinkmg book. Women and Economics^ is a revelation. Those who 
have sometimes wished that her brilliancy might be better coordinated, 
may dismiss their fears, in face •f this great work. The Nation — 
severest and most expert critic in America — justly rates it "the most 
significant utterance on the subject since Mill's Subjection of Women 
reached a class of thinkers never before touched by any views later than 
those of Noah." And there have been a good many people writing about 
it, since John Stuart Mill. 

Mrs. Stetson's argument is not unvaryingly sound. There are flaws — 
and some rather funny ones. But her mam and essential contention is 
as scientific as it is high-minded. It is a book which will be egr^ously 
abused by cheap space-writers and little sewing-circle people ; a book 
which every serious brain vfiHL value and respect, whether accepting its 
doctrine or not. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

FROM With Mrs. Stetson's book should be read Laura Marholm's 

ANOTHER studies in the Psychology of Woman^ which is also an unusual 

VIEW-POINT, and brilliant work, and from an absolutely different point of 
view. Prau Marholm's serious studies, translated by Georgia A. Btchi- 
son. are revised and edited by Grace EUery Channing ; and thus is the 
curious coincidence that the two most important books in a decade on 
« The Woman Question " come from members of the Sunshinb staff. 
The two works are properly mates — one misht almost say antidotes, for 
one another, the attraction of unlikes. The German woman has the 
German brain, the German evenness ; and her pages are not to be neg- 
lected by those who care to entertain thought. H. S. Stone and Co., 
Chicago. $1.50. 

THE Probably the handsomest, and certainly one of the very best 

ISLAND books on that inexhaustibly interesting land, is Mrs. Hugh 

EMPIRE. Fraser's Letters from fapan. Two sumptuous volumes, pro- 

fusely illustrated in an unconventional fashion, these are incidentally an 
ornament to any shelf. But the vital part is that their contents is good 
furniture for any mind. Mrs. Praser is a sister of P. Marion Crawford ; 
her literary gift has been proved by her successful novels ; she knows 
her ground far more intimately than most, and writes from an experi- 
ence of as many years as some authors have given months. As wife of 
the British Minister to Japan, she had every chance to know the country; 

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and above all she saw it throagh clear eyes. The highest value of this 
xenninely charming work is her human attitude to^rard the Japanese ; 
for without that attitude, without the appreciative comprehendon which 
it enables, even the greatest genius has never yet been eoxnpetent to arrive 
at the deepest scientific truth about anv countnr. Mrs. Fraser's is to be 
commended as almost a model among books of travel. The Macmillan 
Co.« N. Y. 2 vols. $7.5a Los Angeles, for sale by C. C. Parker. 

The industrious J. V. Brower has published privately, but coronado 
sumptuously, two larjze monographs on Quiinra and Hatahey and 

respectively, in identification of the localities sought and found quivira. 

by Coronado in 1541, at the end of his unprecedented exploration. 
Bandelier's exhaustive documentary and field research, following out and 
establishing Gen. Simpson's early inspiration, and accepted now by all 
serious scholars, settled the general lines of Coronado's march, and even, 
within close limits, its Eastern terminus. Mr. Brower has gone into 
tireless neighborhood exploration there, and in groups of ancient viUafi^e 
sites has identified, bevond reasonable doubt, the exact locus of the 
ancient "Kingdoms" of Quivira and Harahey. Lavish Ulustrations of 
sites and of the artifects found there, and a bibliographic list on Quivira, 
add much to the value of these volumes. The most scientific — and by 
far the best written — portion of the work is P. W. Hodge's elaborate 
historical sketch, in the second volume, of '*Coronado's March to 
Quivira." His identification of the Quiviras as Wichita Indians, and 
the Haraheys as Pawnees, dwelling in 1541 in the valley of the Kansas 
river, in the region about Manhattan and Junction City, seems complete. 
He also shrivels up P. S. Dellenbaugh (whose astonishingly ignorant 
and immodest " True Route of Coronado" was criticised in these pages 
some months affo) with something of that thoroughness with whioi he 
finished Prof. Libbey. 

Nine powerful stories, each a study as well, make up R. V. the 
Risley's uncommonly strong book, Men^s Tragedies. Told tragedy 

with insight and restraint, colored little with violence, but " man »' 

tinged deep in the greater tragedies that are played within the soul, 
these stories take a s&ong grip on the reader. Their interest is intrin- 
sic, not adventitious. ^*The Man Who Loved," **The Man Who 
Hated," *< The Man Who Pell," "The Man Who Sneered," and all the 
other men who were unhappy — ^they are, despite an occasional over- 
morbidness, full of stress and meaning. 

'* For the play was the tragedy ' Man,^ 
And its hero the conqueror Worm." 

The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1 .50. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

A sufficiently breathless number in the ' < Blue Cloth Books' ' is love 
Ann Devoore's Oliver Iverson. It is, in fine, a sort of glorified and 

dime novel. But we all like the motion of dime novels if they ogre. 

had some style. This has style as well as motion ; and for all its ** blug- 
l^ess" is a pleasant companion for an idle hour. H. S. Stone & Co., 
Chicago. 75 cents. 

Still another strong book by a Califomian. This time it is The human 
Taming of the Jungle, by Dr. C. W. Doyle, of Santa Cruz, stories of 

who recently won the Argonaut's short story competition—a india. 

new man, but, by this volume, a promising one. There is visible color- 
ing of Kipling in title and narrative ; but more of Dr. Doyle. The 
author lived a dozen years amons^ the jungle-folk of the Terai as many 
have done ; and learned somethmg, as most did not. His cumulative 
chapters— of which each is really a story, wherein Ram Deen grows 
taller and more vital and steps a little forward to his goal — are all good 
reading ; adventurous, human, and with a great desl of power in the 
telling. J. B. UppiucoU & Co., Phila. 

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A QOOD George Horton, who wrote a year or two ago a quiet and eati' 

MAN QONE mable story of life in Greece, seems to have changed his stand* 

QUNTERiNG. ards» and not for the better « A Fair Brigand y now from his 
hand, is much more exciting, but also much less sound. Mr. Horton 
knows his Greece apparently (he was our Consul at Athens) ; but in the 
desire to make a more popular book he has rather patterned after the 
cheap melodrama. His character-drawing, which would be effective 
with more restraint, is carried into sheer £arce ; the pedantic professor, 
the inflated consul, the newspaper Creelman, all are carried beyond Uie 
limits of reasonable judgment, and become burlesque. The plot is 
better done. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1 .25. 

A STRONQ Whatsoever reviewer knows his Mexico, picks up with great missirlng any 

DASH OF ^^^ story of Mexico ; for he has learned in sorrow that not oneln forty ot 

i/#«on ur VbKto. hss the faintest resemblance to truth. Yet that fascinating country is 

CHILE. ready to furnish forth a thousand splendid novds whenever our writers 
learn the common sense or conscience to get the straight of it. Joseph Gordon Don- 
nelly (who was our Consul General in Mexico some years ago) has prefMred a pungent 
surprise for us In his Jesus Delaney^ a novel as striking as its title. The hero hA a 
Mexican wUh an Irish father (his name of course is the Spanish Hay-sdse), and a fir- 
ing character he is. The story is framed with the Protestant missionaryins of Mexico 
—a field so suggestive that it is a wonder no erne has exploited it before— and with a plot 
astonishingly true to life in that queer world there runs a satire which will penetrate 
many skins. The book has faults, and is often willful, but is eminently readable ; and 
its sharp drawing of the "Consul I<eeches"and the "Rev.lAmbs" is remarkably 
truthful. The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $150. I^os Angeles, C C. Parker. 

CAMBRIDQe Old Cambridge is the first volume of a well-planned series of "National 

Al^n Studies in American Letters," edited by Prof. G. K. Woodberrv. It will at 

once occur to the elect that the man to write that book would be Thomas 
L£ >■ ERS. Wentworth Uigginson : and he is the very one who has done it The Cam- 
bridge of 50 years ago, and this siae, was one of the focal points of American literature 
when we really began to have such a thing. It was much more potent than any other 
town of its size in the country. Of its associations and influence, of Holmes. I«ong- 
fellow and I/>well and their cirde Mr. Higginson has made not only an entertaining 
but an illuminating book. The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1.25. 

MORE Fifteen short stories of the West, by P. W. Calkins, are bound up in an at- 

yycei-cpf^ tractive volume, opened and given name by " The Cougar Tamer/' Rang- 

ing from Arisona to Manitoba, of the average Youth' i Companion stature (or 
TALES. rather above it), pretty " steep " in places but generally well taken and 

told without affectation, the stories have, with scnne faults, a certain real westemness. 
Those of New Mexico and Arizona are least in verisimilitude. Mr. Calkins appears 
not to know that environment except by reading. The illustration is not satisfactory ; 
and the frontispiece is worse than misleading— as a glance at its corresponding story 
shows. H. 8. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.60. 

AT ElQHTY The Short-Ldne IVar, by Merwin- Webster (two young men collaborating) 

MILES ^ ^ "rattling good" railroad story— and a through train at that No 

reader will get off these cars while tney are in motion. The characteristic 
AN HOUR, methods of " absorbing" a railroad, in their crescendo of stock-scheming, 
pocket courts, armed gangs, train-wrecking and stealing the books, are drawn rapidly, 
sharply and from near the " inside." " Jim Weeks," the General Manager, is a good 
deal of^a character, as campaigner and as man ; and the love-story of his private secre- 
tary and the daughter of the enemy gives zest to the " war." The Macmillan Co., N. 
Y. $1.60. Los Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

AS WELL Kate Chopin, whose Bayou Folks made a favorable impression, is out with 

m^^c a longer, more ambitious story, The Awakening. It has the same rather 

flexible wrist and attentive eye, and its atmosphere is equaUy I«ouisianian. 
SLEPT. But it is not so healthful. The " Awakening" is of the animal in a Ken- 

tucky woman, n6e decent, married to a New Orleans Creole, and very cheaply kindled 
by almost any other male person. It does not seem wise to put skill tq the telling of 
this sort of story. The book is handsome— naturally, being published by its publish- 
ers. H S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

GOOD There are few more agreeable writers and few so excellent preachers as 

QQgpci Rev. Henry Van Dyke, of " the Brick Church," in New York city. His 

^^ , Gospel for a IVorldof Sin is an uncommon book of sane and fine theology, 

high thought and graphic expression. The Macmillan Co., N. Y. $1.25. Los 

Angeles, C. C. Parker. 

Charlotte Perkins Stetson's grim and powerful story. The Yellow IVall-Paper^ is 
issued in a very handsome little volume by Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. 50 cents. 

The Tenth Report of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, is- workmanlike and 

Chas. F. Lummis. 

Digitized by 







-- :^ 


Society hungers and thirsts after originality that it 
may have something to imitate. The cunning few 
who **set the fashions" know the value of Invention — and 
obscurity. The mob, rushing like sheep after some new 
abomination in dress or furnishing, would turn about as sheep- 
ishly if confronted by the real originator and his artless gpreed. 

To dress or to furnish one's house ** out of the fashion" to- 
day is expensive. Taste is not always accompanied by ability 
to invent or construct, nor does it always find time to hunt for 
specialists. The men and women in the shops are listless when 
you seek their aid, and tell you this, that and the other is ** all 
the rage.** The dress-makers, the tailors and the milliners 
whom you ask to clothe you show you countless pictures of 
other people, none of whom resemble you in the least, and 
studiously ignore so much of your personality as is not re- 
ducible to inches. 



The mechanic receives your instructions with skepti- 
cal incomprehension, and mentally resolves to save you 
from yourself by a rigid adherence to precedents. The man 
or woman who tries to have the simplest article made after his 
own design loses heart and patience, and if he is not a per- 
manent candidate for office will frankly acknowledge that 
American workmen are generally a stupid lot. 

In the scramble of the rich for expensiveness and the 
poor for cheapness, good taste has been trodden under 
foot. Our millionaires collect quantities of metal and jewels 
which must be kept in safe-deposit vaults, since they are most 
desired by burglars. Our poor squander their small substance 
on gilded imitations of the vulgar belongings of the rich, so 
that one may go from palace to cottage without respite from 
our national devotion to ugliness. Nor is this, as many think » 
a superficial matter. Taste lies at the root of thrift. It is the 
knowledge of, and the consequent love of good things. It is 
a large, if not the largest, factor of content. Artists are pro- 
verbially a happy people. Nowhere do we find so much mer- 





Digitized by 



riment on so little money as in Bohemia. An appreciation of 
beauty is a saf^^uard against squalor. 

A LONQER Xhe craftsman who stays at home and makes a good 

HERO. thing well may in the end do more for true national 

expansion than the hero who goes forth to make way for civil- 
ization by mowing down ** fluttered folk and wild." Popular 
energy need not seek an outlet abroad while so much work re- 
mains undone or ill done at home. There may be men every- 
where looking for work, but there is vastly more work looking 
for men. Work that was badly done last year at two dollars 
per day and must be repaired this year at the same price. 
Work that cannot hold conventions or pass resolutions or form 
unions ; inarticulate unorganized work which can only remain 
undone because there is no one to do it well. Not lack of work 
but inability to find it constitutes the real labor problem ; lack 
of invention, of adaptability, of insight and of conscience ; a 
lack, in short, of moral and mechanical good taste. Peering 
into the history of languishing industries one often comes feoe 
to face with facts which are entirely useless for campaign pur- 
poses and yet of national import. 

THE FINISHED Wc are told that machinery and division of labor have 

PRODUCT. destroyed personal responsibility and taken the con- 
science out of the crafts ; that no one man must answer for 
the finished product. But was not labor always divided ? Did 
not one man make a shoe and another a coat, and is not a good 
eyelet or a good buttonhole a finished product in the sight of 
conscience ? 

CHILDHOOD Xhe great enterprises of life all originate in daily 

AND MATURITY, jj^mau wants. Bridges are built, ships are sailed, 
wars are fought that you and I may have the food, clothing 
and shelter we most d^re. It is sometimes easier to subdue 
savages than to face the problems of every-day life. Bloodshed 
and destruction are easy and. primitive, and belong to the 
cruelty and crudity of national childhood. The ftiU-grown 
among the peoples of the earth will learn by-and-by to fight 
error with truth, and to extend civilization by advancing it. 
Bullets are not the seed from which grow the good things of 
life, however necessary they may be at times to protect the 
crop ; and ethics will ere long learn from science that blood- 
letting is not a sovereign remedy. 

Meanwhile, let him who honestly believes that a distasteful 
duty has been forced upon us as a nation, remember the sullen 
fealty that owes its origin to force, and write his belief in 
small type and modestly, knowing that the world will need no 
proof that ours is the **home of the brave** so long as we 
keep it the ''land of the free.** 

Bonth Pua4«n». 

Digitized by 






Pnnk A. GilMon. 
Henrr W. O'Melwny. 
Rev. J. Adam. 
Saniner P. Hant 
Arthur B Benton. 
Margvet Collier Ormh«B. 
Chai. F. Lummii. 

Pradda&t, ChM. F. Loaimis. 
Tle*-Pr«dd«it, Margaret CoUier Graluun. 
8«cr«Ury, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring SU 
TrMrarer, Frank A. OilMoo, Cashier lat Nal. Bank. 
Corraeponding tiecretary Mrs. M B. Stilaon. 

812 Kensington Road, Loe Angelea. 

BoBoaABT Lira Mbobbs : R. Igan, Tessa L. Kelso. 

Lw« MnoBBS : Jas. B Lankershim. J Downey Harvey, Edward B. Ayer, John F. Francis, Mrs. John F. 
Fran^, Mm Alfred Solano, Marvaret Collier Grahsm, MirsC^lIi^r. Andrew McNally. Rt Rev. Geo. «lontftomery. 
MiaaH F Wills, B. F. Porter, Prof Chas. C. Bragdon. Mrs. Jas. W Soott, Mrs Phiehe A. Hearst. Mrs. Annie D 
Apperson, Miss Agnes Lane. Mrs M. W. Kinesid. Ctl H. G Otis. H. Jevne. J R. Mewh^rry !)r W Jsrvis Barlow, 
Marion Brooks Barlow, Geo. W. Marston, Chas. L. Hntehinson. U. 8 Grant. Jr , Uabel M. R. Severance. 

_ ADVISORY BOARD: Jw*ie Benton Fremont, Col. B. G. Otis. R Egan, W C Patterson. Adeline 
■feMrns Wing, Q«>. H. Bonebrake. Tessa L. Kelso. Don Marcos Forster. Chas Caasat Davis, Miss M. F WUls, 
C. D. WUlard, John F. Francis Frank J. Policy Rev. Hugl' K. Walker, KImer Wachtel. MaJ. H. T. Lee. 
Bt. B«v. Joseph H Johnson. Bishop of Los Angeles. 
Chairman Membership Committee, Mrs. J. G. Mossin. 

The Landmarks Club, which is engaged in preserving the old Mis- 
sions and other historic^monuments of Southern California from decay, 
has begun work at San DiegOf the Mother Mission (founded 1769), and 
will prosecute it as long as the funds hold out. This should not be 
soon ; but it will be, unless former members of the Club are a little 
more thoughtful about paying up their annual dues. 

The Club is not a close corporation. Any man or woman, anywhere, 
who cares a dollar's worth for history and romance is welcome to mem- 
bership. The dues are $1 a year and there is no initiation fee. The 
money goes net to the preservation of the noblest antiquities in the 
United SUtes. 

The attempt to erect a monument to Olive Mann Isbell, the first 
American teacher in California, thus far seriously lags. It is not flatter- 
ing to the present school teachers of California that thus far not a sin- 
gle one of them has cared to contribute a dollar to do honor to their 
pioneer. It may be simply carelessness ; but it is not a creditable care- 
lessness. If among the thousands of Californiff teachers there aren*t 
enough with soul enough to put a memorial stone above the first and 
bravest of their tribe, why, California schools are in pretty poor hands. 

The general work of the Club is progressing steadily if slowly. Con- 
tributions already acknowledged in these pages amount to |3661.96. 
Mrs. Frederick Fogg, St. Paul, Minn., has since contributed $10. New 
contributions of $1 each have been received from Dr. T. Mitchell 
Prndden, College Physicians and Surgeons, New York ; Miss C. M. Sey- 
mour, Miss J. D. Gibbs, Los Angeles ; Miss Anna Park Barstow, San 
Rafael, Cal. $5 from Mrs. J. £. Meeker, Miss A. L. Meeker and Miss J. 
A. Meeker, Pasadena. 

Digitized by 




Ik Ik 




L. A. Bng Co. 


Photo, by MaroMu. 

Digitized by 












Digitized by 


Digitized by 


L. A. Inff. Co. Photo, by WMtorrelt. 


Digitized by 



MB ^E 11® VE 


(Founded June 18, 1798. Had in its prime 2809 Indian neopliytea.) 

Digitized by 


C. M. n«viii KuK. Co. 




Digitized by 


C. li. DaTis Eng. Co 

WINTER IN THE OJAI. Photo, by Mr •. Ajn*. D. Brown. 

(RMidence F J Q»aahl, Lou Anfeldt.) 

Digitized by 


California Homes, 


5 90 
3 < 

S. H 

Digitized by 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 














Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The State Normal School at Los 



^ROBABLY but few of our citizens fully appreciate the growth 
and the importance of this institution, situated among us, 
and quietly working out to the best of its ability the great 
problems of education — the problems which lie at the very foundation 
of our civilization. Organized in 1882. with a corps of three teachers 
and about fifty pupils, it has grown into a school in which the annual 
enrollment is about six hundred students under the instruction of a 
faculty of twenty-five teachers. During the seventeen years of its 
history, upward of a thousand graduates have gone out from its walls, 
nearly all of whom are actively engaged in the school-room, diffusing 
the influence of the school, and causing the principles for which the 
institution stands to be felt in thousands of homes in the land. 

Situated in the very heart of the city and upon a commanding site, 
it combines all the elements of business convenience without noise 
and bustle ; the advantages of quiet and privacy without the usual ac- 
companiment of distance and seclusion. 

Its elevation, crowned as it is with a noble pile of masonry, makes it 
an object of distinguished beauty and attractiveness from many parts 
of the city, while, at the same time, it affords to those whose duties re- 
quire their attendance there a series of views of the city which are of 
surpassing loveliness. 

It will never be known to what extent these scenes of perpetual 
beauty have contributed to the unfolding of the recognition of that 
kinship of the soul with all that is beautiful in art and nature, which 
is so essential to the character of the true teacher. All that is best and 
purest in the heart of man seems to be stirred and energized on looking 
out upon the broad vista of streets and houses and plains and mount- 
ains and ocean, as viewed from almost any standpoint in or about the 
building. While not too much elevated for ready and easy approach, 
it is sufficiently so to afford, in every direction but the north, views 
limited only by the horizon, and to catch the full benefit of the sea- 
breeze in its gentle and inspiring sweep from the ocean to the mount- 

But, as charming as are the material surroundings of the Normal 
School, that which is of far greatest import, the work it is doing and 
the ideals for which it stands, is none the less pleasing to contemplate. 

Prom the beginning, the work and management of the school have 
beeu characterized by a decree of harmony, energy, and foresight quite 
remarkable in an institution of such proportions and embodying so 
many diversified elements. 

The growth of the institution was steady and marked from the be- 
ginning, and in 1893 the Legislature made liberal provision for its en- 
largement, to meet the rapidly increasing demands. At the same time 
a change of headship went into effect ; Prof. Ira More, who was identi- 
fied with the earlier history and policy of the school, giving place to 
Prof. Edward T. Pierce, late of the State Normal School at Chico, Cal. 

This change of administration, however, was not accompanied by 
any change in the teaching force, except by way of increase, made 
necessary by the greatly enlarged structure and the addition of fully- 
equipped departments of work, some of which had been carried on 
under embarassing limitations and others added outright. 

Among these may be mentioned greatly increased facilities for the 
study of chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, drawing and geography, 
and the organization of the departments of pedagogy, sloyd, and the 
kindergarten. The changes and expansions at once placed the institu- 

Digitized by 






3 o 


Op (/} 

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Digitized by 



tion in the first rank among the normal schools of the nation, and 
caused its reputation to spread far and wide. During the five years that 
have passed since the occupancy of the enlarged building there has been 
no cessation to the growth and strengthening of the school in each and 
all of its departments of work, and at the same time an eye has been 
had to the material aspect of the grounds which has resulted in making 
of them a model of beauty and convenience. 

In all these changes a careful regard has been had to both the mental 
and physical well-being of the students, contributing as far as possible 
to the simultaneous and uniform development of mind and body, and 
under circumstances calculated to quicken and strengthen the esthetic 
nature as well. 

The library has kept pace with the growing needs of the school and 
has become a most potent factor in its work. Notwithstanding all this 
development, however, another period of marked change and progress 
is in the near future. 

At its last session the Legislature again responded to the demands for 
a more complete education, and made provision for such an increase of 
space as will permit of the organization of a department of domestic 
science and greatly increased facilities for work in art. 

Through the thoughtful regard of Gov. Gage for the welfare of the 
State's treasury, this appropriation does not become available until 
January 1st, 1900, when the treasury will have been strengthened by the 
payment of the fall taxes, and, for this reason, the contemplated im- 
provements cannot be executed until next year. The changes will con- 
sist chiefly in the removal of the gymnasium some fifty feet farther 
away from the main building, its elevation to a level with the second 
floor, with which it will be connected by a covered way, enclosed with 
movable windows, and the construction of two floors beneath the 
gymnasium floor, one of which will be devoted to an enlargement of 
the art department, including sloyd, and to the department of domestic 
science, then to be newly organized, while the other floor will be fitted 
up for the work of the training school. An increased capacity for 
training school work has been made necessary by the change in policy, 
touching the requirements of the senior class in this department. 
Thereafter students, instead of beiiSg required to teach for a period every 
day in various classes, will be put in charge of a class of some 
grade, and be held responsible for the entire management and instruc- 
tion for a given number of weeks, thus securing for the student teacher 
all the. varied experience that can arise in his work when in charge of a 
school of his own. 

In connection with the proposed department of domestic science, 
where cooking, sewing and other housework will be taught, it is ex- 
pected that a large and comfortable lunch-room can be maintained for 
the accommodation of both teachers and students, thus supplying a 
long- felt want, and at the same time affording useful exercise to classes 
along the line of their study. 

When these changes and additions shall have been realized, it may 
confidently be stated that Los Angeles is the seat of a normal school 
which for completeness of course and thoroughness of execution, is the 
peer of any on the American continent. 

Digitized by 


Wbes ft^nswcHng advertisetnctiu, plessc tnentioii that you "mw it tn lb« LAnn op St7i«SHmBJ 






^ ""'■'^ 


^^ '^ 



Arlington Hotel and Annex 

^rpctual Mfty Cltm«te 

Bathing Every Day 

Jl «!■ J» 



A Camp Convenient to Los Angeles People.... 

Bnok of Sieri-u Mnclrr!, I"]»mt ^^f 31 1. Wils 

> I. ^ 

.1 s-g 


^ "E 'C 4J 

i o SI « 
H ^ -S *^ 

CJ tf S5 

^"•— -tGflMP STURTEVflNT 

The most beautiful cbdou iti the Siena Matlre ; shaded by iiiimense evergreens, 
watered by a motintaiu stream of cold water. A village of teats, scattered tiniong 
the trees, not crowded together, each an ideal summer home. A Ditiiiifi Room 
under the big oaks, where good fare meets a inountaia appetite. A well stocked 
Grocery. Trails upon the mountains and games at the Camp. 

THE TKIF TO THK CAMP is one of thcdtlighUnI features, mude witb burros, over a good 
timil, pre=;enting the traveler with scenery atid {nipresaioD<» which cau be experieuceiJi in no othtr way. 

A ROUND TKIP ON TWO TKAILS maybe made vva Mt. >*i]so» and the old Wilson trail, 
ladinjE by Echo Rock. Kcho Kock is the only accessible point io the county Irom which bolh the 
northern ranges aad the San Gabiiel valley cau be obttiined. 

RATB8 : Hotel accommodation a |7.1H) and |8.<X] per week, JJ.25 per day. Tent and out^t for two 
ptT«ana for camping, |K> W per month. For circular and further information, address 

W* M. STIJRTKVANT, Proprietor. 
Or BRADBUKT CILLY, MauiiK«r« 91«»rr» IHadre, €al. 

Cftiup StiirtevAnt, Bferr» Btadre, Cal. 

Undertrear Im a Specialty' at 


Wlicti imiiweriiig advertisements, pl«m*e xnczitiaii^that yoti " nw it ta tlie Uamg op BoNSHutB." 


HOULD you visit San Diego, yon 
will have missed one-half your 
life if you fail to take a trip to 
La JoUa,, the seventh wonder, with iti 
icven mammoth caves. *'La Jolla, the 
Gem/' is fittingly named. Nowhere oa 
the Pacific Coast can be found the varied 
uaLnral scenery which is bad here. The 
seven famous caves, hollowed out by the 
action of the mighty waves, in the liuge 
cliSSi over one hundred feet high and 
jutting into the ocean, can be explored 
at low tide. There are also other weird 
and fantastic freaks of nature formed along the rocky shore, which must t>e seen to 
be appreciated, such as Cathedral Rock, Alligator Head, Goldfish Point, etc. Fish- 
ing and bathing here are unsurpassed. Shells and sea-mosses, tinted with rainbow 
colors, are found here in great abundance. Every hour spent, when not fishing, 
boating or bathing, or viewing nature's marvelous work, can be enjoyed in various 
ways. Lajolla is situated 14 miles from San Diego, on the ocean, and is reached 
only by the San Diego, Pacific Beach and La Jolla Ry. 
Three mail trains each way daily. 

For further infortnation apply to GRAHAM E. BABCOCK, 
San Diego, CaL President and General Manager. 

HAWLCV, KING & CO. £:;, Carriages and Bicycles 

We r|Tiote you ^^:(lO.<|itJ ftn tlilH II ii** t*liitt«i[uii. 














Carriage Repository, cor, Broadway and Fifth St. 

Wiiolesale and Tarm Impiement Store^ 164-168 N. Los Angeles Street 

F. B. Silv^^ood makes & specialty of gbirte'^&Fafl^lan^9.8 



Vol. XI, No. 3 




■OS pAisrs oa50L dhatan l Mm" 








A^oriATc twrvt 

CQPy^iCHTCD iSgS ev L*moof SunSHUNt Pua CO 








Whcfi moflwenng adTeitliieniexils, pl«afte mention Ihal you " mw it in the Lawp of SunftBlKS.' 



Our Ck^M Medal Wines commeod themselves to those who 
require and appreciate Pure, Old Vintages. We are producers 
in every sense of the word, owning large Vineyards, Wineries 
and Distilleries, located in the San Gabriel Valley, For 
strength-giving qualities our wines have no equal. We SELL 


SPECIAL OFFER • We will deliver to any R.R. station in the 
United States, freight free: 

2 eases Fine Assorted California Wines, XXX. for $9 00 

Including one bottle 1888 Brandy. 
2 cases Assorted California Wines, XXXX, for (11. 00 

Including 2 bottles 1888 Brandy and ! bottle Cbampagne. 


Tel. M, 332 220 W. FOURTH ST. Loa Angeles, Cal. 


Metal Beds.^ 

As shuwo by us combine all thi: pointii of 
utiKly aud beauty with compjirativc cheap- 
ncsi So with evcrv artTcte in Ihe store 
InlHasIc worth considered tlitr<? it no fnroi 
lure in the city f^o cheap us ours. No ' trade 
triclcH *' are iillowed to cover inrerior matcnnl 
or workraanship. There is nafctv aad PstlH^ 
ractioni Id. supplyfQK your furaitur* netds 
here. Our new booklet "American Home 
FuTnUhings " free. 

Kites Pease Furniture Co. 

439-41-43 South Spring SI. LOS ANGEUS 

Matilija Hot Springs 

=pnLLKY & BUKI>iCK. Proprietors 

These justly celebrated SHlMUur-Mlneral !i|)rin|r« arc the nearest 
and easiest reached Sprins^ \n the Ojai Valley, IS iTulea from Venturft 
and IJi miles from NordhofT, the lennmus of tSie ojai Valley Railroad. 
IIIMJ feet above sea level- Kor a thrauBh tiip to the i^pniiff-s from Lo» 
Anjjeles lake the 4^^ p.m. Southern Pacific SantE Baibara train, arriving 
at NordhofT 8:1 'i p. m, whtre the MHtiJija Stage meelsthc Irain. 

Hunters for Deer-^=— ^-= 

And other frame, in the *' Upper Ojai/' ehonld make their head- 
quarters at thesie sprinsfA. Post Office, Public Telephone, Supply Store. 
Diniug RooQ] Flucge Bath, etc, etc. 
RAlea B««aoii utile* Address, 

Seejuly Lakoof Sunbhi^b. MatllfjH, V^^ntorw Co , Cnl. 

Reliable help promptly rumlslied. nanimel Bros, i Col Tet. Main 509 

Digitized by 


C. M. D«rli Eng Co. 


Photo, by C. P. Lummis. 

Digitized by 



Vol. 11, No. 3 


AUGUST, 1899. 

My Brother s Keeper. 


"HE meeting in Los Angeles, in July, of a 
national convention of our Indian educat- 
ors and managers gave the Frontier a chance 
to **size up" just what is doing now in 
a policy which concerns all of us more, per- 
haps, than we ordinarily realize. The In- 
dian, poor devil, will presently die off. His 
obliteration, somewhat gruffly begun by the 
border ruffian, is now much more spiritedly (though less courag- 
eously and less frankly) carried on by those who make their 
living by philanthropy. But we shall remain — and our child- 
ren's children will have to live by the record we make. 

It is entirely true that our long-infamous Indian Service is 
grown cleaner. There are fewer thievish agents, fewer vile 
school-principals, fewer tangible scoundrels and visible ignoram- 
uses. The moral sense of the United States has begun to lake 
account of these things, and has greatly bettered them. But 
its task is only begun. As much injustice is done the Indian 
as ever ; but now under the name and fetish of civilization. The 
First Americans, upon whose stolen lands we live, have been 
taken out of the hands of the ward-heelers and given into 
those of theorists and ignorant system -makers. And not to 
their gain. 

The most protuberant feature of the recent convention was 
its absolute innocence of scientific knowledge. There was no- 
where in it (save by Supervisor Wright's short paper) any 
recognition of the fact that scholars have at last made it possible 
lor even politicians and Indian Commissioners to understand the 
Indian — if they care to. Certainly wisdom is not useless even in 
statecraft. Yet 300 of the people whose livelihood it is to * *teach ' ' 
the Indian (and who are incidentally deciding our attitude to- 
ward this and other **weak races") sat here for a week in sol- 

Coprright 18M by Lxnd of Sunthine Poh. Co. 

Digitized by 



emn conclave, as naked of all that scholars know and prize — 
scholars in London, Paris, Berlin, even Washington — as if 
Humboldt, or Lewis H. Morgan, or Bandelier, or Matthews 
and all that immortal school had never lived. Yet it takes no 
great mind to realize that no man can understand a people by 
sedulously avoiding all knowledge about them. The history, 
the social organization and therefore the needs of the Indian — 
all these are (so far as the convention showed) a sealed book 
to our Indian-educators. 

No less notable in the atmosphere of the convention was the 
superb vacancy of humor in some of its larger dignitaries. A 
very nice and very high oflScial of good head and heart, who 
never read any book standard to his profession, in any lan- 
guage ; who knows no more of the literature or history of the 
subject than he does of the Maya pictoglyphs ; who never 
saw an Indian except — dozied — who never talked with an In- 
dian except as a patronizing ''boss,'' who does not even know 
enough natural history to be aware that maternal love was in- 
vented by Nature to preserve the race, but actually thinks and 
declares a human being cannot love his mother well until he 
has been to school — this handsome and reverend gentleman 
solemnly rose and said he thought ** More study and experi- 
ence would change the opinions' * of men who have already 
studied more of his own ignored specialty than he ever studied 
of everything together ; who are masters of thousands of 
books (without knowing the chief of which, at least, no man 
can pretend to know much about Indians), not one of which 
books this unconscious humorist ever read, nor could read if 
he tried. And not books alone (though the man is a fool who 
thinks to get along without them) ; but in actual human ex- 
perience with Indians, as students and as men, these whom 
the amiable Secretary of the Indian Commission thus patron- 
ized have had more, a thousand fold, than he ever had or has 
the physical or moral courage to get. For it costs something 
to acquire a real education ; whereas to draw a large salary 
for knowing very little is easy — to a certain conscience. 

The attitude of the convention was as far from humanity as 
from scholarship and humor. By convention be it understood 
that I mean no slur on the bulk of the delegates. They were 
largely women ; and with the one notable exception of an un- 
balanced though well-meaning person, who has been for years 
a firebrand to the Indians and the service alike in New Mex- 
ico, they are mostly honorable, Godfearing, hardworking 
women ; not scientists, certainly, but humane and womanly. 
There were some manly men, too. And these people do not 
think with the machine. Scores of them have told me their 
shame and grief at the way things are going ; but they say, 
when asked why they do not protest, ** For what ? We have 

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CM Daris be. Co. 


Copyright by C. F. Lummis. 

found it does no good." Not only does it do no good, but they 
are punished in the indirect and cowardly ways a political 
system has at hand. 

The convention had 315 delegates ; but the convention was 
really Major Pratt, of the Carlisle (Pa.) Indian school — a man 
of brains ; a man, I believe, of the strictest integrity, a man I 
admire for his tremendous force. It ^akes a Man to be in his 
proper person a National Convention. If Major Pratt were 
not one of the most undilute materialists ever bom in civiliza- 
tion, if he were not a soldier to whom these quarter of a mil- 
lion human beings are merely an awkward squad and he the 

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recruiting sergeant to lick them into shape, I know no man in 
the United States to whom I would more confidently entrust 
the adjustment of our relations with the ** inferior race." For 
he is a monumental organizer, a just man, a manly man. 
Only, he has known (boiled) Indians for thirty years, and has 
not yet learned that the Indian has a soul ; that he loves his 
parents and his children, and even the birthplace that we have 
stolen from him. This, which is literally true, and which I 
am prepared to prove before any audience, is as structural a 
thing as need be said, and as harsh a thing as should be said 
of a most gallant man. He is as little to blame for being bom 
rather short on sentiment, as the Indian is to be blamed for 

C. M. Dnvia Bng. Co. 


Photo, by C. P. Lanimi*. 

being almost as slow of civilization as we ourselves were. 
Major Pratt believes he is trying to make the Indians citizens 
of the United States ; as a matter of fact he is trying to make 
them soldiers. 

For years our heartless ** philanthropy*' has been taking In- 
dian children from home, ** educating" them impossibly — 
and then turning them adrift. This was cruel enough, but 
worse follows. The core of the '* system" now (mostly Major 
Pratt's organizing) is to take the Indian from home as young 
as possible, "educate** him, and turn him loose in the popu- 
lation — as many thousand miles from home as possible, and 

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never let him go home again. The confessed theory is that he 
has no right to have a father and mother, and they no right 
to him ; that their affection is not worth as much to him as 
the chance to be a servant to some Pennsylvania farmer or 
blacksmith, and generally at half wages. 

Now only a professional fool — or an Indian educator — is 
unaware that even an Indian child has a home ; that God was 
able to invent mother-love without waiting for any help from 
the present United States Indian Commission, and did it, hasty 


CM. DaTis Bn(. Co 

CopyrUht ky C. F. Luum 


as His action may seem ; that all humanity rests on the family 
and that nothing can compensate for the wreck of it. 

Only a man totally ignorant of all that has been done by 
scholars even in his own lifetime — or a man to whom the In- 
dian is a livelihood and the salary sufl&cient substitute for an 
education — can so blind himself as to blink the cruelty (and, 
unless all justice is a lie, the folly) of such a policy as is now 
proposed. It makes small difference to the Indian whether he 

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be killed off in the name of education or in the name of war — 
except that the latter is manlier and more merciful. The pres- 
ent project means nothing else — though really good people and 
people not altogether fools delude themselves to believe in it. 
The whole new plan is — as every man who is a scholar either 
in the books or the field knows — either heartless or childish. 
I do not believe it knowingly heartless. It means well. It is 
simply unread and unhorizoned as a ten-year-old. Ignorant 
of history and of anthropology, it insists that the Indian shall 
civilize as much in twenty years as our own Saxon or Teuton an- 
cestors did in five hundred. It means well — and tries to do what 
even the primary scholar in evolution or anthropology knows to 
be sheer impossible ; breaking thousands of homes and ruining 
thousands of lives in its freshman experiments. It expects to 


subvert the law of gravitation — in a word it thinks it is smarter 
than God. It is ignorant not only of science, history and 
humanity ; it does not even know what the Indian is, what he 
was, how he has changed and can be changed more ; what he 
needs and how it can be given him. It is a mere philanthropic 
Procrustes ; if the guest is too long for the bed, cut his legs off ; 
if too short, rack him out till he fills from bead to foot-board. 
If he does not jump readily from the time of Abraham to the 
time of Edison, take an axe to his fool skull. Not a real axe, 
which might get bloody and turn our refined stomachs. Just 
rob him of his children. 

Now no man — and no woman — is fit to be a teacher, or a 
superintendent or a system maker, who doesn't know yet that 
the pupil is human ; that every human thing is bom of woman 

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and loves her and is loved by her ; was gotten by a man, and 
is by him more or less valued ; and that until they shall become 
criminals (and it is not yet criminal to have been owners of the 
land we have robbed) begetter and begotten, conceiver and 
conceived, have some sacred human rights the one in the other 
— rights even as big in the sight of God and honest men as the 
right of some fellow to draw a fat salary in a profession he 
never earned by study. And any system of ** Indian educa- 
tion ** which is founded on breaking up the family is accurst. 
That is the system our block -builders now design to give us. 

This is not a simplex question. It is no pleasure to any 
honest man to say harsh things of other honest men. I 
would not lift my voice if I were afraid to stand before any 
audience face to face with those criticised, and prove that I 
have studied the Indian more honestly and more tully than all 
his Washington oppressors put together, in books and in fact ; 
that 1 know him better, and know better what better men had 
done for him before the first traceable ancestors of his present 
self-deceived foes were born, than all the systematic Procrustes. 
This will not sound vain to any one who has ever studied the 
subject at all. One need not have read many old books nor 
have lived long on the human side of Indians, to know more 
than any of the salaried gentlemen who live by the Indians. 
Without consulting a single one of them, I am willing to leave 
the question to any man of national or international reputation 
in these lines. The sober, enormous truth is that our present 
Indian service is a political machine. There is not one scholar 
remotely connected with it, nor, so far as I know, in remote 
sympathy with it. The only men who do sympathize with it 
are the border tough and the Service ofl5ceholder. 

I intend to say much more about this matter. It concerns 
all the nation I love, particularly the West. And I will say 
not only no word that is not true, but no word I am not ready 
to prove anywhere. I ask nothing better than the chance to 
prove, before their own audiences, that these whom I accuse 
never did and never can talk to an unspoiled Indian, nor with 
any Indian till he has learned what they are too lazy to learn ; 
that they are as ignorant of history, of ethnology and of evo- 
lution as the Indian himself, except that they know the dic- 
tionary names ; and that they are no less heartless than the 
Apaches whose roasted victims I have seen ** pegged out** — 
only that they fool themselves (as well as us) into believing 
that their torture is a means of grace. And if I seem to bear 
hard on the men who make the system, my only intrinsic hope 
is to touch those who do the largest work in it and draw the 
smallest salaries ; who are mostly less influential but more 
human. And above all, to stir the big American conscience 
in which, slow as it is, I believe as I do in my mother. 
[to be continued.] 

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Arizona's Biggest Cold Mine. 


f^^^-w^V^^^^'^ midway, as the miles go, between 
'w*^^^^^ Prescott and Phoenix, but a little to the 
mIS /?\C'*a ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Santa Fe. Prescott and Phoenix 
Sa?/i\% **^ railway, just where the Hassayampa mount- 
M^A il^'^i ains tumble their tons of sun- bleached 
ffu^lt'A*!^^ granite abruptly into the skirts of the des- 
ert and the tourist going south finds the 
first giant cactus elbowing the last piilon, is 
one of the most ** typical" things in Ari- 
zona — only a little bigger than the rest. 
It is unfortunate that just about this 
point the casual traveler is too busy reconstructing his notions 
of Southwestern geography and straining his eyes for the first 
glimpse of a desert that does not materialize, to guess that the 
twinkling lights up the mountain side beyond Congress Junc- 
tion mark something better worth seeing than miles of veri- 
fied atlas. 

The axis of the earth may not stick out visibly in this re- 
gion, but the ribs of the continent do ; and some restless pros- 
pector delving among the disjointed vertebrae struck one of 
those *'pay streaks*' with which nature sometimes chinks her 
most unpromising handiwork. 

The landscape immediately about Congress inclines to the 
perpendicular, with no suggestion of efibrt wasted in fertility. 
If Josh Billings could have cast his eye over the rocky hillside, 
spattered with the quartzy line of Congress ledge, he would 
have amended his famous remark about piety and beans, and 
added that gold also seems to flourish best in the poorest 
soil. The very cacti look dizzy with clinging to their uncer- 
tain perches, and the mill buildings rest on made foundations 
or straddle over ditches and boulders like Landes peasants on 
stilts. But a minine: camp would not be * 'typical" if nature 
had pre-ordained its site for a human dwelling place — or its in- 
habitants for neighbors. Congress had more to recommend it 
than convenience ; it had wealth. 

Forming one segment of a circle which has given the min- 
ing history of Arizona its farthest-known names, it is little 
wonder that scarcity of water did not deter nor greatly delay 
prospecting in the Congress hills. 

From the dump at the mouth of the main shaft a triple- 
notched peak thirty miles to the southward marks the Vulture, 
once a Dorado of fabulous richness ; as far to the west is the 
Bullard, held for half a million in gold, and like to bring its 
price, and to the east are Stanton, Rich Hill, and Weaver of 
evil reputation but the heart of a rich placer belt. 

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Though pros- 
pectors came and 
went through 
this section in 
the days of the 
Argonauts, it is 
only about 
twelve years 
since the origi- 
nal owner of 
Congress came 
down the little 
caflon **at the 
wake end of a 
burro,*' and 
selecting a fa- 
vorable location 
on the big ledge 
which may be 
traced a mile or 
two across the 
hills, presently 
uncovered "py- 
rats as big as me 
fist, sure'* and 
rich enough to 
warrant a pro- 
longed celebra- 

through this 
cheerful tenden- 
cy, or in defer- 
ence to a proverb 
current among 
old prospectors, 
that the man 
who strikes a 
big lode never 
makes a stake 
out of it, the 
discoverer of 
Arizona's rich- 
est gold mine 
drifts about the 
camp in time- 
worn jumper 
and overalls. 

The property 

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C. M. Dftvii Eng. Co. 


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changed hands a good many times in the early years following 
its discovery before coming to its present owners, the Congress 
Gold Company, an association of experienced mining men who 
have made it a standard for progressive and successful opera- 
tions. There is not today a better ordered camp in the South- 
west nor one in which employers and employed work in greater 

An old man sweeping the already clean floor of the shaft- 
house leaned on his bfoom and said with a leisurely smile of pro- 
prietorship : ** Twenty years I've worked for Mr. Gage; 
Tombstone first, then right here at Congress ever since the 

C. M. D«Tii YMg. Co. 


rhoto. by Hamaker. 

company came. That boy over yonder hasn't lost a shift in 
four years ; lots of the men have worked two and three years 
without a lay-oflf. Nobody quits here except to die or to go to 
work for himself — and we're mostly too busy to die" — a 
statement borne out by the meagerly filled little graveyard across 
the cafion back of the town. Though, perhaps, its tenantless 
condition is due in part to the scarcity of saloons that usually 
form such a liberal portion of a mining camp, for here those 
vultures must perforce set themselves apart, with their black 
kin of the desert, beyond the limits of Company ground. 

The atmosphere of the camp (and incidentally its difference 
from some other mining camps) is indicated by that one re- 

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mark, ** Nobody quits.** Many of the miners have built neat 
little houses and have their families with them ; and though 
there are not probably two dozen men of any one nationality 
among the 350 or more employed in mill and mine, it is 
**home" to all alike. A school-house that would do credit to 
a prosperous village overflows with sun-browned children, and 
the camp even boasts of a tennis court tipped up against a 
grand slope overlooking the town. 

All this busy life centers around some big red-roofed build- 
ings high up on the hill, and some cool, dark openings in the 


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mountain side whence come the **sinews of war*' — a car a day 
of concentrates and fifteen tons of shipping ore, with the larg- 
est cyanide plant in the United States pounding away on the 
tailings to run the monthly tally up by many thousands. 

The reduction works at Congress consist of a forty-stamp 
mill and the above mentioned cyanide plant. The mill has 
some of the finest machinery in the West and eats up one 
hundred tons of ore a day as easily as a hungry man eats din- 
ner. Coming up four cars at a time from the stopes and work- 
ings, hundreds of feet below, the ore is dumped on **grizzlies*' 
to sort itself, much as oranges and potatoes are sorted for 


market, the oversize going to two huge Blake crushers where 
it is chewed, literally, in the awesome iron jaws to the required 
size. Slipping on into storage bins it is fed out through Tul- 
lock feeders to the forty 850-pound stamps that out-distance 
the seconds, and drop six inches ninety times a minute. The 
mill-house rocks and roars like a ship in a stormy sea, or a city 
in the gripe of an earthquake, as the great stamps rise and 
fall. In sets of five, with rhythmic movement of clock-work, 
they beat up and down, strong pulses from the mighty heart of 

The rock-pulp, wet now, flows from the stamps to the van- 
ners, twenty ever-shaking, endless belts, like broad dining 

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tables ; it is ** concentrates** at last, and with a brief interval 
of draining on the sand filter is ready to go, all moist and un- 
sacked, into the cars for shipment to the smelter at £1 Paso. 
It is done with, so far as the mill is concerned ; but partly 
because the water supply is short ; for every quart of water 
used in mill, mine and camp comes from Martinez Creek, a 
mile away, and is raised 500 feet to get it over the intervening 
mountain. There is some gold left in the car-loads of tailings 
that are rolled out on long trestles and dumped in putty- 
colored mountains below the mill. 

A great mine is not unlike a well managed household ; there 
are no wastes permitted, small or great ; so in the spring of 
1895 a cyanide plant with a capacity of 100 tons a day was 
put in to work on these gold-bearing tailings. 

The ninety-ton leaching tanks, pumps, pipe lines, zinc 
boxes and mechanical roaster form another plant, approaching 
the stamp mill in size and even more interesting. 

** Cyaniding,** as it is briefly called, is a comparatively new 
treatment, and its principles are but dimly understood except 
by persons actively engaged in the work. 

That gold is as soluble in certain solutions as a lump of 
sugar in water is a surprising statement to the average mortal, 
yet it is quite true, and is the basis of all gold-plating pro- 
cesses used by manufacturing jewelers as well as of the cyanide 
treatment for ores and tailings. 

At Congress the process is adapted to local circumstances ; 
the tailing dumps are plowed to assist in drying them, and the 
dry product carried by wheel scrapers to a pulverizer from 
which it is discharged by an elevator to the storage bins and 
thence to the self-feeder of the furnace. 

In the long furnace, capable of roasting one hundred tons a 
day, each ** roast" stays four hours, passing to a cooler and at 
last, as needed, to the leaching tanks. Here, in a solution of 
cyanide of potassium, the gold is dissolved and drawn off by 
filtration, leaving the sand and waste behind. The filtered 
solution next enters an intricate arrangement of boxes filled 
with shavings of pure zinc« where the gold is precipitated, and 
the water, carrying some zinc and the remaining cyanide, goes 
on to storage tanks, from which it is used over and over again. 
For water is next in value to gold at Congress, and never a 
drop is wasted. 

The cyanide treatment changes the tailings from a dirty 
white color to red, and the busy plant is hemming itself in 
with great mountains of impalpable red dust that wheels in 
blinding clouds before the desert wind. Contrasting sharply 
with the red waste of the cyanide plant looms up the tons of 
dump from the mill, enough tailings, it is said, to keep the 
lower plant running night and day for five years if the mill 

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were to shut down tomorrow and not crush another pound of 
ore in that time. 

The mine itself is made up of twenty-three claims, following 
the snake-like trail of the croppings across the hills. There 
are three big openings in the mountain-side along the Con- 
gress vein, and two smaller but very important ones on the 
parallel Niagara ledge. The main shaft. No. 2, is nearing the 
2500-foot level, and still the beautiful white quartz, rich with 
sparkling iron pyrites, goes on to unguessed depths. Another 
shaft, 650 feet, and another something less, are connected with 
No. 2 by levels at intervals of three hundred feet, the levels 
serving to perfect the air circulation and to facilitate working. 
There is free passage through the thousand foot tunnels from 
shaft to shaft all over the mine, and it is said that ten miles 
would scarcely cover the horizontal workings. 

Congress is not a wet mine nor a warm one ; no water has 
been found so far (except a small seep in the shaft near the 
1800-foot level), hardly enough to wet one's shoes ; and possi- 
bly because the shaft follows the dip of the ledge, having an 
incline of only about thirty degrees, the deeper levels are cool 
and pleasant. A forest of Oregon pine has been stowed away 
in timbering this gold-lined under-world, and the waste trap- 
rock and tailings taken out have filled up cafions and built new 
mountains rivaling the old. Half of the waste perhaps never 
sees daylight, but is used to fill up worked-out stopes and 
drifts, so the immense dumps are a very modest index to the 
underground workings. 

Mine, mills, and all company buildings are lighted by elec- 
tricity, and the company owns and operates its own railroad 
connecting the mine with the main line between Prescott and 
Phoenix. A wonderful road it is, with sharper curves and 
heavier grades and more of them to its four miles than are to 
be found on any other standard gauge road in the United 
States (a thirty degree curve is coming close to railroading 
around a corner, and five per cent, grades are not seen every 
day), getting up the mountain at last by a series of switch- 
backs to the very mouth of the mine and discharging its 
freight on the edge of a sky-sweeping view. 

To be ** typical*' a mining-camp must have two distinct 
sections, ** Mill Town*' and ** Lower Town." Mill Town at 
Congress, with its store, offices, bunk-bouse, and homes of the 
employees, toes the line along the railroad track with con- 
scious virtue : it is a place where good people eat and sleep 
between times of working, and, considering the lack of water, 
it has a right to be proud of itself. Lower Town, straggling 
along the cafion half a mile below, is like all of its kind — only 
more so ; a few less pretentious frame buildings, a few more 
roofless adobes and canvas lean-tos, with acres of battered tin 
cans and ragged gunny sacks between. 

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Tveo fires in ten months have nipped its enthusiasm, and 
besides in a climate where clothing is a concession to preju- 
dice, houses are superfluous. 

Its citizens would be as typical in Klondike or Kimberly ; 
they have foregathered from all ends of the earth and no man 
knows his neighbor's mother tongue or the gods he was born 
to. Gold is the business of life and delvers into ancient his- 
tory are not encouraged. 

There are no holidays at Congress ; down in the mine the 
cables whiz and picks tap day and night, week in and week 
out, the year through. Nothing stops, except when once a 
month the forty rumbling stamps stand still for a few hours, 
and a "clean up" is made. Then all ears ache with the 
silence till the thud and roar begin again. 

The mountain sides all along are dotted with fresh dumps 
and burrowing prospect holes — for every miner in camp is 
ambitious to ** strike another Congress,*' another lead that 
will turn out 3,600 ounces of gold a month and keep it up as 
regular as the march of the seasons. 

A Cowboys Pencil!^ 

REAL cowboy, by the way, and not a Buffalo Bill 
melodrama of that much abused and much distorted 
class ; a quiet, sober, hard-fisted, hard-working com- 
peller of cattle on the great ranges, not a dime-novel, six- 
shootering rioter. In a word, as Hough puts it in his sane 
and authoritative book, ** not a freak but a factor." It is one 
thing to '* shoot up the town " in a circus tent, and play cow- 
boy with variations for the amaze of Eastern ** culture,'* 
which likes to think of the West as fierce and ** woolly ; " it is 
very much another thing to be a real cowboy. One is play 
and a good salary, the other hard work and small pay ; but 
somehow the manlier. That is doubtless the reason why the 
best cowboys do not adorn the Wild West shows. There have 
been and are daredevils and desperadoes on the ** range ; " 
but the vast majority of these men of the wilderness are serious, 
steady, manly men, not vaudeville fire-eaters. If this were 
not true, the West would not have been conquered to civiliza- 
tion, that's all ; for it was men's work — not child's play nor 
horse play. It was as sturdy and noble a pioneering as Daniel 
Boone's ; an accomplishment that any sort of sober thought 
must realize was not achieved by any dime-museum freaks. It 
needed men — and it had them, and still has. 

I have known cowboys with college degrees and cowboys 
who could not read ; gentle cowboys and rough ones ; ex- 
perts and the ruck ; thousands of them in all, and in many 

* Illustrated froai drawing* bj ¥A. Bor«io. 

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( . M. D.vU Enr. to QNE OF THE RURA^ES. 

6th Corps, Cctaya. 

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I .a 

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lands between Idaho and Argentina ; but very seldom a scrub 
and not often a fool. It is a hard, dry life, which breeds vir- 
ility, indeed, but has few "advantages" as we use the word. 
And to those who know that life there is a dignity in its men 
— above all in those who try to be not only gcK)d cowboys but 
something more. 

Ed. Borein, some of whose drawings are here reproduced, is 
an average cowboy, perhaps, of this latter day. A quiet, mod- 
est, unassuming boy — for he is not much more by the almanac, 
though a good deal more in the fiber of his spine — his school 
has been the cattle-ranges of California and Mexico ; his book. 
Nature ; his tools the reata ; his home a California saddle. 
And yet he has other horizons. 

There is no pretense here of having discovered **some mute, 
inglorious Remington " (as if a muie Remington could fail 
to be rather glorious) ; but here certainly is a young man who 
has had no chance to learn technique, nor much of any other 
chance, yet draws, despite many crudities, with a certain fresh- 
ness and feeling — with an unmistakable sincerity, which is 
more than can ^ ,,*^ be said of some of his big- 

gers. It does not y^Sf f cost the Successiul Oues so 

dear to draw as /^r^ it does this tired *'ptinctTer,*' 


C. X. DkvU Kog. Co 


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1 64 


( . M. DavliEnr.Co. 


toiling over his paper 
after a day's work that 
would send an easy mas- 
ter to bed for a week. 

Borein was born in San 
I^eandro, Cal., in 1873. 
His father was an ** old- 
timer," a deputy of the 
famous sheriff Harry 
Morse. A little turn in 
the public schools, a few 
months in an architect's 
oflfice, a year as carpen- 
ter's apprentice — and 
then the boy ** bought a 
good horse and lit out " 
to the open which had 
always been calling him. 
A little contact with L. 
Maynard Dixon, the 
most promising of the 
younger California illus- 
trators and the one like- 
liest to understand him, 
confirmed Borein's 
youthful thirst for draw- 
ing — but did not by any 
means give him a liveli- 
hood. That he found in 
a calling not unnatural 
to his love of the saddle 
and the wilds ; and pres- 
ently he was a cowboy 
on the Jesus Maria 
rancho in Santa Barbara 
county . After some 
years there he was awhile 
on the Mali- 
bu, whose 
owner, F. H. 
Rindge» en- 
couraged him 
and helped 
out his ambi- 
tion to work 
his way 
through Mex- 
ico. He over- 


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ran the peninsula of Lower California, 
horseback ; and later the Mexican 
States of Sinaloa, Jalisco and Colima, 
and in general the roughest and least 
known parts of the Republic. He is 
now in New Mexico, cowboying, draw- 
ing from life ; working and learning ; 
unassuming and persistent. 

C. F. L. 





The city chokes me ! Burning in my breast 
I feel an ardent longing for the West — 
The broad free prairies and the pure ozone— 
Which man may breathe in comfort all 

alone I 
I'm not content ! I mope and wonder when 
My feet may stray to those old haunts again. 

Content? Not I. 
I want my freedom and the pure, clear sky ; 
I long for Mex— my little bronco mare — 
I want the prairie and my gallops there I 
Those mad, wild dashes on the yielding sod 
Unknown to plowshare and by man untrod ; 
Lord I how the blood went tingling thro' 

my veins 
As on we sped across the boundless plains ; 
In long, delicious breaths I drank the air 
And thought that life was never half so fair ! 
All cares and troubles lingering far behind, 
My soul was mated to the morning wind. 
I yelled to Mex, and, throwing loose the rein , 
A thousand fancies flitted through my brain; 
No more a plodding scribe, unknown to 

I dreamed of fortune and au honored name ; 
No longer scorned, I fancied that instead 
The critics heaped the laurels on my head — 
Just then, alas I the iron pierced my soul. 
For horse and rider tumbled in a hole ! 

Then, more sedate. 
We traveled homeward at a steadier gait ; 
The little mare, still restive at the bit. 
And half inclined, at times, to swallow it — 
Anxious as ever for a reckless run— 

And caring nothing for the rising sun. 

But I, poor mortal, blind to nature's 
j/Cfj/ beauties, 

W' Thought of my morning task and 
daily duties ; 

And so, despite her jerks and angry 

We both reluctantly returned to town. 

Munaginr Editor CbiciRO Evening Pott. 

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•tailing" a steer. 

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. ^^-^^ y^ 

''^Hm^Ha,.^^/— fl^ 


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Early California. 


CONTINUATION of the report of the Viceroy of Mexico, the 
Count of Revilla Gigedo, on the history of California from 
1768 to 1793, follows : 

/41O8. All these matters I took into consideration when formulating 
the rules which ad interim govern in San Bias, and by which I order 
that double the salaries and rewards fixed by the "Reglamento" of the 
South Sea should be paid, as had been done by the Viceroy, Frey don 
Antonio Bucareli, in virtue of royal orders commanding him to take 
this step, and by which afterwards his measures were approved. 

109. However, I economized as much as possible in the pay of the 
ships' companies without injuring the interested parties, and in my 
letter. No. 191, of December 27. 1789, I reported to His Majesty, enclos- 
ing a copy of the provisional '*Reglamento" and timely remarks on this 
subject. * 

The Ens^lish Vessels are Set at Liberty. 

1 10. Many were the inquiries I instituted after receiving information 
of the detention and taking of the English dispatch boat and bilander. 
It always seemed to me that the temporary commander of Nutka, don 
Bstevdn Jos^ Martinez, had acted hastily ; that no good could result 
from complaints impossible to investigate, extravagant claims for dam- 
ages ; and that the royal treasury had really suffered loss by maintain- 
ing decorously and generously the English prisoners, keeping their 
vessels in repair and furnishing to them everything necessary for the free 
return to Macao. 

111. The captains, James Colnet of the '* Argonauta'* and his em- 
ploy6, Thomas Hudson of the bilander "Princess Royal'* requested 
permission from me to come to this capital (Mexico) and I conceded it. 
They presented their complaints against Martinez, and I ordered an in- 
vestigation to be instituted against him, but these proceedings could 
not be continued as it had been necessary to employ the accused and 
some of the witnesses in commissions and the service of the king, and 
also because the plaintiffs desired their prompt liberty and could not 
conveniently await the end of an ordinary law suit. 

1 1 2. The fact is that Colnet had established himself on our northern 
coasts of the Californias without just title, and in a harbor and territory 
of which formal possession had been taken in the year 1774 by the 
brevet lieutenant of the second class, don Juan Perez. 

113. It is also proven that Martinez, in taking prisoners the English 
vessels and all the foreigners that had entered the harbor of San Lo- 
renzo de Nutka, could base his action upon the royal "cedula" of 
November 25, 1692 ; the treaty of peace of 1670, to which said ** cedula ** 
refers, ratified and confirmed by the treaty of 1783; upon article II, 
treatise (tratado) 6th, title 5th, part Ist of the Ordinances of the royal 
navy; and upon the peremptory royal order of October 18, 1776, trans- 
mitted to the viceroy, don Antonio Bucareli, to dftaiuy take prisoner and 
prosecute by law whatsoever foreign vessel should arrive in our ports of the 
South Sea, 

114. Finally there is no doubt that, running all these risks, Colnet 
had entered the port of San Lorenzo. John Mears ran the same risks 
when he was at Clayucat, traded with the Indians, and built the miser- 
able abandoned hovel (xacal ) or hut, which is used as a pretext whereon 
to base an imaginary right in opposition to the legitimate and perfect 
title possessed by the king of Spain to a harbor and territory discovered 

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and acquired l^y the commander of an expedition undertaken in Teasels 
of his royal navy and at the expense of his royal treasury. 

115. In my opinion all these reasons remove the causes for com- 
plaint on the part of the English about detaining their two small yes- 
sels, whose profit derived from the fur trade could never have been so 
enormous as Meats claims in his statements ; but in reference to this 
matter, which was also one of those I tried to end in preference, I re- 
fer to the statements and documents contained in my letters, numbers 
530 and 538, of March 1st and 2d, 1790, addressed to the Ministry of the 
General Offices of War and Treasury of the Indies in charge of don Fr. 
Antonio Vald^ ; and to numbers 87, 91, 126 and 132 of March 31, April 
30 and November 30, 1792, forwarded to the Count de Aranda, prede- 
cessor of Your Excellency in the Ministry of State. 

Boundary Expedition. 

116. Through this medium I received the copies of the conventioA 
made between our Court and the one of St. James on October 20, 1790, 
and different other communications of anterior and posterior dates re- 
lating to this important and grave matter. 

1 17. All these dispositions had for their object that the just rights of 
our sovereign should be protected, without infringing upon the points 
amicably settled in reference to fisheries, navigation and trade m the 
Pacific ocean and South sea. 

1 16. Our king has undoubtedly just titles to the dominion of the 
coasts situated In the N. W. of North America, and to the adjoining 
i^ands, because we have occupied during a period of nearly three cen- 
turies a considerable part thereof ; repeatedly costly expeditions for 
discovering and settling them have been undertaken, as well at the ex- 
pense of the king's treasury, as with funds of his vassals. Formal pos- 
sessions have been taken in the royal name of His Majesty of every- 
thing discovered. Settlements of foreign pov^rs and the navigation of 
their vessels have always been prohibited, and proceedings were insti- 
tuted against the violators of the treaties of peace wherein it is declared 
and decided. 

1 19. For these reasons I stated in my letters, numbers 34 and 44, of 
March 27 and September 1, 1791, as I do in this detailed report, that the 
subjects of His Majesty were never dispossessed of lands or buildings on 
the frontier coasts (costas avanzadas) to the north of our peninsula of 
the Califomias, but that I was ready to comply punctually with the pro- 
visions of article 1 of the convention of October 28, 1790. 

120. I also stated in the same letter, that in my opinion the compen- 
sation provided in article 2 had been made, and I believe to have proven 
my reasons with the documents which accompany the reports numbers 
87, 91 and 126, of Match 31, April 30 and November 30, 1790. 

121 . I said nothing specially about the points agreed upon in articles 
3 and 4, because I am aware that on the coasts of the Pacific ocean and 
South sea, which comprehend our actual established possessions, there 
are few or no vacant localities (parajes) whereon the Bnglish could es- 
tablish themselves and carry on a trade with natives not subject to 
Spanish dominion. 

122. After considering what has been decided upon by article 5 and 
in the royal order of December 25, 1790, transmitted to me by the Count 
de Florida Blanca, in reference to the English occupying in Nutka 
the territories situated to the North, and we those on the southern patt, 
fixing in 48'' latitude the dividing line of the establishment of our legiti- 
mate ownership and those for joint occupancy, use and commerce by 
both nations, I was convinced that it might be convenient to cede 
Nutka entirely to the Bnglish, and for us to transfer that establishment 
to one of the best points on Juan de Fuca straits, and this to be pre- 
cisely the dividing point, running thereform another boundary or 

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meridian line north and sonth to 60^ Thereby the English wonld be 
hindered from entering the province of New Mexico. In accordance 
with these propositions, I said in my mentioned letters, numbers 34 
and 44, that I wonld formulate the instructions governing the person to 
whom the exploration of the northern coasts of the Califomias and the 
markingof boundaries would be entrusted. 

123. The baylio frey don Antonio Vald^ had already informed me 
on this matter in a royal order of December 1 1, 1790, advising me that 
the viceroy of Peru had received the corresponding command to order 
that a frigate should sail from Callao to San Bias, same to be detailed 
for the aforesaid commission, leaving it at my discretion to place this 
man-of-war under the command of the captain of the first-class, don 
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Cuadra, commander of the port of San 
Bias, if I thought that his experience and knowledge might contribute 
to carry out the work more successfully. 

124. This the good character, zeal and aptitude of Cuadra promised 
me, whom I ordered at once to come to this capital (Mexico) and I lost 
not a moment in making preparations beforehand, so that the supplies 
and everything else which the frigate might require should be in readi- 
ness at its arrival in Acapulco. 

125. The man-of-war "Santa Gertrudis** in command of don Alonzo 
de Torres, dropped -anchor October 31, 1790, and after repairing the 
damages suffered by a heavy storm, set sail December 19 and arrived in 
San Bias, January 15, 1792. 

126. AU this information I conveyed to the Count de Florida Blanca 
and to don Antonio Vald^ in my letters, numbers 60, 88, 105 and 1 13 
of November 17, January 1, and February 3, of said year. The letter, 
number 56, of October 27, 1791, to the Count de Florida Blanca was ac- 
companied by a copy of the instructions given by me to the commander 
of our boundary expedition, don Juan de la Bodega, how to accomplish 
and perform his commision, and how to treat with and be governed in 
his actions with the commander of the other expedition on joining him 
in Nutka. 

127. This letter was an answer to the royal order of June 29, 1791, in 
which the Count de Florida Blanca acknowledging the receipt of former 
ones, promised to inform me as to what His Majesty should decide in 
reference to my representations contained in letter number 34, ordering 
me, tAai in any case I should conduct myself in these matters, as I had done 
since the beginning in matters reletting to the English, with no less prudence 
than secU, 

128. I expressed my gratitude for these kind words, and reported 
afterwards, in letter No. 64, of Nov. 27, 1791, on the active measures 
taken by me for sending the vessels of our expedition to Nutka. With 
letter No. 71 , Jan. 3, 1792, 1 transmitted a copy of the second instructions 
delivered to the commander, don Juan de la Bodega, containing additional 
clauses to those inserted in the first instruction I had addressed to him. 

129. Although this first one covered the necessury ground, I based 
the second upon the last papers published by the English under the 
title of appendices or supplements to Mears' voyage, and making an 
extract of scmie, annotating some of its errors and Uie weakness of its 
argumentation, I transmitted the whole to the commander commis- 

130. He called on me for some necessary assistance, which I rendered 
promptly, and on the first day of April, 1792, he left San Bias in the 
**Santa Gertrudis," which was under the command of its captain, don 
Alonzo de Torres, and accompanied by the frigate "Princesa'* and the 
new schooner (goleta) **Activa,'* rigged as a barkentine in command of 
the respective officers : don Salvs^or Pidalgo, lieutenant of the first 
A lass, and don Salvador Men^ndez Valdds, first pilot 

131. The last two vessels, having suffered some damages, returned on 

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the same Ist of March into port. The achooner had lost the nudn top- 
masts which had certainly to be prorided for ; others had to be replaoM ; 
the main-topsails had to be shortened so as to correspond to the length 
of the new top-masts, and other details of work had to be perfected. 

1 32. The frigate ' ' Princess ** made more than four inches of water an 
hoar. Its hnll was cleaned of ererythinff (se pnso d plan barrido) and 
the keel exposed. Then it was discovered, that the rats had snawed and 
penetrated in three different places on the larboard side, and in the stem 
post near to the rudder futemngs. 

1 33. After both vessels had been repaired, the schooner '' Activa " set 
out again on its voyage, March 15, and the frigate "Princess" the 
23d of the same month. The one arrived without accident at its destina- 
tion, the strait of Pnca, and the other at Nutka. 

134. The " Santa Gertrudis '' made its voyage to the same harbor in 
60 days, arriving more than two months ahead of the vcsscli composing 
the English expedition ; and I, throush the Count de Aranda, received 
the royal order, dated February 29, of last year, approving all my in- 
structions to the commander, don Juan de la Bodega, as also all my 
measures relating to the commission he had been charsed with ; but I 
was advised, that His Majestjr would not agree to the relinquishment or 
integral cession of the establishment of Nutka tf> the Bngliui. 

135. This cession might have taken place, for, as I had received no 
answer to my letters (numbers 34 and 44 of March 27 and Sept. 1, 1791) 
nor any other royal order besides the one of June 29 of the same year 
which entrusted to my zeal and prudence those determinations for sus- 
taining the King's rights in questions which might arise, I ordered (pre- 
vine) Bodega in artide 8 of the first instruction, that auer having made 
delivery of Nutka to the English (as His Majesty had commanded by 
another royal order of May 12, 1791, which was immediately transmitted 
to the commander of that por|0> ^^ should transfer our establishment to 
that locality on Puca strait offering the best advanti^es, and to procure 
that said place should be the point of the dividing line. 

136. I was very much pained for having erred even if only in this 
measure, and it was my desire to take steps which would impede its 
effects ; and although the distance and want of vessels at San Bias were 
difficulties in the way of applying remedy, at the first opportunity and 
without loss of time I dispatched the small schooner " Satumina '' to 
Nutka, communicating the royal order of February 29, 1792, to the com- 
mander of the expedition, so that, if it was yet possible, he could com- 
ply with same. 

137. This schooner arrived in the port of San Francisco, when 
Cudra on his return entered the harbor of Monterey ; and as the de- 
livery of Nutka had been suspended because the English commander, 
George Vancouver, would not agree to its conditioned surrender, there 
was yet time to comply with the contents of said royal order, which Bo- 
dega forwarded immediately to the lieutenant of the first-class don Sal- 
vador Fidalgo, who remained in command of Nutka, by the Inlander 
** Horcasitas " which returned to Nutka in place of the schooner " Sa- 

138. As His Majesty had approved my measures in reference to the 
government, preparation and carrying into effect of the Boundary Com- 
mission, and as the only error I committed, thinking to have rendered 
a service to the king, is remedied, I shall now report upon the incidents 
which passed with Sie English commander, his explorations, those un- 
dertaken by the commander of our vessels and the ones to be made in 
the future. With this matter and other needful propositions, I shall 
end this unavoidably detailed report. 

139. The English frigate *'D^alo" which left Portsmouth August 
18, 1791, under the command of Captain Thomas New, arrived at Nutka 
July 4, 1792 with supplies for the vessels commanded by Vancouver and 

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brought inttmctons for him from His Britannic Majesty to take poesea- 
sion of the bnildings and territories, which were supposed to have been 
occupied by English subjects in April, 1789. 

140. Richard August, lieutenant of the royal navy, was the bearer of 
said instructions contained in the royal order of May 28, 1791, which 
the Count de Florida Blanca addressed to the commander of Nutka for 
the purpose of surrendering said English possessions ; but August was 
killed by the Sandwich Islanders and the captain of the ** Dedalo," 
New, substituted him. 

141. Even if this officer could treat at once with reference to the de- 
livery, he and the commander of our expedition agreed with pleasure 
to suspend everything until the arrival of the principal commissioner, 

142. The last named finally arrived at Nutka, and Cuadra, in com- 
pliance with his orders, consequently offered the English commander 
to place him in possession of the territories which Mears had enjoyed, 
and to cede to him the houses, gardens, storehouses and shops of our 
establishments, without prejudice to the le^^timate right by which we 
had occupied it, and with the understanding that on the part of the 
Spanish, the English should never experience any act of violence nor 
sufier the slightest injury. But Vancouver, cutting off all discussion 
on the matter, solely insisted in his answer: that formal surrender with- 
out any restriction should be made to him of all the territory of Nutka; 
that the Spanish flag should be hauled down ; and, his sovereign to be 
recognized as the sofe lord of that port. 

143. Cuadra was ever ready to accede to everything regular and just. 
He retired to Fuca and manifested that said point should be the dividing 
line, but Vancouver gave to understand that the real boundary was the 
port of San Francisco occupied by us. 

144. Notwithstanding this pretension, Curada insisted on his propo- 
sitions ; and as the last and safest course proposed that after dividing the 
territory of Nutka, the English should occupy the part to the north 
and the Spanish that to the south, and the port should remain common 
to both nations. 

145. Vancouver, inflexible in his opinions and claims, did not agree 
to the propositions of Cuadra ; but it was amicably decided to suspend 
the surrender of Nutka, the same to remain in our power until both 
Courts, informed of what had been done and alleged by their commis- 
sioners, should in the best of harmony and concert agree and decide 
what may be convenient to their legitimate rights. 

146. Inconsequence the lieutenant of the first-class, don Salvador 
Fidalgo, took interim command of Nutka, with the frigate **Princesa" 
remaining under his orders. 

147. Cuadra entered Monterey Oct. 9, 1792; the English frigate 
"Dedalo" Nov. 21 ; and the commander, Vancouver, with the two ves- 
sels of his expedition, "Descubierta'' and the barkentine '* Chatham,*' 
arrived Nov. 25. 

148. The "Dedalo*' set sail Dec. 21 to comply with its commission 
in Botany Bay, and on the way stopped at the island of Oaiti. Van- 
couver started again on his navigation, Jan. 13, of the present year. 

149. The English were treated with the greatest consideration and in 
the most friendly manner ; and whatsoever they asked for or could de- 
sire for continuing their voyage was generously placed at their disposal. 

150. As Vancouver was convinced that these supplies represented a 
considerable amount, he offered drafts against his Court, but Cuadra 
refused to accept same, assuring the commander that he had my orders 
to treat him generously, and that he desired as well on his own as on 
my part to prove to the subjects of His Britannic Majesty our full and 
sincere friendship. 

151. Acknowledgi|ig this favor, the English commander stated that 

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nothing could erase from the memory of his countrymen the friendly 
treatment and favors which they had received from the Spanish. He also 
expressed to me in writing heartfelt thanks, and in proof of his grati- 
tude made a gift of the value of two thousand dollars, more or less, to 
the * 'presidio"' and mission of Monterey in implements useful for agri- 
culture and timber cutting, beads and other small articles. 

152. Fin^y Vancouver informed Cuadra that it would be a great 
convenience for him to send Robert Broughton, captain of the barken- 
tine "Chatham" to his Court with the report containing the result of 
his commission, begging Cuadra to take Broughton to San Bias and ex- 
tend to this officer his help so as to enable him to continue on his jour- 
ney to Vera Cruz and Spain. 

153. Cuadra complied with this request, which he considered in order, 
and having left Monterey, the next dieky alter Vancouver had gone to sea, 
in the schooner •* Activa," accompanied by the frigate " Aranzazu'' and 
the bilander ** Horcasitas," which had just returned from Nutka, bring- 
ing Pidalgo's answer, wherein he offered on his part to comply with the 
royal order of February 20, 1792, Cuadra's vessels met those of Van- 

154. Both sailed of their own accord together from the 14th until the 
17th of January, on which date Vancouver had arrived at the point 
whence his course to the Sandwich Islands diverged, when they separ- 
ated after a mutual exchange of favors and courtesies. Cuadra's long 
rojBgit ended in San Bias, Feb. 1st, his mission finished. 

155. During the same and in the preceding years of 1790 and 1791, 
the following explorations, which I will relate briefly in their chrono- 
logicid order, were carried out. 

Fifth Bxploration to Latitade GO^' and to Cook's Biver 
by Don Salvador Fidalsro. 

156. The lieutenant of the first-class, don Salvador Fidalgo, left 
Nutka in the dispateh boat " San Cdrlos" May 4. 1791, and on Uie 24th 
of the same month reached the port of Prince William, which he recon- 
noitered in its entire length on tne east and north sides. 

157. Afterwards he d&oovered Montagfi and Las Vertiz islands ; en- 
tered into Cook's river, sailed down to the island of Kodiae, and returned 
again on his course to the eastern coast with the intention of retracing 
and reconnoitering from 57^ latitude to Nutka, but fogs and bad weather 
hindered him from doing so. 

158. Therefore, as also on account of the scarcity of provisions and 
the near approach of the equinox, he arrived Sept. 14, at Monterey, 
where he remained until Oct. 25, date on which he set sail, anchoring at 
San Bias Nov. 13. 

159. These explorations corrected in a few points those made in 1789 
bv the brevet ensign of the first class, don B^evdn Martinez, and the 
pUot, Lopez de Haro ; and also verified the noticea in reference to the 
Russian establishments, because Fidalgo visited two on Cook's river 
and one on Kodiae island in the bay of cape " Dos Puentes.'' He also 
took possession, according to custom, of a bay and of a cove, which he 
named respectivelvC6rdovaand Menendez, both east of Prince William ; 
of the port he called Gravina to the north, and of the harbor named by 
him Revilla Gigedo on the before-mentioned Cook's river. All this l 
reported, accompanied by charts and documents, in my letters, Nos. 19 
and 31, of Jan. 12, 1791, the first addressed to the department under 
the charge of Your Excellency, and the second to the Secretary of the 

[to B9 CONTINimD.] 

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Doubtless it sarprises no one. Only a fool ignores what our politics 
are today. But, please God, there are still a good many Americans 
who find a shock even in the expected thing. Alger could stay in the 
Cabinet so long as he had done nothing worse than kill off two thousand 
American soldiers. He had a "pull'* stronger than the practically 
unanimous wish of the American people. His rotten beef contracts 
were no bar. But when from these venial offenses he graduated to the 
crime of locking arms with a man who does not tiunk that Prest. 
McKinley is infallible — whop goes his head, instanter. Secretary 
Alger has not served his god ; but if he had served his king he would 
not in his age be left naked to his enemies. 

THE A Bloody Tyrant, whose Washerwoman had struck because 

MODERN she was Tired of Washing for Nothing and Board Herself, Sold 

AESOP. her to a Perfect Gentleman for a specified Sum. The Degraded 

Creature, who could not perceive the Difference between a Perfect 
Gentleman and a Tyrant, still maintained that her Time was her Own. 
*' When I Marry you," she said, " will be time enough for me to do your 
Washing Gratis." 

" Well, of all Ungrateful Scrubs ! ' ' cried the Perfect Gentleman. "It 
was noble to Refuse the Tyrant, for he was a Brute. But if I kick you, 
A it is merely to Improve your Manners and Morals. I'm a Liberator, I 

am." And he swatted the Erring Lady and Tromped upon her. 

Thereat, some of his children cried : " Let go. Dad I You do not 
look Pretty 1 " The Neighbors likewise congregated, murmuring : "It's 
a dam shame ! Why don't he beat his wife ? " 

But the Perfect Gentleman retorted: "If you Mugwumps would 
cease your Seditious Utterances there would be no Friction between Me 
and this Misguided Person. You make her Think a Woman ought not 
to be Licked. I wotUd not have knocked her Down at all if you hadn't 
been Going to Object. So you see you are Responsible for her Bruises, 
not I. You do not seem to Know who I Am. I am a Perfect Gentle- 
man ; and no Gentleman will stop Licking a Lady till she admits his 
Divine Right to Lick her. I perceive that you are Traitors to Me and 
god. What do you Suppose he gave me such a biceps for? As for 
Licking my Wife, I guess you never saw her Arm. It would take a 
Man to make her keep Our House in order. But I reckon I can Reform 
this Washerwoman's domestic affairs. Go to I " 

POETRY Next to The Recessional, Edwin Markham's The Man With the 

AND Hoe has created a deeper sensation than any other poem of many 

FAOT. years. Not so much for its poetry — which, with some reserva- 

tions, is rather tremendous — but for its sociology, which is intrinsically 
bad. If the public ear had been for art, it would have recognized 
Markham's voice long ago ; for it is a fine, sonorous voice, never petty, 
never brazen but never commonplace. If sensation, however, bie the 
better advance agent, we can forgive it so long as it brings in its train 
the Real Thing — and this it seems to have done. Certainly sensation 
is not fame ; but here is one man at least who can afford to stand on 

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merit after the empiric discovery. Mr. Markham's slender book of 
Terse, ^titled by the famous poem, is a gain to our literature. It has a 
dozen poems anyone now extant might be content to have written. 

As to the caved forehead and bent shoulders of the Hoe-Man and the 
trying to cdiarge them to the Oppressor, Mr. Markham has lived better 
than he has written. He was outfitted with a hoe himself; but nothing 
ails his forehead or his back. He had it in him to be Markham. No 
one could hold him down ; none could have put him up. No theorist 
coaxed the blacksmith to grow into a sonorous poet and a man than 
whom not one in California is more loved or more useful in a circle 
constricted only to his own choice. Markham did it. 

And that's what ails the Man with the Hoe. We may itch to kick or 
guillotine the " lords and rulers '* or ward-heelers who are content to 
see him there ; but he doesn't stay there unless ^ is content. It is a 
cowardly trick of the day to lay our faults to heredity ana destiny, and 
our virtues to ourselves. This is very comfortable, but it is no more 
science than it is religion. The only oppressor a man can't get away 
from is himself. 

There really seem to be sober people who " don't know how " what 
we could get out of the Philippines with honor." can 

Easy enough, if we care to. Easy now, easy before we beean we oo f " 

to fight those poor fools for wanting to be uree, easy any day between, 
easy and effective. 

We ean get any partnership we ask of England ; and we do not need 
it. If we— or England and we— had said to the Filipinos : " Gentle- 
men, you are free of your tyrant. See if you can govern yourselves. 
No other nation ahall meddle with you, but we will hold vou responsible 
to dvilizatioa. Make a good, decent country of yourselves, or we will 
£b11 upon you " — ^why, no nation or conspiracy of nations would have 
meddled ; and the Filipinos would have been our loving friends. We 
should have saved some thousands of American lives. We should have 
saved some thousands of American girls from marrying nameless 
diseases from Luzon. We should have saved the honor of the United 
States. And we can just as well do it today. The war goes on 
not to save American principles but to save the pride of the administra- 
tion. It thinks a lie well stuck to as good as the truth. And knowing 
that some American speculators can make money if the deal goes 
through, it expects the American people to pay the freight. 

Prescott, Ariz., has a chance to distinguish itself. Capt. a man 
" Bucky" O'Neill, of that town, was one of the first Americans and a 

killed in the war of '98. To this day not a man has been monument. 

killed whom the nation could less afibrd to spare. 

There is now a question of building that man a monument — and how. 
The unhatched would erect a cast-iron or granite abomination in the 
plaza ; the deeper hearted (and I believe the hero's widow first suggested 
it) prefer to build something worthier of ''Bucky" O'Neill. Prescott 
has no public library. If it would honor the man who was not only a 
hero but a scholar, the best friend that education ever had in that 
Antler town, it will make that memorial a public library building. And 
there are a good many people rather interested to watdi what Prescott 
will do. 

Admiral Dewey, in a message sent the Secretary of the Navy, now, 
June 28, 1898, said of the Filipinos : I8 oewey 

"Aguinaldo, insurgent leader, with 13 of his staff, arrived a"trator?'' 

May 19 by permission. ... I have given him to understand that I 
consider msnrgents as friends, being opposed to a common enemy. He 

* Th« Douldcdftj A MaClurt Co.. 5«w York, 11. Lm ADg«lM, 0. C. Parker. 

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has now gone to attend a meeting of insurgent leaden for the purpose 
' of forming a civil government. In my opinion these people are Hi su- 
perior in their intelligence and more capable of self-government than 
the natives of Cuba, and I am &miliar with both races.*' 

Now will some administration flunkey newspaper please rise and call 
Dewey a '* Copperhead " ? 

AFRAID This magazine certainly cannot be accused of unmixed admira- 

TO FACE tion of the newmper. The newspapers alone— and almost 

THE TRUTH, aloue the worst of them— brought on the war. That the lla- 
nila censorship pinches the newspapers is a minor affair. The vital thing 
is that the administration is shutting off information from the American 
voters. The truth about the Philippme war would hurt no one. No one, 
that is, except the administration. It would not help the Filipinos 
nor embarass our army. But it would lose votes to McKlnley. Tnere- 
fore the people are to be kept from the truth, so far as possible. 

Now Abraham Lincoln had a grown war on his hands. He had a 
nation's life to save — ^not the pockets of a few speculaton to fill. His 
armies met not runaway ** niggers," but fierce Americans who could 
"kill even." But Abruiam l4ncoln never had to gag the newspapers 
nor pry into the mails nor try to fool the people. He cared more for his 
country's honor and safety than he did for a second term. He listened 
to his God, not to* Hanna. And. with all due reverence, he was not a 
fool. Any man is a fool who thinks he can cheat history— or even bam- 
boozle all contemporary America. The Lion is a Republican — ^bot a 
Lincoln Republican, not a Hanna^Alger Republican. The ablest men 
in America today, who oppose the sin of Imperialism, are Republicans. 
It is not partisanship. It may be conscience, it may be only common 
sense. But at any rate, the strongest opposition to the President's 
course is within the President's own party. At any rate, any man in a 
Republic who is afiraid to face the truth doesn't " belong." Because a 
Republic ceases when it ceases to be truth. 

HIQH- A woman of affidrs as well as of letters, and seriously occupied 

CLASS with her mundane duties, Margaret Collier Graham brings 

ESSAYS. to a finish in this issue the series of little essays which has 

been running for a full year in this magazine, under title " The Angle 

of Reflection." 

In all seriousness, and without suspicion of boastfulness, no maga- 
zine in the United States is publishing today an editorial department quite 
so hi^h in literary quality, nor anywhere near so durable in morals, as 
this little ''Angle " of Mrs. Graham's has been. It is many yean since 
any American magazine has published in a vear twenty-four pages of 
philosophy so deep and sane and so masterfully expounded. Indeed, 
very little matter of this calibre is printed anywhere these flabby days. 

JUST The passing of a temblor in California the other day has pleas- 

THE ured some of the hard-luck States; and they are welcome. 

DIFFERENCE. No oue was hurt, and no damage was done. Just here it is 

as well to recudl the historic fact that this same summer more people 

have been killed by sunstroke in the one State of New York than have 

been killed by earthquakes in California since history began. 

THEY ALSO There is nothing more evident in the cosmogony than that 

NEED Heaven loves a good joke. It is all the time having fun 

CONDENSING, with US. There are some of its human practical jokes to 
whom this idea will seem disrespectful ; for Qod appears to have 
amused Himself by making some people who think that they have a 
sense of humor and that Grod hasn't. As a matter of fact that is prob- 
ably the only thinj^ that reconciles Him to looking upon His human 
handiwork. For instance, the Anthropological Society met in Wash- 

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ington the other day, and decided to call oar aborigines ''Amerinds,*' 
as a neat logotype for American Indians. The Lion sngsests that in 
turn, these Anthropological Idiots should be condensed— since our time 
is as valuable as theirs. Anthropoids seems to fulfill their etymology 
— and their nature. 

No man who underrtands the yalue of words pretends that our all 
war in the Philippines is popular. Some Americans believe it against 
an outrage on liberty ; a great many look upon it as an un- the grain. 

happy mess we can't get out of— but no one, not even the " professional 
patriot " is proud of u. Even those who cannot see any principle in- 
volved, are getting tired of it — ^and will be more tired before we are done. 
The ctvrious thing is to observe how many forgetful souls imagine the 
United States '* has to have '* a war that is unpopular. 

Three thousand American soldiers sick, July 15, in the hos- beginning 
pitals of Manila. One thousand American soldiers dead in to pay 

Luzon already. And what are we gettin^j for those American the piper. 

homes forever clouded ? That is the beginning. All the world knows 
— the PiHpinos included — that we can ^'lick" the Filipinos, if we are 
fools enough to keep at it long enough. If it were to save our country, 
a million American homes would cut off their right-hand hopes to la^ 
them upon the altar. But what feeds the war fire now is not the patn* 
otic homes. It is the politicians. And they leave us to furnish the 

In 1898 we saw American homes giving up their sons for where 
volunteers. We see nothing ' of the kind now. Rigkt or are our 

wrong, a year ago the counfiy was behind the war. Today, volunteers f 

only the politicians are. You knew a good many of the volunteers of 
1898. You don't know any of the volunteers of 1899. Today the re- 
cruits are leaving no homes desolate. They are the homeless and the 
failures. Our American boys are getting home as fast as they can. In 
their place go none but the usual $13 a month machines. Does that 
mean anything ? 

The San Francico ChronicUy the leading Republican daily of not 
California ; the Call^ next in size in the Republican ranks ; the without 

Argonaut^ Republican and strongest weekly in the West ; the company. 

Portland Ore^onian^ foremost Republican paper in Oregon — these are a 
few of the big Coast papers that are agidnst the administration's war. 
In the Bast there is the same state of things. Really, there is no lack 
of precedent for any American who would rather not rent his ideas. 

The unbissed patriot who draws, as postmaster of Sail Fran- earning 
Cisco, a larger salary than he ever saw before or will ever his 

know again, offers to sniff the United States mails and inter- bone. 

cept, in good Russian fashion, anything which does not please his Mas- 
ter. Amen I The sooner the better. We cannot find out too quickly 
Just how much American freemen will stand. And even Californians. 
There has been a time in history when the name Montagu was worn by 
men, and had not been given to lap-dogs. And the time has not come 
in history when lap-dogs can scare Americans out of the house. 

Not long ago the Administration was wonderfully anxious to know 
what the Dear People wished. Today, if the Dear People attempt to 
say what they wish, the Administration threatens to prosecute them. 

Now the Cubans are to be allowed to " vote for annexation or inde- 
pence." In other words, we leave it to a ballot of the Cigar Island 
whether the United States shall be a liar or not. 

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which is i 

There is a certain pessimijim in having 

any fears for the present trend of literature. 

Never before in the world's history hsis Htera- 

tnre swarmed with so tnany writers of almoflt human 


JAME8 If Mr. Henty James would like to know what Henry James 

TURNED might look hke if suddenly invested with a backbone and res- 

MAN. cu^ from the parenthetical kittens which now steal in at every 

comma to run away with his thread, he would better step before the mir-^ 
ror of Bdith Wharton's The Greater Inclinuiion. For here heis regen- 
erate^ames turned Man. There is no blunting of that abnormal 
activity of insight which has condoned the faults of James ; but also, 
there are none of his faults except the basic one. With Mrs. Wharton, 
intuition is normal, not a progressive disease. Where James dawdles, 
too weak to let go of his own content with his wire-drawing, she is mas- 
ter of herself. She tells in a sentence what he would need a page for ; 
as spiritually and far more clearly. 

There are exquisite pastels, and they have their place. They are a 
medium for drawing little thines out to such thinness that we call it 
great. But the Masters always have painted and always shall paint in 
the oils of humanity. Consumption has its certain beauties ; but it is 
not so beautiful, nor even so refined, as red health. A stoir that has in 
it no woman we would fall in love with, no man we would like to thrash 
—in a word, no human beings^is, after all, not quite a story. It may be 
a very delightful Delsarte euibition by a most flexible mind. But I am 
not here to growl at Mrs. Wharton. Her eight stories are of extraordi- 
nary skill. And I am profoundly grateful to her for i>roviMg, so uncon- 
sciously but so inevitably, that one needn't be as efifeminate as James to 
be so intuitive. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. 

A BROAD, So noble a book as Ptest. Jordan's Imperial Democracy ought 

FAIR to be read by every man who has the confidence to call himself 

VIEW. an American. He may not agree with it ; but if he is half-way 

fit to belong to this republic he will feel uplifted by it and grateful that 

there are stul such Americans. 

Dn Jordan has not only the lar^ (though unstudied) expression, but 
the structural point of view. This book, to a theme which interests 
every sober American — and every drunken one as well — is valuable not 
only for its patriotism. It has the generic foresight ; it sees things as 
history sees tiiem ; and there is a special value and a special interest in 
this getting a verdict from '^ a sort of contemporary posterity." D. Ap- 
pleton & Co., New York. $1.50 

A VERY A truly large and truly delightful novel — ^rare things, both, 

UNCOMMON in these smallish days— is Winston Churchill's Richard Car- 

NOVEL, vel^ and one to advance its author at once to serious considers^ 
tion amid the stronger writers of the day. As a stage-manas^er he is ad- 
mirable, handling a large company without a hitch, and keeping the 
stage always in action — not only that, but with good, real figures. His 
character-drawing is no less notable; and "Kichard," *' Dorothy," 

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'* Jack," perhaps above all " Patty,' *are vital persons, who come into our 
affection as '* Grafton " into onr hate. The Maryland and the London of 
just before the Revolution are painted with convincing skill ; and snch 
historic figures as Charles Fox and John Paul Jones— dangerous actors — 
are used with considerable success. All in all it is one of the novels of 
the year, and merits the extraordinary success it is meetings-three or 
four editions before it is fairly cold from the press. The Macmillan Co., 
New York. $1.50. 

Jeremiah Curtin, "the man of fifty languages,'* and of sev- American 
eral valuable bo#ks of folklore in other lands, has just added to pRiMrriVE 

our obligation to him a fat and handsome volume of the myths literature. 

of the Wintus and Yanas, two tribes of " Digger " Indians in the Sacra* 
mento Valley, Cal. The title, Crealion MyPu of Primilive America, is 
a trifle over-catholic, as are some of Mr. Curtin's sweeping assertions in 
the like line. Nor does the annotation of the book inmcate so much 
knowledge of the myths of the many hundred other and larger and more 
important Indian tribes as of Irish or Russian folklore. 

The myths, however, are important and t^rpical, and Mr. Curthi has 
told them well and in the Indian spirit In his notes he properly refers 
to Schoolcraft's "remarkable genius for missing the truth ana confusing 
everything he came in contact with.'' Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 

In the ffolden days of the frontier there was no good reason the 
why an adventurous person might not have his fun with big texas 

game and be strictly conventional. The foolish desperado ranqer. 

killed for fun, hate or plunder, and generally died violently and an out- 
law. The foreseeing one became a deputy sheriff, a ranger, or some 
such thing, and the more fun he had the better peace officer he was. If 
the outlaws " got" him he died a hero. To have killed twenty men in 
saloon or street was a sure road to the shrievalty. 

A Texas Ranger, hj N. A. Jennings, ^ves a frank and rathe 
naive picture of that picturesque, half-bandit mounted police of the 
uneasy border 25 years ago. Mr. Jennings, now a newspaper reporter 
in New York, was one of McNelly's men, and without constructive 
skill at all in painting a general picture, "reminisces" most enter- 
tainingly. Not so well disdplinea, so well organized or quite so 
legal m status, the Texas Rangers very much resembled the Mexican 
Hurales of today in devil-may-care, dash and effectiveness. They 
did much the same work in much the same method. The chief differ- 
ence is that the Rurales are a government machine, as strictly organized 
as any regular army, while the Rangers were a sort of grucrrflla police — 
the border's self-defense. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. |1 .25. 

Not because he wished to, but because if he didn't someone kiplinq'S 
else would, Mr. Kipling has made into two quiet-looking newspaper 

volumes the newspaper letters of his literary youth, with title letters. 

F^om Sea io Sea. It would be foolish to pretend that these journalistic 
matters are up to the top notch of Kipling ; but, on the other hand, here 
is certainly newspapering of a class we would rather not lose. 

The most valuable, though perhaps not the best, of these epistles to an 
India paper are the "American Notes." These are the egregious im- 

fressions of a— Bleeding Briton, very new but also very thick in the 
iceps. His bludgeoned criticisms of things American are mostlv true 
in the positive— but this world is comparative. Doubtless Mr. Kipling 
knows our fiaults less intemperately now. Still, there is use in reading; 
his entirely unconstrained strictures, and in knowing how our faults ana 
foUies struck the sophomore who has become the wisest traveler of his 
time. TheDoubleaav & McClure Co., New York. 2 vols. $2. Post- 
paid to any address '^on approval." 

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ONE There is a most rare quality in the poems of Grace Ellery 

OF OUR Channing— now collected in a slenaer Tolnme under title 

POETS. Sea-Drift, Several of them—and several of the best— were 

first printed in these pases ; and there are many who will never again 
seethe Sierra Madre mthout recalling *^The Violets of Mountains." 
An exquisite simplicity, an unmodem sincerity mark these verses. 
Without self-consaousness, without a£fectation, here is the expression of 
that rare thing— a woman wise enough to be a woman. Of imagination 
there is much ; but the great beauty of these poems is their unspoiled 
heart. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

FARMING A book that should be on the table of every man that tickles 

AND the soil, particularly in California, where there is a higher 

HORSE SENSE, average of intelligence engaged iu agriculture than elsewhere, 
is 77ie Modem Farmer^ by Edward P. Adams. The author is agri- 
cultural editor of the San Francisco Chronicle; he lives on nis 
farm ; he is himself a modem farmer. This large, sound, interesting 
book claims to be, and probably is, the very first book to treat of the 
fJEumer as a business man. Doubtless, there is no other point of view 
from which the farmer is so much in need to see himself and his en- 
vironment. The book is eminently sensible ; and the farmer to whom 
its message is not worth many times its cost is a curiosity. The N. J. 
Stone Co., San Francisco. |3. 

AN The Real Hawaii^ by Lucien Young, U. S. N., is so palpably 

EX PARTE a book with a purpose that it will take no serious place as hi»- 

PLCA. tory , and will be valued most by those who desired beforehand 

to believe it. Lieut. Young saw enough of Hawaii (he was hi the 
'* Boston" a£fair) to have learned a great deal ; and of his honesty there 
is no question. Yet the book is (Sdefly an example of the ease with 
which we can believe the thing we would like to. The unredeemed 
wickedness of the Hawaiians who had fat lands ; the celestial noWity of 
:the missionary tramps who now have that land, and are glad to show 
that the transfer was in the interest of God and morality ; the puritjr of 
our politicians and adventurers in releasins the ignorant natives mm 
bad monarchs and giving them over to good ward-Eeelers — these are the 
book. Compared with Miss Craft's unpretentious but deep and true 
Hawaii Nei^ this is a partisan editorial beside a scientific work. But it 
may be popular— as partisans are more common than scholars. The 
Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. $1.50. Sent to any address "on 

HANOY An attractive and worthy series of American biographies, in 

^ AMERICAN admirable duodecimos, and by competent persons, is issuing 

BiooRAPHiES. from the press of Small, Maynard & Co., Boston, a young 
house which has already won distinction by its good taste in matters 
literary and mechanical. M. A. de Wolfe Howe is editor ; and the five 
volumes already issued are : Phillips Brooks^ by the editor ; David G, 
Farraguti by James Barnes ; Robert E, Lee^ by W. P. Trent ; James 
Russell Lowell, by Edward Everett Hale, Jr.; and Daniel Webster ^ by 
Norman Hapgood. 75c. each. 

ANOTHER Will R. Halpin has t)ubli8hed a genial and gentle novel of 

PAViNO California, entitled Juan Pico. The book is unusually beauti- 

STONE. ful, the story full of feeling. Unhappily this is all. The local 
color is not Califomian. The lociu geography is a sad muddle ; the 
picture of Los Angeles rather absurd ; and the California terms much 
misapplied. Mr. Halpin's only Spanish seems to be " Madre Mi ;" and 
this grotesque impossibility he employs scores of times. The book is 
kindfy and of good intention, but it has nothing to do with its field. 
The Robert Lewis Weed Co., New York. $1.50. 

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Dross, by Henry Seton Merrinum (author The Sowers, etc.)> under 
is 8o good a story of the First Empire in Prance that this re- the 

viewer found excuses for reading it from cover to cover after teriior. 

his bedtime. To a busy man that means something. The story has in 
plot a certain quality of Charles Reade — and a style absolutely unlike. 
It anyhow gets to the sympathy ; which is what fiction is for. H. S. 
Stone & Co., Chicago. $\ .75. 

The "San Pedro Harbor Pight" was one of the most curious the first 
and one of the most instructive episodes in modem American defeat 

politics ; and as such has a more uian local interest. How im- of aloer. 

pudent a corporation can be, vet how surely the people — ^not the popu- 
lists but the people— can hold their own, has perhaps never been so 
strikingly proved before. A dispassionate history of this very remark- 
able afiahr has been printed by Charles Dwight willard, who, as secre- 
tary of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, bore an honorable 
brunt in the fight. He tells the storv in a slender local volume ; but 
frankly, with Sdmess, and sufficient detail. His little book of The Free 
Harbor Contest is an authoritative addition to the material of which 
Southern California history is to be made. Kingsley-Bames & Neuner 
Co., Los Angeles. 

The Pedagogues, by Arthur Stan wood Pier, is a fully amusing, a n 
if somewhat unconstrained, story of the Harvard Summer amusinq 
School. Por a new author here is a considerable promise, both story. 

in plot and in a not too vicious sarcasm. The character-drawing is, in- 
deed, a litUe unreined : «Prof. Pahitine'' and « Jessie" and «6orch'\ 
at least, are exaggarated somewhat — not so much from truth as from the 
convention we agree to accept as truth — but they are tangibly real. Mr. 
Pier seems to '* have it in him." Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. |1 .25. 

Vengeance of the Female — ^an odd enough title to be piquant — a story 
is really **a little book of travel," by Marrion Wilcox, author of 

of A Short History of the War with Spain, It is a gossipy, travel 

familiar picture of parts of Spain, Bneland, Italy and other lands, with 
enough mread of story to make it human. Some handsome photo- 
graphic illustrations add to its interest. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. 

A cheerful prevaricator, branded even among the many, is another 
Albert J. Capron, with his •* Legend of the Pueblo of Acoma" REO- 

(N. M.), in The Pacific Monthly for July. It is long since handed. 

anyone has seen such impudent mendacity — while the ignorance is 
fully up to the worst The pictures of *• Acoma" happen to be of 
Hualpi ; but that is the least dishonesty. The Pacific Monthly is a 
young magazine of Portland, which has shown some ^owth already. 
It is a pity that it has been imposed upon so wretchedly m this case. 

The sober JRetnew of Reviews is latest victim of the person who has 
confidence to write of the Southwest his own ignorances, the facts he 
borrows from honest students (and distorts) and his own peculiar brand 
of misspelling proper names and historic words. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, that gallant worker in science and in hvman rights, has pab- 
lished the last message of John Comfort Fillmore, The Harmonic Structure of Indian 
Music. This paper was Indirectly Prof. Fillmore's death. He had written it for the 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science : and was on his 
way to Boston to deliver it when an Bastem sunstroke finished his brave and useful 
life. As we have frequently remarked, Fillmore turned folk-music from guesswork to 
a science ; and this comprehensive paper is a fair summary of his great discovery. 

Fleming Bremner (Calle Nueva, 6, City of Mexico) publishes an English metrlca 
version of Becquer's Rimas, with some " rondels " and other rhymes of his own. 

The Forester (Washington, D. C.) is an excellent little monthly in a good cause. 

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Why a knowledge of good should be caUed innocence, 
and a knowledge of evil experience, is hard to explain. 
Wise men blush at the charge of ignorance brought by 
those learned in iniquity, forgetting all the good of which their 
accusers have no ken. Vice tum^ virtue is generally brag- 
gart and dictatorial, essaying to guide the steps of those who 
have avoided pitfialls. Character is the only garment of which 
the wearer boasts that it has been often to the cleaner. Men 
flock to hear a blatant "evangelist" vaunt himself on his 
struggle from the tnire and all around are men whose better 
wisdom has kept them dean. '' But the good men were not 
tempted'' you say? Then go to them in crowds and learn 
why. They have something to tell worth while. 

The society that commits its virtue to the keeping of 
the physioilly weak, will always defend evil by calUng 
good efieminate. Have we any right to wonder when 
callow intellects deduce the virility of vice ? Society is suffer- 
ing for a little fearless honesty. legislation might rest from 
the suppression of evil if only those who hate it dared to show 
their hate. What save cowardice gives us the laughable spec- 
tacle of good men separating themselves from iniquity by a 
public ordinance and walking arm in arm with the offender? 
Loving the sinner and hating the sin ? My good friend, the 
sin is the sinner. 



Most picturesque of all our would-be virtues, and there- 
fore dearest to the sentimentalist, is forgiveness. And 
what is it ? A chimera. Your firiend plays you false ; 
what is he to you ever afterward but a traitor ? You have for- 
given him — you love him still ? Have a care how you love 
falsity. But he is sorry — he repents ? Love him then with a 
reservation, for part of him is not your friend. Not all the 
power of the universe can get a man back where he was be- 
fore he did his neighbor wrong. Every step taken in return- 
ing to the right paUi might have carried him forward in it. All 
the moral energy exerted in overcoming unrighteousness might 

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have made for righteousness. We may blot out our share in 
his punishment but his sin cannot be blotted out. Strange 
that man retains a moral sense in spite of all his efforts to 
strangle it with dogma ! 

It is humility rather than pride that keeps the dear- ^md€ 
sighted from perpetually suing for pardon. The fiitil- ^^ humility t 

ity of the plea oppresses hhn. Wrong cannot be 
righted, it may only be avoided, and that is a matter of future 
conduct not of present words. It is better that sorrow for 
one's misdeeds should lie too deep for words, than too shallow 
for actions. The man of shuffling morals is eadly brought to 
his knees. The valiant soul confesses to itself, does penance 
until death, and looks for no absolution. God and man may 
forget my offense, but when I forget it the numbness of spirit- 
ual death has set in. He who asks that his sins be washed 
away b^s for moral blindness. Psu' better ask that the mem- 
ory of his good deeds be blotted out. Character would suffer 
less from the loss. Remorse is tonic, forgiveness is anaesthetic. 
The truly repentant cannot forgive himsdf and why should he 
ask another to do what he finds impossible ? Why claim a 
miracle at the hands of his maker? That he does i^ but an- 
other evidence of the colossal conceit of mortality. 

There is no charity so popular as that which covers a covering 
multitude of sins and keeps them warm and comfort- ^^ warming? 

able. Tenderness to evil is very often an indirect 
cruelty to good. Forgiveness too easily shades off into con- 
nivance. The world may be so busy reforming the wrong- 
doer that it finds no time to encourage the right-doer, and yet 
there may be more genuine philanthropy in smiling upon the 
good man than in weeping over the sot. A little undisguised 
scorn is valuable at times. 

The youth looking about for a career which will bring ^s a 
him most readily into social prominence today might profession. 

logically fix upon crime. The criminal is on every 
tongue and on every page. Government, education, conditions 
are held responsible and vigorously attacked. The individual 
alone is treated gently as an irresponsible effect. And yet man 
is, and always has been, the great first cause of evil. 

Society rallies eagerly at the call of an abstraction. It the virtue 
Is so much easier to build * 'rescue" homes than to close ^ hatino. 

our own to well dressed vice. ** Judge not," we say 
virtuously when we are too cowardly to follow our judgment 
In all our analysis of evil, all our wordy efforts at its suppres- 
sion are we forgetting the vital remedy — to hate it ? 

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Pk«idHit, Ohas. p. ] 

Tiw.ftMld«Bt, Mugaral OoOkr OimkuB. 
iMntary, Aitkvr B. Bmtoa« 114 H. 8|iriiic 81. 
Ttmntm, Wnak A. OibMn, OMhtar lat Haft. Buk. 
CoRwpondlDff HMNtery^B. H. B. EOmm. 

811 KoMliicloa BMd. Lot Aogalw. 

B«?. J. Adnt. 
Aitfcw B. BMilon. 

B Uakanhim. J Dowaay Barrtj, Idward B. Ayw, Mm P. PtMida, Mn. John P. 
nada, Mrs. AlfMd BoIum, lUnarat Oollitr Qnhata, Uim CoUlw, Andrvw MaWally, Bfc. B«?. Ow. ■ontfoncn, 
Um H. p. wnb, B. P. Portv, PraL Cbas. C. Bnfdott, Mn. Jm. W. Seott, Mn. thJtm k. Bawik, Hn. AbbI* D. 
MMnon, Min kgnm Ub«. Mn. M. W. KiiiMid, OoL H. G Otis, H. im<nm, t. R. flimbnrj. Dr. W. Janris Barlow, 
farion Brooka Barlow, Ow. W. Maxtton, Ghaa. L. HntahiMon, U. S Orant. Jr., babd M. R. BvranBoa. 

ADYiaORY BOARD t J«bU Bmttm PkvBMoft, Col. H. 0. Otis, R. Bpaa, W. C. FUftanoB, AMIm 
lawiia^Wini, Gao. B. Bonabrmka, Taaaa L. BMao. Don Mareoa Pontar, Ohaa. OMHt DaTto, Miaa M. P. WDla, 

Cbaimaa Mombonliip ComoiK 

I, Mn. J. 6. MoaalD. 

igM^HE Club*8 work at San Diego, the Mother Mission, is now prac- 
\S^I ^ tically at a standstill for lack of funds. One hundred dollars 
JL was sent down from the Club*s treasury for a starter ; and San 
Diego has raised $115 at home. A very handsome money's worth of 
work has been done for this small sum— thanks to the care of Mr. Eteb* 
bard, architect in charge — in putting brick foundations under tottering 
walls, and cement-capping wasted ones. But this is not enough to do 
for a monument so important in history. The Club will try to set the 
ball rolling again ; and a^n hopes that San Diego will match its con- 
tribution. The appeal is to Americans everywhere. Contributions 
from <1 up are welcome and go net to the work of preserving these 
historic piles. 

Of the 15,000 American educators who met in national convention in 
Los Angeles in July, 72 by count cared to see a California Mission. 
Sixty went to San Fernando, July 15 ; and two days later 12 stepped off 
at Capistrano from a train of 500 with stop-over privileges. In both 
cases, members of the Club did their best to make Uie day pleasant and 


Previously acknowledged, $3680.96. 

New contributions : A Friend in San Diego, $25. 

$1 each : J. E. O'Brien, D. Hitchcock, W. A. Scripps, Mrs. W. A. 
Scripps, Maj. H. Sweeney, Geo. J. Bickel, Dr. R. M. Powers, Miss S. S. 
Crocker, Miss Helen Ballard, all San Diego ; Bertrand B. Taylor, Boston, 

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War ViKws in the Philippines.|r.Co. WATER BCFFALOS, MANILA. Photo by/ 

r.M.D«TwEng.Co. NATIVE WOMAN, MANILA. Photo by Allen. 

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B I Ml ii II li I II !l II 


I i II II 




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WhQi u^w^rtng ftdvertiKmeoti, plc&Ae mention IhAt you " mw it ia tbe 1.aj«o up t^oMsatjis.* 

Santa Fe 

Grand Canon of Arizona 

Two Hundred Miles Long, Over a Mile Deep^ and 
Painted Like a Ftower. 

Reached only by the SANTA FE ROUTE 

Stage Leaves Flagttaff Mondays, WednetdftY* ^^'^ Frldavi, 
Rdlurning^ Arnvca at FUg»t*ff Tueiday*! Thuridayi ar*d Saturdayt, 

* Hi. rialK, CopyriBfat, 1IM, fay OUtct Ui>pmoult. 


Excursion Rates 

from all pointa on th* SanlA Fe Route /^"^/-v-r-vi^Ti-> 

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J NO. .j. BYRNE, Qensrai Paitencer Agent, Los Angelea 

Whgu answering flJvCTtlsements, piMae mimttop jhMt yoti " mw it in the Lai^p of SpytaawB/ 

Anita Cream makesadar] 
skiD lij^hter, clearer, purer. 
removes all rliscoloratioiis. It is 
a medicfll preparation whicb cure», 
it actually coaxes a new skin to th 
surface. The removing of tan is 
tbe least importatit of its accom- 
plishments. It removes blotches, 
pimples, moth and liver patches, 
and restores the clear, transparent 
beauty of ytmlh. 


CK^riP^vlV^^''^''^' . Scptem'ber nineteenth 

GHNTLEMHN . Dunng my recent trip from New York to Los AnKel 
the dust, wind and exposure bo tanned my face and hands th.t upJn 
nving here I was urged by my friends to use Anita Cream. lu so short 
IT.f '* f'^' 7*"^ tenioved every vcBiage of my long trip and the res 
IS most satisfactory. Very truly yours 

Los Angeles, Cal._ ^ BLANCHE BATES, 

A]] druKgists can supply Anita Cream, or you can send 50 cents to U4 FoTTo cent^ -, 

pay postage and package we will send a free sample and a 9 x 16 lithographic art stud\ 

*,.Free ®"it«*Jl«^ i^or framing. No printing on picture. 



ult I 

AMJTA CREAM. Adv. Bureau, 

213 Franklin Street, Los Angeles, CaL 





The Adjustable ^'-Roof " fits any frame, requires 
no bcwmg, and can be put on in a minute. You 
cm) re-cover your own umbreil:i without the sligh 
est trouble or moments delay. 

Take the measure (to the fraction of an inch) of 
-I. . . ^..^^^^^ *^'^ umbrella; count the number of outside 
nbs ; state ff the center rod ts steel or wood ; send to us with Ji.oo 
and we will mail postpaid, a Union Twilled Silk 25 or 26 inch Ad- 
ptpUe Rwf (27 or 28 inch, $1.25; 29 or 30 inch, 11,50). Un^ 
brella Roofs" all sizes and prices from 50 cents to $S.oo each 
accordiagto quality. If yoi' are not absolutelv satisfied inev^rv 
particular, send tlie **roof" back, and we will refund thr 
money jt onctr, including tamps you have used for post- 
D^"*i .^^^r^ ^^^^^rter of a million *' Roofs'* sold. 
,^.^^^ Booklet, *' Umbrella Economy'' with i^imple instruc- 
c>/N^ir?^k. ^' >ns necessary with your order. 

All Urstnjlass dealers sell Jones U mbrel la** Roofs. *^ 

The Joncs-Mullcn Co., 396-398 Broadway, New York. 

M*iiirficturef> ol ibt hifhest mia of Umbnllts to tbe lurmt «lore> Kibe noild. 


PTE7VTBER. 15SS , ,, ^<V Vol. XI, No. 4 

THE BIG BONAN^MARSl ViiU | --^/^y*vv^ 






it ^1 bit: 









ussoriArc tmttt 







'igitized b' 

^1 YEAR ^ 

Wlten tmswerlng^ ■.dTcrHsettieDU^ plcftu meBtion tbmi yoQ " uw It in tlie Lahis of Btmwttais.* 


CALiroRNiACREAM or Lemon 

Nature's Food for the Skin* 

Leiuon, ihc wholelemoii.iudDoth- 
ing but lemon. Lh used in nmk- 
ing this wonderful CaHfoniiB 

Aclrauser and beaulificr— beticr 
Ihftfl Sf>jap. No fHls» no grtase, 
no afknli. Makrs Ihc sklti soft, 
siiioolh and feraltJiy. 

Do you want a clear and tieallliy 
complexion ? Use Cream of 
Lkmom ftud you have It- 
It prevenifi and cureft pimples, 
chapped hands and face, and all 
skin irritatioQS. Prevents and 
removea tan, sunhtifti nnd 
freckles. Rc&torea faded com- 
plexions and ban i^hea wrinkles. 
Everybody should use Cream of 
Leuon instefid of soap. Cleans- 
ing, refreshing, invig^orHtlng— b 
detight for men after shaving. 

Said by all dealers in toiltt Aoaps at 
15c (or 3 oz tube, and 25c, lor (> 
oz. tube If your dealer cannol 
supply it, we will mail eilher 
siase prepaid to von on leceipl 
of price. 

The California Cream of Lemon Co., Los Angeles, Cal- 

Order from 
the *• Big Store. 

''American Home rurnishtngs" 

li the title of our 16- page illustrated booklet which we WBDt to get Into the 
hands of all in Southern California and Arizona who are interested in the i 
beaulifyiifg of home. IV9 free. Your iiamp unrl nddreia on a 
poatnl card will brJn^ U. 

f§ Niles Pease Furniture Co, 

439-4 1 -4J S. Spring St., Las Angeles 

bas for s«l« 

the largest 






to write for our 26tj page 
book free* TellJi how 
men wRh stnall capital 
can make money with a 

MGiiiiiSTER, «ig. mm, 49 mm si. m m. 


are in {lundrHlt of ra*l- 
<]i»i]i:«4, btwiotM pi«e«B. 
c]iuf«h«&. hailm. rte Ao- 
Pe|»l«il br the Viurd of 


Special Indncrinents 
In Agrtlis 

«Ti«l B»»r» whi' tk'-l intrn- 
dHcr the Bitrnra in thel» 
J«>cDhr> For p«n ten lira. 
»JdrB» B. &R, 740 i». 
Jtviu^, Lo« Angela. 

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F. B. Sllverwood'ti beitt Uats are $3 ; regular $6 qualitt< 



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Vol. 11, NO. 4 



Morn on the Pacific. 


Asleep lie the waves on the black, winding beaches, 
The peaks to the west are dim shadows afar . 

A gull drifts high over ; the sacred dawn reaches 
A wan, holy hand to the pale morning star. 

A 'bird thrills the silence ; the eastern skj flushes ; 

Now comes the fair Mom with a rose on her breast, 
While the great sea awakens and trembles and blushes, 

Then dons a gold garment to welcome his guest. 

Taaotna, Wash. 

Summer Dusk. 


Earth's parched lips 
Drink coolness once again, for daylight dies. 

The young moon dips 
A threaded gleam where sunset languid lies. 
And slowly twilight opens starry eyes. 

Low in the west 
Day's fading embers cast a last faint glow 

Behind a crest 
Where curving hills on primrose paleness show 
Sharp-lined in jet. Dusk stillness broods below. 

A first long sigh 
Stirs from the broad and dew- wet breast of night ; 

The leaves reply 
With soft small rustlings ; moths take ghostly flight. 
And waking crickets shrill long-drawn delight. 

La CanadA, Cal. 

Copyright 1699 by Land of Bmuhine Pub. Co. 

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A New Mexican Sheep-King. 


>EW MEXICO was the first **sheep country" in 
the United States. Juan de Oflate, the founder of 
Santa F6 and first colonizer of the territory, brought 
fine Spanish merinos with his costly expedition, and sheep 
have never since failed in New Mexico in spite of the wild 
beasts and nomad Indians. Coronado, by the way, had 
brought sheep to the territory in 1540; but they were killed 
by the savages as soon as he returned to Mexico. 

In time sheep became almost the only wealth of the lonely 
and harrassed territory. A few wealthy men had enormous 
herds ; and though the Apaches and Navajos swept off some- 
times as many as 30,000 sheep in a single raid, the wool indus- 
try has remained through so many adverse centuries the chief 
reliance of New Mexico. In 1822, Francisco Xavier Chavez, 
then governor, better known as El Guero(**The Blond*'), 
owned over a million sheep. These were let out on shares to 
men all over the territory. A later governor, Bartolomd Baca, 
had nearly as many. An old Mexican is still living who used 
to be one of Gov. Baca's mayordomos and had charge of 500,- 
000 sheep, with seven hundred shepherds under him. All the 
shepherds were armed with flintlock muskets, and frequently 
had to use them against the savages, as well as in keeping 
down the bears, cougars, wolves, coyotes, and other animals. 

This old Spanish governor of New Mexico before the United 
States had fairly heard of the territory, was not a bad sort of 
millionaire, and neither wealth nor power spoiled him. Be- 
sides his enormous holding of sheep, he owned a great propor- 
tion of the whole territory, and had mortgages on a large part 
of the remainder. The little hamlet of Cebolleta was for 
twelve successive seasons devoured by the grasshoppers, which 
left no g^reen thing. The people would have perished but for 
Don Bartolom^. He gave them 10,000 sheep ; and the whole 
town turned shepherd. They drank the milk and ate the lambs 
and wethers, and in fine lived off the sheep. When the 
plague of grasshoppers ceased and good times came again for 
Cebolleta, the whole ten thousand sheep and their natural in- 
crease had been devoured, and not one was left to repay Don 
Bartolom6. Nor did he ever ask a reckoning. 

When this gallant old czar of the Southwest was upon his 
death-bed, his sons begged him to arrange his affairs — which 
were all at loose ends. He bade them bring all the papers; 
and after a grand ransacking of the house the expectant heirs 
brought him in a Navajo blanket several bushels of mortgages 
and notes. The veteran said : 

** They who have given me these papers are poor people. 
That they shall not suffer, and to avoid litigation, there is an 

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easy settlement' * — and crawling from bed he flung the great 
mass of papers into the blazing fire-place. It was the fitting 
last act of a cavalier's life. 

Don Bartolom6's daughter Lugarda, by the way, married 
Don ]os6 Luna, uncle of the ex- delegate to Congress from New 
Mexico. Both were immensely wealthy, but put all their 
money in sheep — and lost them all by Indian depredations. 
The last I knew of them, this aged couple — he over one hun- 
dred and she in the nineties — were living in abject poverty 
in a little adobe room, and would long before have starved but 
for their daughter-in-law. A strange irony of fate for the 
heirs of the big-hearted Don who had been for a generation the 
practical king of a territory 300 miles square ! C. F. L. 

C. M. D.Ti« Eng Co. .jug bird Qp PARADISB FLOWER. 

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The Bird of Paradise Flower. 


^ff HIS is the familiar name by which is designated the 
\ flock of golden wings, touched with a glint of bright- 

^ est blue, poised butterfly-fashion on the tips of their 
tall green perches and scientifically christened Strelitzia Regi- 
nae, whose glittering groups conspicuously promote the gayety 
of Southern California gardens. Wanderers from the distant 
Cape of Good Hope, and originally destined to occupy con- 
servatory cages* they have come here to open-air freedom. 

The plant is classified botanically as a member of the ba- 
nana family, and its long leaf-spears suggest, if they do not 
betray, its near relationship to the banana palm and tropical 
canna, from which the principal diflerence of foliage lies in the 
absence of a leaf-stalk, all the leaves starting near the ground, 
forming a general cluster. The flower-bearing scape rises 
reed-like and naked, tipped at each apex with an oblique or 
horizontal and rigid, conduplicate spathe from which several 
large and most extraordinary blossoms successively unfold. 
The three outer divisions of the perianth are from three to four 
inches long and brilliantly yellow in color, one of them con- 
duplicate, tapering to a point and resembling the two larger of 
the vivid blue inner set, which are the true petals and united, 
covering the stamens. The remaining petal is small and un- 
obtrusive. There is a rare variety whose blossoms are white 
and larger than the Strelitzia Reginae ; of this I have seen 
only one specimen. 

The Strelitzia is never a wall-flower, but invariably success- 
ful as a candidate for floral honors, never failing to arrest at- 
tention and elicit admiration not only for its splendid coloring, 
a sunbeam incarnate, but also for the strangely animated qual- 
ity of its bird-like bloom, literally creatures with wings, appar- 
ently threatening to cleave the upper air if approached incau- 
tiously or too near. 


The Zapote- Blanco. 


OUND and vigorous, although nearly a centenarian, the pioneer of 
exotic trees introduced into California stands in the ver^ heart of 

Santa Barbara, on West De la Guerra street, two blocks from State 

street. Casimiroa Edulis (this beine its botanical name) is a native of So- 
nera and other temperate regions of Mexico, and belongs to the order of 
Rntaceae. which comprises also the so-called *' Citrus fruits." It has a 
huge warty trunk, dense spreading crown, evergreen trifoliate leaves, 
and bears small greenish flowers followed by globular yellow fruits, very 
•weet, and endowed with very remarkable narcotic power, so that they 
are said to be used in Mexico for the treatment of insomnia. Our tree, 
most likely a seedling, happens to bear very small fruits, which prob- 
ably accounts for its not having been more widely propagated. A few 
feet only from the tree, almost hidden among the weeds, the foundations 
are to be seen of an adobe building where Colonel Fremont estab- 
lished his powder magazine in the early times of the occupation of Cali- 
fornia. In the absence of an appropriate tablet, the large Zapote 
watches as a sentinel these old memorials, a much older evergreen 
memorial itself. (See next page. ) _ OOQ Ic 

Suite BwlMrA, Cal. a -™ -7 ^ 

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The City of the Saints. 


HUT in by a more than 
half circle of mountains 
_ — masses of splendid 
violet, bronze, coppery reds, 
{i^lints of green, broken by en- 
dianting canons, with the wil- 
low-fringed Jordan at the west, 
and beyond it the rocky shores 
of the incomparable lake — Salt 
Lake City has a setting which 
appeals to all who have eyes to 
i^^H^m ^ ^^^B ^^ ^® * matter of history (in 

[P WflMH ■ ' ^r ^^H Utah) that Brigham Young, 

1 'VFt^ U fkt^^^K. ^^^ °^^ ^^ ^^^' where- 

'er K^ p 9 i Wl iDl^^^B ^i^^ ^^ ^^> emerging from the 

cafion which he named ** Emi- 
gration," into the valley of the 
Jordan, on the 24th day of July, 
1847, in quest of the "promised 
land," declared that he would 
look no further for a site upon 
which to build a city — and it is 
said that then and there he 
had a vision of what would be. 
Whether this is true, or whether 
in this spot where Nature has 
done her perfect work he 
builded better than he knew, no 
one can say. He proceeded to 
build a city upon a plan of his 
o?ra, and although many changes have occurred with the coming in of 
a large number of Gentiles it is still significantly quaint, curious and 
picturesque. Tourists come, spend a day in driving about the city and 
go again, with the complaint tnat they see nothing, unless it be the tab- 
ernacle, that is distinctly " Mormon;" yet the element they seek is on 
every street and comer where the people stand and talk,, but recognition 
of it comes only with some familiarity with them and their ways. 

As originally laid out, each lot contained one and one-quarter acres, 
land enough for a small farm ; steeets were 100 feet wide, not including 
sixteen-foot sidewalks, and to this division of land into large lots and 
wide streets is due the village-like appearance which the city still pre- 

The only building material available in the early da^s was adobe brick, 
and in the old parts of the city, where fashion in architecture is as yet un- 
known and cabbages instead of grass grow in the front yards, one can 
see old houses, built in 1848-9. Honeysuckle and English ivy climb 
over gray, crumbling walls, and lilacs, roses and fruit trees grow close 
around them. The poverty-stricken people — the lowest class of Swedes 
and Norwegians — spend the most of the daylight hours out of doors, 
gossiping over fences or drawing their numerous children about the 
streets in baby wagons of their own construction. A rough wooden box 
or basket fastened to a sled answers the purpose. The Norwegian 
mother, when dressed for a promenade, has a thick, dark veil tied over 
her ears, and on the top of it an antiquated, high-crowned brown straw hat, 
brought from Norway years ago. She wears short, stiffly starched skirts 

App Kng. Co. 


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and the coarsest shoes. But even the least progressive among them are 
becoming Americanized ; wooden shoes are not often seen on the street, 
and a woman with a load of firewood on her back is not an everyday 

Whatever Brigham Yonng*s taste may have been in regard to clothes 
— and it is said that he was in the habit of tying a red handkerchief 
over his head when he went to the theater accompanied by from ten to 
eighteen Mrs. Youngs — he had a fine sense of proportion and color in 
building in stone or adobe. Fortunately, in the early days, he set men 
not otherwise employed to building walls of cobble stones, cemented to- 
gether with adobe mud, and these walls, from twelve to twenty feet 
high, are today a delight to every artistic eye. 

A massive, grey, pillared wall shuts in the lower story of the ancient 
Lion House, the former home of Brigham Youn^, from the eaze of the 
public. In this long, yellow, dormer- windowed house, wiUi the iron 
figure of a lion above its front portico, some of the old wives still live, 
but they are seldom seen except as one has glimpses of them through 

App Enf Co. 


the shining seven-by-nine window panes. Curious questioners now and 
then pick up bits of information as to their manner of life in former 
years when the great man with ''the head of a god" regulated the affairs 
of his home, or homes, to his own liking. Each wife made herself use- 
ful according to her talents ; one was chief housekeeper, another cook ; 
another could darn socks quickly and well ; another was dexterous in the 
use of scissors, and cut out many of the ugly "endowment garments'' 
which good Saints wear. Detesting idleness on general principles, he 
found work for all his family. 

Next door is the Beehive House, equally ancient and interesting ; 
here he had his office, and some living-rooms, and received calls from 
many distinguished people, among them R. W. Emerson, who was not 
favorably impressed with his host. The Beehive House is now owned 
and occupied by a wealthy Mormon who makes no pretense of sunder- 
ing any of his plural marriage relations. 

Prom the windows of his office in the Beehive House Brigham Young 
could look out at Eagle Gate, which he built in the early da3'S, partly at 
least, in the interest of the church. Through it, up a winding road, past 
his walled garden, men went with ox teams to City Creek Ca&on for 

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wood ; returning, thej were required to leave a tenth of their load at 
Eagle Gate, as tithings. The present officers of the church use various 
methods to induce unwilling brethren to give up a tenUi of their in- 
comes ; Brigham Young had but one : he commanded, and the tithings 
were paid. The tithing house is close by, but is scarcely visible from 
the street, and is uninteresting as seen from the outside. At the |>resent 
day Eagle Gate is not a eate in fact, but an arch merely ; electric cars 
run under it to a steep hill beyond, turning there into First street — ^a new 
street, and no part of Brigham Young's plan. Following the line of the 
electric road one passes vacant Jots where green things grow, the backs 
of fine, old Mormon mansions and the fronts of ugly new ones, reach- 
ing at last the only really beautiful spot on this incongruous street — a 
la^e, plain, green yard, in a comer of which is Brigham Young's grave, 
enclosed by an iron fence. In perfect order and taste, and m accord 
with his love of verdure, sunlight and space, it is worth a walk up the 
hill to see. It is a matter for thankfulness that the yard is not likely to 


jto^^Bsb^ '^A 




^^^^^^^ — ^H 



be cut up and sold for building lots in the next forty or fiflty years at the 
least. The gate is always locked, and the spikes on the top of the fence 
which encloses the yard are sharp enough to shut out relic hunters 

From the windows of the Beehive House one can look at a bronze 
statue of Brigham Young, by C. E. Dallin, now of Boston. In the mid- 
dle of the chief business street, it is, next to the temple, the most con- 
spicuous object in the city. The face is thoughtful, benignant and 
pleasing, ana those who knew him well assert that it is very life-like. On 
another comer is the Gardo House — formerly known as the '* Amelia 
Palace'* — the exclusive home of the last Mrs. Young (of whom much 
might be written). 

Only a block away is the great, granite temple of the Latter- Day 
Saints, and the odd-looking, squat tabernacle in its shade. On its high- 
est pinnacle is a statue of the Angel Maroni — of whom much is related 
in tne Book of Mormon — ^with a trumpet at his lips, as he is believed to 
have appeared to Joseph Smith. This is also by Mr. Dallin, of whose work 

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the Mormon people are yery proud, he having been born and brought up 
among them. Twelve feet high, and an -exquisite work of art in every 
detail, it pierces the sky at too great a height to be seen distinctly from 
the street. 

The Temple, which was thirty-nine years in building, is in imitation 
of the Temple of Solomon, the architects following as nearly as possible 
the description given of it in the bible. It is not open to the public, and 
public meetings are never held in it. Marriages are performed there, 
privately, but with much ceremony. Those who have passed through 
the ordeal of a temple marriage are not disposed to be communicative m 
regard to the matter, except in the case of some loquacious individuals 
who cannot resist the inclination to enlighten their Gentile friends— but 
there is a very general belief among people on the outside that the cere- 
monies are quite spectacular. 

One may by chance hear a temple worker— one who goes there to be BRIGHAM YOUNG*S GRAVE. 

baptized for the souls of the dead — ^speak guardedly of such portions of 
the interior as he or she may have seen — of white and gold rooms, im- 
mense paintings representing scenes in Mormon history, of the great 
baptismal font which rests on the backs of twelve bronze oxen. The old 
but well preserved wall which encloses Temple Block adds much to its 
peculiar beauty. As one looks at its pondrous gates and listens to the 
subdued tones of the thousands who pass through them every Sunday 
afternoon, one wonders if the astute disseminators of a new theology are 
not wise in maintaining at this Temple — their chief holy place, built for 
a habitation for Jesus Christ when he shall come a second time to earth — 
an appearance suggestive of seclusion, secrecy and remoteness. 

One of the most faithful temple workers in the city is a white haired 
woman — the mother of Mrs. Ann Eliza Young. Her aged father, on the 
contrary, will have nothing to do with the church. 

One can stroll through streets shaded by stately Lombardy poplars, 
and gaze at long, low-roofed houses with tiny windows and from three to 

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six front doors, and know that in the small, dark rooms there were once 
as many wives as doors, the husband spending a week with each in turn. 
In whose keeping he left his best pipe and Sunday clothes neither his- 
tory nor the gossip of the day has told us ; they may have been left 
witn the one who cooked the best dinners. That these weekly visits to 
each family were then, as they are now in numerous instances, an occa- 
sion for the killing of the fatted calf, cannot be doubted. Of all this the 
tourist hears vague rumors but sees nothing. The mixed relationships, 
the felicities and infelicities, the tragedy and pathos as well as the irre- 
sistibly comic side of Mormon domestic life are not apparent to one who 
merely passes by. 

One who has the patience to stand at the gates of Temple Block for 
half an hour any Sunday afteinoon will see the extremes of refined 
fanaticism, and the unthinking Norwegian animal — ^the bent backs and 
dull eyes of those who have struggled through many weary years for a 
bare existence, and narrow-browed, repulsive children. Nowhere else in 
the world, perhaps, can be seen so strange a crowd ; no one would ever 
mistake them for the members of any other church, orthodox or liberal. 
Their incapacity for reason — plainly stamped on their faces — is such that 
they see no difficulty in accepting as facts doctrines at which all the rest 
of the civilized world wonders. They believe in the efficacy of baptism 
for the dead, revelation direct from God through authorized revelators, 
the gift of tongues — and its concomitant, the gift of interpretation — in 
prophecy, the resurrection of the physical body, obsession by devils, the 
renewal of this earth by fire, the conversion of all " Lamanites," i.e., 
Indians, to Mormonism, and, generally, that polvgamy was and is a di- 
vine institution, to be |>erpetuated eternally tnrou^h the sealing of 
women to men as celestial wives. The practical side of polygamy is 
overlooked by those who condemn it as a thing of evil ; in the outskirts 
of the city women work in the fields with men, and also without them, 
for many men, possessors of farms (and wives) are absent on missions, 
and three or four wives do the work of an equal number of hired men. 
The wish to enlarge the kingdom of God is not (to judge from appear- 
ances) the only reason which impels men to become polygamists ; many 
a man has found that the easiest way to square an overdue account with 
his female house-servant was to marry her. 

But notwithstanding all this, and much more untouched through lack 
of space, and much more still that can be seen and felt, yet is too illu- 
sive for expression, the city called •* Zion," by thousands who believe it 
to be the fairest spot on earth, has a beauty and charm peculiarly its 
own, which, once known, is not forgotten. 

My Brother s Keeper. 


URELV it is not un-American to love fair-play and education. 
There are many noisy persons, reinforced by a multitude 
of thoughtless ones, who disprize scholarship and glory in 
tyrannizing over everyone who is weaker. But I take it , 
that the typical American does not deliberately prefer 
dunces nor bullies. It is the trade-mark of a cheap and 
ignorant mind to be afraid of learning and to distrust ex- 
perience ; and I do not believe that trade-mark belongs to 
the United States. We cannot all be scholars nor heroes ; 
but we can all respect heroes and scholars— and so we all 
shall so long as there is safety in' our blood. The two first 
standards by which we judge men are courage and wisdom. By 

Continued from August number. 

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those standards, those who oppose ignorant injustice, even in the 
*'name of humanity" have no fear to be measured beside those who 
practice it. So far as I know, they need not fear comparison by their 
classical education, their later study or their out-door manhood. They 
have learned as much English, arithmetic and Latin as the people who 
think strabismic ; they know a good deal more of the higher studies, 
have traveled more (on the average) and dared more. For they are a 
considerable class in weight, if not in numbers. If you know a man's 

C. N. tfaTU Kbg. CO. 


Copyrighted by 0. F. Lummis 

scientific attainments and his experience, you can confidently predicate 
his notions as to the American Indian. And vice versa. Given the 
theory of an '* Eastern philanthropist" or salaried * 'educator," it is im- 
mediately easy to gauge just how little he knows by himself and how 
little of what scholars have been learning (and proving to all who care 
to know) for some four hundred years. 

The ridiculous and unjust "system" now sought to be put in opera- 
tion is as brilliant as that of the persons who try to fell a pine-tree by cut- 

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C. M. DmvwEnf.Co. jjqjj aMBROSIO ABEITA From an old DaKuerrwHyi*. 

Th« Pueblu Indian who lent the i^old coin to pay off the Unitid Stales troopk in Naw Mtxico in 

the war of the Rebellion. 

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C . M. DsviB Kng Co. 


Copyrifht by C. P. Luuiuiis. 

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CM DaTiilBC.Co. WHY NOT SBPARATB FATHER AND DAUGHTBR ? Copy"t»»t »>y C ^- Lummls. 

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ting off the needles. It does not even pretend that it can, nor that it 
cares to, educate the Indian home. It does not remotely dream of any 
such common-sense and justice as trying to uplift the father and mother 
at least enough to enable them to understand and sympathize with their 
"educated" child. They are to be left in their blindness. All they 
amount to, with the block-builders, is to breed more children for the 
i^chools — children to be taken away from them and kept away from 
them. It is about as lofty humanity and statesmanship as "wolf- farm- 
ing" — where a squatter keeps his old wolves penned to breed pups for 
the bounty the State pays on wolf-scalps. 

That is anywhere and auy-when a curious caricature of education 
which unfits the pupil for his environment. Thousands of Indian children 
have already been thus unfitted by the unread theorists. But now the 
systematists desire not to return them at all to their environment. The 
Indian child, wheedled from home to a distant school, is never to see his 
home again — if this precious project shall be carried out. Of course 
six years at Carlisle will teach this child all that an American child, 
empowered by centuries of heredity, can know, and there will be no 
inequality in the competition into which we will pitch him, after we have 
robbed him of home, parents and friends! Meanwhile the deluded 
parents may console themselves by rearing more children to feed the 
machine. I say '* deluded" by cold intention; because no Indian 
parent would knowingly surrender a child for life ; and I believe the 
Constitution of the United States does not permit parents to be de- 
prived forcibly of their children. 

Doleful pictures were painted in the convention of the dreadfulness 
of sending ** educated" Indian children back to their homes in the New 
Mexican pueblos where several hundred natives died last year of small- 
pox. It never seemed to penetrate these blessed official intelligences 
that anybody but the Indians could be responsible for smallpox in 
places under the direct thumb of the government I The government 
absolutely controls these Indian villages. It spends several hundred 
thousand dollars a year in salaries, and still more in other channels, to 
snpport a small army of place-holders whose livelihood depends on the 
fact that there are Indians. A small part of the money and care now 
devoted to educating Indian children off the earth would sanitate every 
Indian camp and town in the United States, so there would be no more 
epidemics ; would maintain in each a good physician to stop the ab- 
normal mortality, and a good teacher to educate the Indians. The 
youngsters would learn more slowly, of course, than they do in the 
herd-schools far East ; but the parents would learn too — for a good 
teacher would be a welcome friend in every home ; which I know, be- 
cause I have seen. Therefore the Indians, as a whole, would be educated 
faster. The man or woman who does not know, by this year of more 
or less grace 1899, that the soundest way in education and the only mer- 
ciful way in humanity to educate an ** inferior race" is to educate it 
at home and altogether, confesses nakedness of science, history and 

But these people are muddying our brook from down stream. An ex- 
cuse is always easy, when mutton and an appetite encounter. The In- 
dians have lands which we wish — though the sacred honor of the na- 
tion is pledged to their security in those lands. They beget children, 
whose education means a salary to several thousand persons — very 
many of whom would dislike greatly to do that educating on the 
frontier. It is better to take a son from his mother than to get away 
from '* all the modern conveniences " — for the teacher. I do not think 
a salary a sin. I honor any man or woman who truly earns a salary in 
the Indian service. But all human experience teaches us that a '* job " 
is not conducive to logic and conscientiousness. Those who get their 
bread and butter by a system — not to mention their mince pie— are no- 

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torionsly notlthe coolest judges of that system's merits. Much as I re- 
spect several of the larger (and better paid) officials who are forming 
our Indian policy, I cannot forget that their money and their power 
come exclusively from their ** job." You may forget it if you prefer. 
You may also forget that not one of them has the remotest weight as a 
scholar, even in the branch of human science which supports him. Or 
if you think this statement too sweeping, you can try to get him before 
a Civil Service Commission of scientists to be examined as to what he 
does know of all that scientists value. 

Because the aborigine is not expert on Jenner*s discovery and on scien- 
tific sanitatiC>n, the civilized government which, upon the top of the ob- 
ligation of every decent man to the weaker, has taken as solemn vows as 
any nation is able to take ; which knows how to spread civilization 
around the world but does not know enough to vaccinate its wards — 
that government will take his children away from its official smallpox ; 
and leave him to die in it ! 

The Convention did, indeed, resolve in favor of compulsory vaccina- 
tion, and so far so good. But if a competent person had drawn the res- 
olutions, it would have been ** further resolved " that the job be en- 
trusted to no thick-headed Dogberry who would need a company of 
soldiers to back him, who would storm a little hamlet, and scare women 
and babies half to death to do what any person fit for th^ mission could 
do alone and with friendly feeling. Hard words ? If ypn say so, yon 
do not know our recent shameful records at Zuni and Moqui ; nor do 
you know how easily manlier and wiser men have done alone and with- 
out friction what ignorant timidity turned into a brutal disgrace. The 
record of these things is one long story of incompetence ; often of 
brute force ; sometimes of tragedy. And never once was there the re- 
motest excuse. 

It is and has been — and, alas, I fear, will be — the trouble that this 
great, philanthropic, alleged Christian nation has sent people who 
didn't know anything about the mission they were sent on. Now a 
man may be a very honorable and wise person ; but if he doesn't know 
book-keeping his virtues will not impell you to put him in charge of 
your books. 

One of the few hopeful signs is that (for the first time in American 
history) a woman is United States Superintendent of Indian Schools. 
Miss Estelle Reel is a woman of charm. Her paper before the Conven- 
tion was sound and sane. It even advised patience in the attempt to 
make the Indian civilize himself ten times faster than our forefathers 
did. I have a good many hopes of Miss Reel. It does not seem prob- 
able that a woman can be so many kinds of a self-deceived brute as 
some of Miss Reel's predecessors have been ; and she »eems to be not 
only a woman but a wise woman, and a good one. If she is what I 
hope, she can do a longer-enduring and a broader work than any woman 
has ever done in America. She cannot do it by becoming a cog in the 
machine ; nor need she wreck the machine to do it. Her only cue is to 
learn what she can and trust her instincts as a woman. And ten thou- 
sand homes that were American when your ancestors and mine ran 
naked in Europe will come upon her conscience one day, if there is 
a Judgment; for she alone, in her day, can turn the scales for them, 
for geod or for evil. 

[to be continued.] 

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The Big Bonanza. 


HERE is a race of giants among mines as well as among men ; and 
this race seems to be all of the same family, with distinct and 
well-marked features of relationship. They are all situated in 
the high mountains, about a mile above ocean level, along the western 
side of the American continents ; all bear both gold and silver ; all run 
in a general northerly and southerly direction ; all have a dip of about 
forty degrees, and all are contained within a foot-wall of diorite and a 
hanging wall of porphyry, or other hard rocks resembling them. The 
veins vary in width and quality and in the proportion of their gold to 
their silver ; but all are, or have been, so extensive in the production 
of the two precious metals that the mind can with difficulty grasp an 
adequate conception and calculation of their wealth. 

The largest, or at least the best producer, of these giant mines is that 
of Potosi in Bolivia, South America, which has been worked some three 
hundred years and has yielded about seventeen hundred millions of 
dollars. The next largest is that of Guanajuato in Mexico, which in 
about the same length of time has yielded twelve hundred millions of 
dollars. Next is that of Zacatecas in Mexico, whose yield has been 
about eight hundred and fifty millions of dollars. Next to that is San 
Luis Potosi in Mexico, which has yielded seven hundred and fifty 
millions; and, following that, the mines of Chihuahua, with a yield of 
five hundred millions. The last of these giant mines — that is, the last 
to be discovered and developed — is the Comstock lode of Nevada, which, 
though worked for only about thirty years as against the three hundred 
years of the others, has already yielded four hundred millions of dollars. 
There are a number of other mines, such as the Tajo at Rosdrio in Sin- 
aloa, and the Candeldria in Duraugo, which have turned out from 
eighty to a hundred millions each ; but enormous yielders as they are, 
they can hardly be counted in the family of the giants above men- 
tioned. Nor are the wide-spread, life-giving gold mines of California, 
which have poured out their hundreds of millions, nor those of Austra- 
lia, Venezuela, Montana, Utah, Colorado or Arizona, to be counted, be- 
cause they are of a different character, usually confined to one metal, 
and belong to a separate and distinct family. 

There can be no doubt that only a comparatively few of the great 
mines of the world have as yet been discovered, or in other words, that 
the unpenetrated bowels of the earth are richly lined with undreamed 
of treasures. Unquestionably between Potosi in Bolivia and Virginia 
City in the United Stales, and probably beyond them north and Ibuth, 
and in the same chain of mountains, which have been found so rich in 
special spots, there are multitudinous other deposits that it will be the 
business of future enterprise to explore, develop and turn into the lap 
of commerce. That this is so appears plain from the fact that nearly 
every one of the giant mines referred to was discovered by accident and 

Author of The HiBtorj of California. 

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that, except in the few places where precious deposits have been found 
lying loose in ont-croppings, nothing is known of what lies beneath the 

It is of course well understood that most of the geological formations 
of the earth's crust and most of the strata, even in regions where mines 
are found, are not metalliferous. But within certain limits, and partic- 
ularly in the lines of similar upheaval and disturbance, between local- 
ities where great mines have been discovered, and also in places of anal- 
ogous formation where no deposits have as yet been unearthed, there is 
no good reason why there should not be bonanzas as great as, or even 
greater than, any so far reached. 

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The story of the discovery and development of the ** Big Bonanza " 
of the Comstock lode will Hlustrate how little was known, and how un- 
certain the prospect of finding anything of the kind, when Mackay 
drifted into it, and at the same time how richly repaid was plucky and 
persistent endeavor, guided and directed by good sense and practical in- 
telligence. It appears that searching for gold commenced on the east- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada in very early mining times. There were 
indistinct rumors that Jedediah S. Smith, the first American overland 
visitor to California, had found gold somewhere between the Sierra and 

CM Davis Ing. Co. 

Wm. S. O'Brien. 
Jas. G Fair. 


J. C. Flood. 
J. W. Mackay. 

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Salt Lake, about 1826. But there was nothing definite on the subject of 
mineral-bearing ground in that neighborhood until about 1849, the year 
after the great discovery in California, when some of the Mormons, who 
contemplated settlement and sojourned for a while in Carson Valley, 
washed out a few golden grains from the gravel and sand of one of its 
gulches. This led to farther examination, and it was soon found that 
there was gold, though in small quantity, in the gulches in almost every 
direction. In 1850 a few of the restless and roving miners of Califor^ 
nia, known as ** prospectors," who were never satisfied with ** good 
enough " but were continually hunting for ** something better," crossed 
over the Sierra summit and in the course of a year or two established 
mining camps on the southern and eastern slopes of what was after- 
ward called Mount Davidson. This famous mountain, which is situ- 
ated some ten miles a little north of east from the northern extremity 
of I^e Tahoe, rises to a height of seven thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-seven feet above sea-level and constitutes the dominating peak 
of a cluster of rough, bare and desolate highlands, known as the 
Washoe Mountains, lying a few miles east of the main chain of the 
Sierra Nevada and betvreen the Truckee river on the northwest and 
Carson river on the southeast Prom the summit of Mount Davidson, 
which is some six or seven miles from the nearest point on Carson river 
and elevated nearly three thousand feet above it, several deep, rugged 
and tortuous cafions take their rise, the most important of which are 
one on the southerly side of the mountain, known as Gold Cafion and 
two on the easterly side of the mountain, known as Six-Mile Cafion 
and Seven-Mile Cafion. 

All the prospectors and miners who had gone over from California in 
the earliest ^Fifties confined themselves chiefly to Gold Cafion, in about 
the middle of which, and some four miles from its mouth at Carson 
river, they founded a little village called Johntown. These men were 
looking for placer gold — that is to say, gold that could be washed out of 
the gravels and sands of the ravines — of which they found enough to 
justify their sojourn in Gold Cafion ; but in the course of a few years 
others found considerable gold also in Six Mile Canon on the other side 
of the mountain. As a matter of fact the metal of both cafions had 
been washed down from the decomi>o6ed outcroppings of the great 
ledges, then, as yet, undiscovered and unsuspected, near the summit of 
the mountain ; and the natural course of inquiry and investigation, if the 
miners of those regions at that time had been active, persistent and intel- 
ligent men, would have led them up the cafions and toward the sources 
from which the precious grains of the ravines had been washed down. 
But as a rule those very early gold-diggers were not only a rough but an 
ignorant set, who spent most of their time in hanging around the 
saloons and gambling tables of Johntown. They seem to have been 
well represented by a couple of loud-mouthed and rather disreputable 
characters, one of whom, named James Fennimore, was usually known 
as " Old Virginia," and the other, named Henry Comstock, after whom 
the great Mount Davidson vein was subsequently improperly called. 

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OS aeconiit of hk addiction to flap-jacks as much more easily made 
than bread, enjoyed the common sobriquet of " (Md Pancake." Men 
of this chus had noidea of silTer. It is leported that soon alter their 
adrent in the region, a Mexican, iHio had wandered from some of tiie 
aigentiferoQS provinces of tiie sorithem Cordillera, attempted to con- 
Tince them that the monntain contained "mncha plats ; ** but, if this 
was so, they either did not understand or did not believe him. As they 
scraped the cafions they found the auriferous gravel becoming darker 
and more difficult to work on account of what they sometimes called 
" sand of iron," sometimes " lead'* and sometimes ** heavy blue stuff," 
and in the course of cleaning out their sluices many an execration was 
heaped upon the "accursed base metal" which clogged the riffles and 
with fierce maledictions was pitched out upon the reiuse piles. And 
even when they found that, in ascending the cafions, the gold became 
of leas and leas value on account of the increasing percentage of silver 
that was mixed with it, they could not understand or appreciate what 
that significant fact meant 

But there were a couple of Pennsylvania boys, named Hoaea Ballon 
Grosh and Ethan Allen Grosh, who were of di£Eerent caliber. They 
were brothers, sons of a Universalist clergyman, fairly well educated, 
intelligent, industrious, sober and honest They had emigrated to 
California in 1849, aetUed and worked at mining in Bl Dorado county, 
and in 1851, in the search for something better than they had, 
crossed the Sierra and prospected in Carson Valley. Liking the general 
appearance of the mining ground, they returned in 1353 and camped 
in Gold Cafion. There they found native silver, which showed itself in 
thin sheets, broken very fine, and resembling lead, which the ordinary 
miners took it to be. Following up the indications they discovered 
several veins of silver ore, one of which seems to have been at the 
forks of Gold Canon and another at Sugar Loaf in Six-Mile Cafion. 
But, unfortunately, the Grosh brothers, having no capital, were com- 
pelled to rely for their necessary supplies upon such small quantities 
of gold as they could gather in their prospecting expeditions and thus 
barely eked out a living. In the autumn of 1854, on account of want 
of proper means to meet the rigors of another winter in the Washoe 
mountains, they went back to their old camp near Mud Springs, in Bl 
Dorado county, California, but in the spring of 1855, full of enthnsiaam 
for their discoveries on Mount Davidson, they returned there and re- 
sumed investigations. In the course of the next two years they made 
several locations, all of which afterward proved to be on the Comstock 
lode. By the end of that time they were certain of the value of their 
discovery, Evidence exists in the shape of letters written in 1857 that 
one of their veins produced quantities of a soft, easily-worked rook, 
containing silver ores of violet-blue, indigo-blue, blue-black and green- 
black colors, and that a rough assay of it indicated a yield at the rate 
of thirty-five hundred dollars per ton — a value which seemed to them 
incredible, but which they were convinced proved beyond any doubt 
the great wealth of their discovery. But just as they were thus upon 

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the threshold, so to speak, of an unlimited fortane, Hosea, on August 
10, 1857, while at work prospecting, accidentally struck his pickaxe 
through one of his feet, and the consequence was that blood-poisoning 
set in, and on September 2 he died. His brother, Bthan Allen, after 
somewhat recovering from the sad blow he had thus sustained, at- 
tempted in November to return for the winter as usual to the milder cli- 
mate of California. But he was overtaken on the summit of the Sierra 
by a snowstorm. On account of the delay occasioned by the storm, he 
ran out of provisions. By killing his mule he managed to subsist, but 
he could not escape the terrible cold, and both his legs were frozen to 
above the knees. Though finally rescued, and though his legs were am- 
putated, it was too late. He died on December 10, 1857, only a few 
months after his ill-fated brother. 

After the death of the Grosh boys, little or nothing was for some 
time heard or known about silver on Mount Davidson. That they had 
been aware of a large argentiferous deposit in the mountain there can 
be no doubt ; but they were not talkative. On the contrary they were 
very reserved and kept their business strictly to themselves. Had they 
or either of them lived a year or two longer, the history of the Washoe 
mines would have been entirely different. But when they died, no one 
knew or appreciated their discoveries; and mining affairs in the cafions 
and gulches of Mount Davidson went on in the same slip-shod manner 
as they had gone on in the times of the first prospectors. It was subse- 
quently rumored that Ethen Allen Grosh, when he started on his fatal 
trip to return to California in November, 1857, left his cabin in charge 
of Henry Comstock, then a comparative newcomer in the mines, and 
that Comstock learned of the Grosh discovery from papers of the 
Grosh boys found in the cabin. But whether this was so or not (and 
the probabilities are against the truth of the rumor), nothing was said 
about silver deposits and nothing was done indicating any knowledge of 
them for several years further. The old miners still devoted themselves 
to washing the gravels and sands of the bars and flats for gold, bewail- 
ing the deterioration of its quality as they ascended in their workings 
toward the higher ridges and cursing the " heavy blue stuff'' that inter- 
fered with their gains. 

One day in the spring of 1859, Old Virginia, in prospecting on the 
ridge east of Gold Cafion, upon casting his eyes across the deep gulch, 
was attracted by a peculiar looking mound, and upon going to it, with 
several others, a few days afterward, struck earth, some of it in a 
gopher hole, which, on being washed, proved rich in gold. It was still 
richer in the ''blue stuff" that had bothered them so much lower down 
the mountain ; but, on account of the gold, they staked out placer 
claims of fifty feet each — the limit allowed by the mining laws of the 
district— and Old Virginia, as the discoverer, was allowed to take first 
choice. After working a short time they found that they had struck 
upon a rich locality ; and, as usual on such occasions, they com- 
menced hunting a name for it, and finally settled upon Gold Hill. It 
proved to be the wash and detritus of the south end of what was after- 

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ward known as theComstock lode. Comstock himself snbBequently 
claimed to have been the discoverer, and urged his claims with effosiTe 
volubility ; bnt the facts seem to have been against him. However this 
may have been, most of the Johntown residents abandoned their 
shanties there and moved to Gold Hill, where the search for gold con- 
tinued to be rewarded with reasonable returns. 

About the same time, two Irish miners named Peter O'Reilly and Pat- 
rick McLaughltn, old residents of Johntown, who had been prospect- 
ing without any great success in what was known as Six-Mile Cafion on 
tiie east side of Mount Davidson, some five or six miles north from Gold 
HiU, in a desperate effort to make enough to leave the region, selected 
ground higher up the mountain than all the other claims, and near a 
spring known as '*01d Man Caldwell's," where they struck earth that 
paid reasonably well in gold, but carried more than common of the 
black and blue stuff that had caused so much trouble and disappoint- 
ment. As a matter of fact they had struck the top of the Ophir mine 
at the north end of the Comstock lode. It was an outcropping of the 
mighty fissure vein, which extended frdm the black mound of the 
Ophir to the black mound of the Gold Hill. The surface of it was 
composed of decomposed quartz, carrying a remunerative amount of 
free gold, which was all they were after, and a very large amount of 
the black and blue matter, supposed to be base metal, which 
was thrown out of the pans, cradles and sluices, and made long, black 
refuse heaps wherever claims were worked. While O'Reilly and Mc- 
Laughlin were engaged in washing out the first dirt at the spring, Com- 
stock, who happened to be in the neighborhood, rode up, and, noticing 
the find, at once laid claim to the spring and ground, stating that 
he and one Penrod had bought out Old Man Caldwell and that he had 
also located a stock range over all that part of the mountain. He in- 
sisted, therefore, that O'Reilly and McLaughlin should take Penrod and 
himself in as equal partners in their discovery ; and, after some contro- 
versy, in which Comstock very successfully played what is usually called 
the game of bluff, they, having no idea of the extraordinary value of what 
they had found, consented to his demands. As a matter of fact Com- 
stock does not appear to have had a particle of right to the ground ; he 
owned nothing ; he had found nothing ; but to hear him talk, he was 
the owner of everything in sight ; and he afterward claimed that he 
had given Sandy Bowers, Joe Plato and nearly all the other old miners, 
who suddenly found themselves rich by having locations between Cald- 
well's spring on the north and Gold Hill on the south, their respective 
claims. He had so much to say about himself and made so much noise 
that people began to tell of him as the most important man in the re- 
gion ; and it was for this reason that the new discovery got to be known 
by his name. 

The auriferous earth struck by O'Reilly and McLaughlin was a streak 
only some six inches deep on the slope of the mountain. They fol- 
lowed it up hill, and suddenly, on June 10, 1859, found that the pay 
dirt turned and went into the mountain. It seems to have increased in 

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richness of free gold as they advanced, as it also did in the blue stuff or 
supposed base metal ; but when the deposit was found to turn into the 
mountain their supposition was that the mine was about to come to an 
end and that they would have to seek elsewhere if they expected to 
keep up the supply of bacon and slap-jacks in their cabins. It is true 
. they were each taking out several hundred dollars' worth of gold dust a 
day ; they had formed a camp which they sometimes called Mount 
Pleasant Point, sometimes Ophir Diggings and finally Virginia City. And 
the fame of the new gold find spread far and wide ; but no one had any 
idea of the magazine of wealth under their feet. They had on that 
June 10, 1859, when they found the pay dirt turning into the mountain, 
struck the greatest, richest, most extraordinary metalliferous vein in the 
United States and perhaps in the world. But it was much more as a 
silver vein than a gold vein ; it was, so to speak, a repetition of the 
marvelous veins of Mexico and not improbably as rich, and perhaps 
richer than any of the Mexican " vetas ; " but there was not one among 
the miners there that had any idea of silver or knew its ores when they 
saw them. There was not a Grosh in the whole company, nor even a 
person of sufficient intelligence and energy to make inquiry as to 
what the obstructing blue stuff, that gave so much trouble and occa- 
sioned so many maledictions when pitched out among the tailings, really 

About the time that the streak of pay dirt before mentioned was found 
to turn into the mountain, or in other words, when the vein from which 
the pay dirt in the form of decomposed metalliferous quartz had been 
washed down, was struck, there happened to be present an old resident 
of Nevada City, in California, by the name of John P. Stone. Though 
he knew as little as the Mount Davidson miners about silver, his atten- 
tion was attracted by the hard, blue stuff that had given so* much 
trouble and that lay around in great and ugly-looking, dark masses on 
every side ; and being of a somewhat inquisitive mind, he gathered up a 
bagful or two of specimens and carried them over to Nevada City. There 
they were subjected to the examination of two skillful assayers, one J. J. 
Ott of Nevada City and theother Melville Attwood of Grass Valley ; and 
both concurred in pronouncing them ore of extraordinary value, indicat- 
ing a yield of at least fifteen hundred and ninety-five dollars worth of 
gold and thirtyone hundred and ninety-six dollars worth of silver to 
the ton. The result of course was a tremendous excitement A num- 
ber of enterprising men at once started over the Sierra Nevada on a 
race for the new mines, and they certainly let no grass grow under 
their feet as they pressed forward for first chances. On July 1 , 1859, the 
first newspaper notice of the discovery was published in the Nevada 
Journal, and within a very short time afterward there occurred a 
regular mining ** rush,'' which spread to a great extent over all of 
California ; and it may be added that it was the first and only one of the 
great California rushes of the early days, including Gold Lake, Gold 
Bluff, Kern River and Praser River, that was justified by the facts. 

The new adventurers who thus crowded into the Washoe mines im- 

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mediately commeticed bnying up claims, and it did not take long before 
all the old set not only disposed of their interests but chuckled over 
the manner in which they had palmed off what they considered tiie 
almost exhausted placers upon the gullible Californians. Old Virginia, 
for instance, sold out at Gold Hill for about fifty dollars a foot, and all 
his companions of that part of Mount Davidson at about the same rate. 
They all soon spent or lost the money they thus made, and died poor. 
Old Virginia, while on a prolonged spree, which seems to have been 
maintained on the proceeds of his sale, was thrown from a horse and 
killed. Of the discoverers on the other, or north end of the great vein, 
McLaughlin sold out for thirty-five hundred dollars, Penrod for eighty- 
five hundred, and O'Reilly, who held on longer, managed to get forty 
thousand ; but all died paupers a few years afterward. As for Com- 
stock, or "Old Pancake," who claimed to have owned the whole coun- 
try, and subsequently boasted of having given the Savage mine to 
"Old Man Savi^e'' and the Gould and Ctirry mine to "Old Daddy Cur- 
ry,*' sold out all his interests on Mount Davidson for eleven thousand 
dollars, which he soon lost. He then began prospecting again and 
wandered off into Montana where a few years afterward he committed 
suicide. A number of the very early adventurers, among them Sandy 
Bowers and Joe Plato, got rich in spite of themselves, as it were ; but 
in a few years their money was also dissipated in the most reckless and 
absurd extravagance, which very conclusively proved that for such men 
— and there are many others of the same kind in almost every walk of 
life — there cannot befall a greater misfortune than a great fortune. 

[to bb conci,udbd.] 

The Quarry Foreman 


^^VtHK sun was still shining on the plain ; but the road, which 
^^l wound in and out among the great sandstone bould- 

^ ers, was in the deepest shadow, for it grows dark early 
in Rocky Cafion, where the black hills rise like walls on eadi 

Prom the distance came faintly the sound of an enormous 
brake-block scraping against the wheel. One of the quarry 
teamsters was making a late trip. 

A buggy coming from the opposite direction turned out 
among the rocks as the ponderous wagon, loaded with four 
tons of cut brown-stone, came in sight aiound a curve. 

••That you, Elliot?" 

•'HeUoJim; where to?" 

** Steve's. You're out late." 

"Yes, it'll be late when I get to the spur, but the Old Man 
wanted this rock down so's to ship tomorrow." 

"Then it had to come ; I know Jackson. Remember when 

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he killed those two fellows ? He couldn't wait tiU they were 
down before he started the loaded car." 

*' No» that was before I came ; I heard about it, though. 
Both good men they were, and married too ; had to die just be- 
cause Jackson was in a hurry." 

** Ever hear what he said when he found they were dead ? " 

"Don't believe I did." 

** * Short-handed again ; why the hell didn't they jump ? ' " 

"He ought to be shot!" 

** Hung, you mean ! But I mustn't keep you, Elliot, you'll 
be late enough anyhow ; good-bye." 

"So long, Jim." 

The buggy was soon out of sight, but the wagon hadn't 
gone far when a man came from the chaparral, which grew 
thickly along the road, leading a horse by the bridle. 

" Ought to be shot ! " he said, and smiled. Mounting, he 
rode after the bugg^. 

Jackson sat in front of the boarding-house. He looked 
pleased, as if the world was being run to suit him that morn- 
ing. Suddenly his expression changed ; he had seen a horse- 
man coming up the trail. 

" What do you want here, Benton ? " he asked, frowning. 

" I would like to speak to you a few minutes if you have 

"I haven't time." 

"But it's important, Mr. Jackson ! " 

" To you, perhaps ; it wouldn't interest me. " 

" One of your teamsters — " 

" Is something you will never be." 

" One of your teamsters is talking about shooting you. 

" Then I am in no danger from him." 

" Do you want to know who it is ? " 


"It's EUiot Spears." 

" Ah, ha t you're a liar, I see, as well as a sneak and coward. 
Elliot might do it, so he is not the one who would talk about 
it. ' ' He picked up a shot-gun which leaned against the building. 

" Mr. Benton," he continued, "do you see that manzanita ? " 

"Yes, sir," answered Benton uneasily. 

" It is just out of range ; if your bronco's any good you 
have time to reach it, for I shall not shoot for ten seconds ; 

Benton was well out of range, yet he gave a yeU of terror 
when Jackson fired. 

Six miles down the caflon he met Spears. "Good morning, 
Elliot," he said. 

" Yes, very nice ; been up to get some one fired, so you can 
get on?" 

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''You can put it how you choose ; I am going to drive that 
team toniorrow. Next time you talk about killing the foreman 
look out who you're talking to ; Jim Watson told me about it. 
Jackson said he was glad of a chance to get rid of you." 

While speaking he had got rather close to the wagon ; 
Spears' black-snake swung in the air and the buckskin lash 
drew blood from Benton's face. Again the whip whirled ; 
this time it struck the bronco which plunged wildly, threw its 
rider and dashed down the cafion. 

** Good-bye, Benton," said Spears cheerfully; "you can 
think up some lies to tell about that bxst of yours, while you're 
walking home." 

When Spears drove up to the piles of cut stone, Jackson said 

** Put on nine thousand, BUiot, and rush it through ; you've 
got to haul two loads again today ; " and he was gone before 
Spears had the time to protest. 

The wagon was loaded, and the teamster was about to start 
his horses, when the sound of a muffled explosion came from 
the quarries. 

"Blasting already!" exclaimed Spears; "he must have 
kept those drillers on the jump. " 

Jackson ran up, excit^ for once in his life. "That new 
man lit the short fuse first ! " he gasped. " Twenty sticks in 
the other hole ; fuse covered ; my best drillers in there. Come ! 
Those cowards won't go in." 

When the two men reached the cut they found that two of 
the drillers had crawled out. 

"We might do with these," said the foreman, looking at 
them doubtfully. "No, thafs the new man," he added; 
" he's no good ; let's get the others ; " and he went into the 
cut, followed by Spears. 

Several seconds passed ; the teamster came out of the smoke, 
carrying one of the unconscious men ; then he went back to 
where Jackson was working like a demon at the debris which 
covered another of the men ; he dragged him loose as Spears 
readied him. 

" Take him out. Hill's in there ; I must get him ; he's the 
best driller in the quarries." 

Spears had started back to help the foreman with the last 
man when the second blast went off. There was no danger 
now, and the men ran into the cut. Jackson had come nearly 
out with Hill in his arms. Both were unconscious, but the 
cold air revived the foreman. 

"Where's that new driller ? " heasked, weakly. " Tell him 
to go to the office and get his time. Tell Halstead to try to 
get Hewett from Belton's quarries ; he's the best man in the 
State now. Don't quit hauling ; there's plenty of rock down 

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to last a week yet, and I want — *' His head dropped back 
and his eyes glazed. He had saved three lives, and given up 
his own — all for the quarries — ^the quarries which were his only 

Early California. 


CONTINUATION of the report of the Viceroy of Mexico, the 
Count of Revilla Gigedo, on the history of California from 
1768 to 1793, foUows : 

Sixth Exploration of Juan de Fuca Strait. 

160. Althongh the reconnoisances of Jnan de Paca ttrait were began 
in 1789, very little was accomplished by the first made in the same year 
at the order of don Bsterdn Martinez ; somewhat more by the second 
under the first ensign, don Manuel Quimper, in 1790, with the bilander 
"Prinoesa Real," and in the third expedition, made in 1791, the 
schooner "Satumina,'' which accompanied the dispatch boat ''San 
Carlos," commanded by the lieutenant of the first class, don Prandsco 
Biiza, penetrated as far as the great channel called Our Lady of the 

161. These few facts were already known at the time I received the 
royal order of May 28, 1791, commanding me that a minute examination 
of said strait should be made under all circumstances, for the purpose of 
ascertaining if any of its channels communicated with either Hudson's 
or Baffin's My. 

162. To comply with this superior mandate, I issued instantly orders 
that one of the oeiBt sdiooners, which had just been built in San Bias, 
should be fitted out and start, well-mannedf, provided with tackle, gear 
and rigging, sails, arms, good provisions, medicines and anti-scorbutics, 
sufficient for one year's navigation. 

163. I placed the vessel in charge of the lieutenant of the second 
class, don Francisco Antonio de Maurelle, giving him clear instructions 
that he should begin his explorations in Juan de Fuca strait, keep them 
up following the coast to the South, and this with such carefulness that 
he should not leave a channel, river or bay without examining it scrup- 
ulously until he reached either the port of San Francisco or Monterey ; 
and that after having rested his crew and taken in fresh supplies, if this 
should be necessary, he should start out again, sailing up to 56° for the 
purpose of going from there down a second time to Fuca, verifying his 
reconnoisances, so that either the supposed communication between 
the two oceans should be found, or absolute proof furnished that no 
such passage existed on those coasts. 

164. At the time Maurelle was preparing to leave San Bias on his 
commission, the commander of the corvettes " Descubierta " and 
"Atievida," don Alejandro Malaspina, proposed to me sure measures for 
obtaining the desired object, which were to entrust the exploration to 
the frigate captains, don Dionisio Galiano and don Cayetano Vald^, and 
to use for this expedition the new schooners ** Mexicana " and '' Sutil." 

165. Malaspina informed me that it would be convenient to send 
both of these vessels to Acapulco, where the artisans of the corvettes 
could do what extra work might be required on them, and where the 
vessels could be fitted out with everything to satisfaction of their com- 

Began in June nambtr. 

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manders. Me also notified me, that some experienced sailors, forming 
part of the corvettes' companies, would be assigned to the schooners, 
and that everything, which might possibly be required for accomplish- 
ing the object in view, would be furnished. 

166. I at once agreed to these wise propositions; they were carried 
out in due time, and March 9, 1792, the two schooners left Acapulco on 
their mission. The captains carried detailed instructions from the 
commander of the corvettes, which I transmitted to them with others of 
mine, wherein I ordered what should be done in case the communicA- 
tion between the Pacific and Atlantic should be discovered, either by 
one of the channels of Fuca or by any of those indicated in the notices 
of the English captain Mears relating to the discoveries made by the 
"Lady Washington " and "Princess Royal." Finally I charged these 
o£5lcers specially with ascertaining the true limits of the continent and 
the extension to the East of the archipelago running from 48"^ to 56° 
latitude North. 

167. The schooners made their trip from Acapulco to Nutka in sixty- 
three days, without any other incident occurring than the breaking of 
the main mast of " La Mexicana " on April 14, in 28'' lat North and 271" 
lon^. (Cadiz). This mishap might have impaired the success of the ex- 
pedition if the activity, well known seamanship and spirited direction of 
the vessel's commander, don Cayetano Vala^ haa not immediately 
remedied this defect. 

168. It was necessary to repair the damase at Nutka, to dean and 
erease the bottoms of the schooners, for which purpose they were 
beached, and to make some other necessary repairs. This work Lasted 
until June 2. 

169. On that day both vessels sailed for Puca straits ; arrived there ; 
set sail again on the 5th of next month ; on the Uth they already navi- 
gated in the great channel of Our Lady of the Rosary ; on the 13th they 
met the English vessels of Vancouver's expedition, which, however, did 
not join ours until the 21st. 

170. The two expeditions kept in friendly company until July 13th, 
when it was decided to continue the reconnoisances by dififerent channels; 
then the English separated going to the South Sea in 51°, and our vessels 
in 50^2^^ on August 25 without having abandoned the continent. 

171. A heavy storm compelled them to return to the coast and seek 
refuse in an excellent harbor discovered by " La Sutil '* and called 
Valdez. There they remained until the 29th, on which day, taking up 
again their course, the vessels were enabled to &x, the coast between 
capes Scot and Prondoso. At 11 ▲. M., hxx^. 31, the schooners entered 
Nutka, eighty-seven days having passed since they sailed out of the 
same port. 

172. This exploration and the one made by the English, proved abso- 
lutely that the channels, mouths and gulfs of Juan de Puca do not lead 
to Hudson's or Baffin's bays ; that this strait is inhabitated by numerous 
Indian tribes which have the best mediums for the fur trade ; that sev- 
eral errors made in our first expeditions have been corrected, and that no 
necessity exists for again exploring the mentioned strait. 

173. The schooners set out on their return voyage Sept. 1st; ap- 
proadbed the coast in A7^20^ ; reconnoitered the mouth of Ezeta [Col- 
umbia river], crossing its channel in four and a half fathoms of water. 
They noticed three small inlets which seemed to be rivers, but owing to 
the heavy seas could efiect no landing. 

174. On the 1 1th they were off Cape Diligencia. The force of the con- 
trary winds drove the schooners from the coast; and although they sighted 
Cape Mendocino and the Parallones of the harbor of San Francisco, 
they could not approach until they finally dropped anchor in the port 
of Monterey, Sept. 23. There the schooners remained until Oct. 26, 
finishing their voyage Nov. 23 in San Bias. 

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175. With my letter No. 121, of Nov. 30, of the same year, I for- 
warded to the department in charge of Your Excellency, a copy of the 
extract of the reconnoisances made by the schooners in the Straits of 
Joan de Puca until their return to Nutka, accompanying it with a chart 
which for the present is only useful for conveying a general idea, until 
the frigate captain, don Dionisio Galiano shall finish the general chart 
giving full details, in the preparation of which he is now engaged, and 
I shall transmit same to Your Excellency as soon as said officer delivers 
it to me. 

Seventli Exploration of the Bacareli Archipelagro by don 
Jacinto Gaamauo. 

176. The frigate *' Aranzazu" which left San Bias March 20, 1792, 
loaded with supplies for Nutka, arrived there May 14, and sailed again 
June 13, for the purpose of repeating the reconnoisance of that part of 
the coast lying between Nutka and latitude 55° 15^ north. 

177. The vessel arrived within twelve days at Bucareli. There it re- 
mained reconnoitering different points, channels and gulfs of that 
archipelago, until August 31, date on which it started out on the return 
voyage, arriving at Nutka Sept. 7. 

178. The diaty of this navigation contains many incidents which oc- 
curred with Indians who came to trade and barter with our people, but 
does not add any important fact to the exploration made in 1779, and 
although, owing to it, a few corrections were made on the chart, no ab- 
solute certainty was obtained in reference to the existence or non-ex- 
istence of a passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 

Proposal of the Commander Cnadra to Repeat the 
explorations to Higrher liatitndes. 

179. For this reason and because the schooners '*Mexicana'' and 
** Sutil " did not have time to extend their explorations to higher lati- 
tudes, the commander of the department of San Bias, don Juan Fran- 
cisco de la Bodega, proposed to me to send out a new formal expedition 
for the purpose of making a minute reconnoisance. 

180. I keep this matter in abeyance until a more convenient time, 
because I believe that for the present it is most important to make a 
very careful examination of the coastline from 48° latitude north down 
to the harbor of San Francisco, and to occupy formally the port of La 
Bodega, situated in the immediate vicinity of the first and in latitude 

Measures Taken for Occapyin&r the Port of La Bodegra 
and for Beconnoiteringr the Coast np to Fuca. 

181. For the object of this occupation, the schooner " Sutil," under 
the command of the ensign of the first class, don Juan Bautista Matute, 
has already left San Bias, and I have issued explicit and exemplary 
orders to the governor of the Califomias for opening an overland road 
between San Francisco and I^a Bodega, and for furnishing everything 
necessary so as to form this new establishment before the English try to 
do so, for even though it is rumored that they have already settled there 
I consider this news false. 

182. The barkentine ** Activo*' and the schooner ** Mexicana*' are 
being fitted out to leave* at the latest in the coming month of April for 
an exploration from the southern mouth of Fuca to the ** presidio" 
of San Francisco, and next year the now suspended reconnoisance of 
higher latitudes will be completed. 

Explorations of the Enirlish Commander VanGonTer. 

183. It is known that the Kn|;lish commander left London in April, 
1791 ; that he had been in Oaiti, New Holland and the Sandwich Is- 

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lands ; that he had begun his explorations on our northern coasts in 40^, 
continued same in Puca, and sailed from this strait in 5\}i° latitude 
North ; that afterward he had gone down to Nutka, and kept on recon- 
noitering the coast to Monterey. 

184. It is likely that he may persist this year in verifying his discov- 
eries and in making explorations to higher latitudes until acquiring un- 
deniable proof if there exists or not a passage between the two oceans, 
and also to reach, if possible, the true limit of the continent 

185. We would already be in possession of this important knowl- 
edge, if in the repeated and costly expeditions undertaken by us since 
the year 1774, a better system had been observed, and instead of recon- 
noitering the innumerable islands along the coast, preference had been 
given to a scrupulous examination of all the points, bays, channels and 
gulfs of the mainland. 

186. The worst of it has been (as I said in my letter No. 44 of Sept 
Ist, 1791) that these expeditions did not apply themselves to make an 
exact reconnoisance of those localities nearest to our establishments in 
the Califomias, from 47° up, and this either because it was thought that 
such a minute examination would never be necessary, or for the reason 
that our crews, tired out by voyages to higher latitudes, afflicted with 
sickness and short of provisions, desired to reach port wherein to rest. 

187. Whatever the cause may have been, now we have no other 
remedy but to occupy the port of La Bodega, as I have ordered, and to 
make the new exploration for which I have detailed the barkentine 
*' Activo** and the schooner ** Mexicana,*' this latter only in case that 
the bilander '' Horcasitas," which I consider better fitted, could not be 
gotten ready in time. 

Instructions for the Minute Reconnoisance of the Month 
of Ezeta and the Columbia River. 

188. The vessels wUl so fully supplied ; the barkentine will take two 
extraordinarilv strong hawsers; at least four anchors; one strong 
launch ; two boats ; the best of compasses ; and a sufficient quantity of 
beads, knives and other baubles to be ^ven as presents to the Indians. 

189. They will begin their reconnoisances from the mouth south of 
Puca straits and nav&ate so near to the land as to not lose sight of its 
gulfs, bays, rivers and creeks. 

1 90 These points will be examined throughout their entire extension ; 
at each the necessaty •bservations will be taken for determining their lo- 
cation ; sounding will be made, and the special corresponding charts 
drawn ; so that m conformity with these rules laid down a reliable gen- 
eral chart, containing minute details of the whole coast, can be com- 

191 . Whenever the winds hinder from navigating at the shortest dis- 
tance possible, or when the weather threatens a cross wind, compel the 
vessels to stand out to sea, then they will try to lay to for a few days, so 
that when approaching again the coast, they will arrive, if possible, at 
the samepoint they left. 

192. Hvery night, no matter if clear, dark or foggy, the anchor will 
be held In readmess and alongside, according to circumstances and 

193. The Columbia river, situated in 46^12^ latitude, requires a long 
and minute reconnoisance until either its source or its ouUet in the op- 
posite sea is reached, in case that this river should be the one crossing 
the continent and affording a passage between the two oceans. 

194. In conformity with these indications and others tending to the 
greater exactitude and full accomplishment of the important ends of this 
new expedition, I have formulated the instructions by which the com- 
mander shall be governed, and whose appointment I have left to the 
choice and at the mscretion of the captain of the first-dass, don Fran- 

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CISCO de la Bodega y Cuadra, so that this trust may be confided to the 
officer or pilot in whom he places the most confidence, and to assure ^ 
everything a favorable issue for this ezx>edition. 

The exploration to higrher latitudes has been suspended 
until next year, for the purpose of discoveringr the pas- 
sage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

195. Until now neither we nor the English have been able to find the 
passage between the Atlantic and Pacific ocean, but the time is fast ap- 
proa<ming when all doubt will disappear, and in case neither party 
should accomplish the object this year, during the next one of 1794 I 
shall detail to a hieher latitude one of the frigates of the department of 
San Bias, the barkentine " Activo " and a few smaller vessels, if His 
Majesj^ is pleased to approve this new expedition and sends me some of 
the officers of his royal navy, well versed in astronomy, so as to clear 
away all doubts and put forever an end to these costly expeditions. 

Beflections about the importance of not entering into 
difficult, distant, adventurous and costly expeditions. 

196. Prom now on everv project which compels us to incur heavy 
expenses should be opposed, even if the most positive assurances are 
made of brilliant results, because it is always understood that these re- 
sults will be in the future, whereas the expenditures have to come out in 
cash from a treasury full of urgent necessities, and whose debts are in- 

197. Once the treasury funds and those of its money lenders ex- 
hausted, the projects cannot be sustained, their advantages will vanish, 
the recovery of the money expended will be difficult, and it even may 
become necessary to continue in other and larger outlays with the 
very nearly certain risk of obtaining still worse results. 

198. During the period of twenty-five years, many millions of dol- 
lars have been expended in establishing and maintaining the new set- 
tlements of Upper California ; in repeated explorations of its northern 
coasts ; and in the occupation of Nutka. But if we persist in other 
still more distant and adventurous enterprises, then there will be no 
funds left to carry these on, nor anybody who will dare to estimate their 
great importance. 

Compilation of the Propositions which will be 

199. Therefore I repeat my opinion, that cutting off all costly and 
difficult projects we limit ourselves precisely to forestall the encroaf^h- 
ment of any English or other foreign settlement on our peninsula of 
the Californias by occupying quickly, as has been decided, the port of 
La Bodega, and, if necessary, the mouth of the Columbia river ; to 
properly fortify these two important points, as also the ''presidios" of 
San Prancisco, Monterey and San Diego, and even the one of Loretto ; 
to transfer as soon as possible the department of San Bias to Acapulco ; 
to take care of the conservation and development of the special 
funds (fondos piadosos) and of the Zapotillo salines, so that the new 
burden of providing for the missions of the Californias may not fall 
upon the royal treasury, and also that the net product of the salt may 
help to maintain the marine department. 

Preliminary Beflections upon the points of the 

200. These are the &vt points which I will propose and sustain, but be- 
fore beginning, I shall make some necessary reflections about the designs 
of foreign powers on our northwestern coast of America, the advantages 

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of the fur trade, and the just reason for preventing the illicit commerce 
which the English may carry on in the Spanish ports of the Sonth Sea. 

About tiie Bnssiftii Establishments. 

201 . We all know that the Russians have placed on a firm footing their 
old establishments in Onalaska, Kodiac and Cook's river ; that they in- 
sist on advancing their posts or that they may have already settlements 
on the continent ; that they carry on trade with the Indians from Port 
Prince William, the highest latitude, to Nutka or its vicinity; and 
finally, that their ambition is to increase the number of vassals of their 
sovereign, a thing they have already accomplished by their first settle- 

202. The English do not ignore these facts, but dissemble about 
them and we must tolerate them, because we have neither sufficient 
troops nor war vessels in the South Sea, nor the necessary funds to dis- 
lodge the Russians, who, having built the necessary fortifications, 
occupy the extensive Northern coasts of the Califomias and the infinity 
of the immediate archipelagos. 

203. It is possible that the Russians may be able to carry into effect 
their intention, but to do this will require a long time ; whereas Spain 
has more than sufficient to place in a state of perfect defense the grand 
and opulent territories we occupy and may in the future acquire in New 
Spain, and to preserve dominion over them. 

About the Desigrns of the Engrlish and the Fur Trade. 

204. We are also aware that the English nation, anxious to extend 
its commerce throughout the globe, listened with pleasure to the report 
of Captain Cook in reference to the fur trade on the Northwest coast of 
America; that it engaged immediately therein; that it gathered the 
first fruits thereof; that it still continues in this trade, but may be 
having in view more important objects. Even if the profits of this 
commerce may have decreased, there are also strong reasons for believ- 
ing, that to acquire furs at present is becoming every day more difficult 
and expensive. 

205. Those waters are frequented by numerous vessels of different 
nationalities, all employed in the fur trade, and the constant intercourse 
with Europeans is fast awakening the cupidity of the Indians. 

206. Consequently this vice, more dangerous in persons inclined to 
steal and to commit the most infamous actions, will compel the exercise 
of greater care and precautions involving larger expenses, so as to 
enable merchant ships to approach the coasts and boats to enter the 
rivers and creeks for trading purposes. 

207. Besides this, the enormous export of furs and the multitude of 
covetous buyers will impart every day more value to the furs sold di- 
rectly by the Indians, as the second sale (which is made in Canton) 
is now strictly prohibited by the Emperor of Chinst 

206. It might be inferred, as it is really assured, that the English 
are not included in this decree, and that they being the true masters of 
the fur trade in Canton, their profits will increase by imposing, at pleas- 
ure, premiums or taxes upon those who either desire or are compelled 
to avail themselves (for engaging in the same trade) of the services of 
the English ; but these suppositions depend upon a rumor, which has 
not yet been confirmed, as also the one having reference to the prohibi- 

209. In case the prohibition is absolute, then it may also be said 
that this fact will increase the value and price of the furs due to the 
more or less limited importation, and therefore no doubt can be enter- 
tained that this commerce will become still more lucrative ; and this in- 
creased value will not be affected by the risk of confiscation to which 

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the ainttggler exposes himself, losing both capital and profits, and suf- 
fering the corporeal punishment, imposed by the law, if he has the mis 
fortune to be caught. 

210. But whatsoever may be the case, I am convinced that it is not 
the profit to be derived from the fur trade which impels the English to 
dispute our ownership of the port of Nutka ; to claim that the bound 
ary of the Spanish possession should be the harbor of San Francisco , 
that the territory to be jointly occupied by both should begin tiiere ; 
and they should be at liberty to fish beyond a distance of ten leagues 
from our interior coasts of the Pacific ocean. It is clear that all these 
propositions have as object the carrying on of an illicit trade, which by 
clandestine importation of European and Asiatic merchandise will de- 
stroy the commerce of New Spain and the Philippine Islands. 

21 1. This commerce, so much more injurious in case the supposed 
I>a8sage between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans shall be discovered, 
will in any event give impulse to the fur trade in which the English are 
engaged at Canton ; but, at the same time, it is within our power to 
diminish these profits (provided that the prohibition of said trade is not 
a fact or that the Emperor of China revokes it), and to guard against all 
pernicious designs without incurring new difficulties with England. 

212. For the purpose of accomplishing the first object it is not neces- 
sary for us to embark upon enterprises of difficult and impossible exe- 
cution like that one which the brevet lieutenant, don Estevdn Jos^ 
Martinez presented in 1790, proposing to form in this capital [Mexico] a 
Free Trade Company, for engaging in a direct trade between Oanton and 
the coasts of California, this company to be granted an exemption from 
duties for fifty years ; its principal commerce to consist of furs and tim- 
ber ; and the company to oblige itself to found, within the stated 
period, four " presidios '' and sixteen missions on the frontier coasts of 
that peninsula. 

213. I shall not tarry in stating the defects and great difficulties of 
this project, because I have already sufficiently explained the matter in 
the report which I addressed to His Majesty, through the conduct of 
don Antonio Vald^, under number 192, January 31 of this year. But 
I will say, that to lessen the profit of the English in the fur trade, in 
which already American colonists, Russians, French and Portuguese 
frequently engage, it would be sufficient to give this privilege also to 
those Spaniards who desire to embark in this trade at their own free 
will and risk, granting to such the franchise of exporting furs without 
paying duty Uiereon, and imposing a moderate duty upon domestic 
products and timber, an equal or larger quota than the one required of 
merchandise imported at Acapulco from China. Still, to make the 
necessary arrangements in reference to these duties and new commerce, 
it would be necessary to consult the Mercantile Court (Tribunal del 
Consulado), the revenue officers and the fiscal of the Royal Treasury; 
the whole matter to be finally decided by the Superior Treasury Com- 

214. In accordance with above rules this commerce might be estab* 
Ushed and the English could have no reason for complaining that the 
Spanish engaged in this trade, as all others do who so feel inclined. 
But, finally, I doubt that the merchants of New Spain will risk their 
money in so far away countries, when they have near at home the in- 
exhaustible wealth of innumerable mines, gold and silver diggings, and 
other safe investments or less exposed to loss wherein to employ their 

215. In whatever else may have reference to guarding against the 
pernicious designs of England, I think that the measures which I shall 
state in my propositions will be sufficient. 

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First Proposition abont Occupjingr the Port of Bodegr*» 

and if Kecossity should Require it, also the 

Entrance of Ezeta. 

216. The first thing neoedsary is to occupy the principal or most im- 
portant points of the coast between our "presidio** of Ban Francisco 
and Juan de Fuca strait, but in section 181 I have already stated my 
dispositions in reference to the new establishment of the port of La 
Bodega, and in the paragraphs following, from 188 to 194, the measures 
I am taking for a most careful examination of the whole of said stretch 
of coast, and specially that part of the Columbia river at Ezeta entrance 
in 46"^ latitude north. 

217. If this river should be the passage between the two oceans, then 
we would have acquired all necessary information about the volume of 
water it carries, the rapidity or slowness of the current, the Indian 
tribes either nomadic or stable which live on its banks, and the place, 
more or less accessible, where the river empties into the Atlantic. In 
such case I will take all the possible and necessary measures to pre- 
serve the ovmership and dominion of this admirable discovery, until 
Your Bzcellency informs me of the steps which His Majesty desires 
shall be taken. 

218. I shall not proceed exploring the Columbia river if its sources 
are discovered in the vicinity, unless a just motive existed, compelling 
me to establish a post for affording greater protection either to the port 
of La Bodega and the rest of the h^bors of the Califomias, or for the 
object of locating more exactly and with a better title, and also at a 
great distance from the territory common to English and Spanish, the 
boundary of our possessions. 

219. But if the sources of the Columbia river should be in the neigh- 
borhood of our province of New Mexico, or if it should be joined by 
any tributary stream immediate to said province, either flowing through 
same or near to it, then it will become indispensable to occupy the en- 
trance of Bzeta, and to establish for the greater security of the coast of 
the Califomias at convenient localities Uie necessary ''presidios" and 
missions. For this object formal military expeditions must then be 
undertaken by the presidial troops, and with soldiers to be furnished by 
the General Commander of the Interior Provinces, beginning with 
those of the presidio of Santa F4 in New Mexico. These expeditions 
are to be in charge of competent commanders, and accompanied by 
officers versed in mathematics, and others having the qualifications in 
reference to which I consulted in letter number 34 of March 27, 1791. 

Second Proposition about Flaciner in an Adequate State 

of Defense tbe Ports of the Peninsula ot 

the Califomias. 

220. In my letter, number 124, of November 30, 1792, 1 have already 
stated my second proposition as to fortifying properly the harbors of 
Monterey, San Diego and San Francisco, and to these ports I now shall 
add La Bodega and the entrance of Bzeta or the Columbia river in case 
it should be necessary to occupy same. 

221. I have made some inexpensive provisions, but my desire is to 
insure the success of the more important measures by a personal inter- 
view with the new governor whom His Majesty may appoint in substi- 
tution of the defunct lieutenant colonel of dragoons, don Jos6 Romero. 
This new appointee should be a talented officer, a military expert, of 
robust health enabling him to undergo the utmost hardships, disinter- 
ested, of quick action and real zeal in the service. All these qualities 
are required for inspecting frequently the extensive territories of the 
peninsula, insuring its defenses. Keeping the presidial troops well 
disciplined, and for overcoming either with diplomacy, or if this should 

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not be suffident, by force, the ideas, intrigues or prejudicial inroads of 
the English ; and, also at the same time, for improving the settlements 
and missions, and extending same to the Colorado river. 

222. This point and the mission of San Gabriel form the circle 
within which swarm pagan Indians, who may be persoaded to accept 
onr holy religion and the mild dominion of onr sovereign, and so con- 
tribute to the important object of making the peninsula of the Cali- 
fomias one of the most respectable colonies on the frontier of New 

223. I conclude this proposition with another, whicli is : that if the 
Dominican friars found their most advanced mission on the Colorado 
river, then it will also be necessary to establish a new ''presidio" which 
is considered necessary on the limits of Sonora and California. Such a 
* 'presidio'' to be located within the territory of this peninsula, to be 
under the immediate jurisdiction of its governor and absolutely inde- 
pendent of the General Commandancy of the Interior Provinces. This 
for the reason, that the object and purx>ose of the presidial company is 
to maintain the California Indians in peace, and together with the 
other presidial troops guard the peninsula against all encroachments 
either by those same natives or by European enemies. 

Third Proposition about Transferringr tiie Department oi 
San Bias to Acapulco. 

224. I have little to add about the third proposition beyond what I have 
said in my letters Nos. 193, 437, 230 and 44 of December 27, 1789, March 
27, 1790, January 15 and September 1, 1791, the first two of which were 
addressed to don Antonio Vald^, the third to the Count de Lorena, and 
the fourth to the Count de Florida Blanca, but more particularly I refer 
m3r8elf to this last communication in reference to the importance and 
urgency of transferring the department of San Bias to Acapulco. 

225. The viceroy, don Antonio Bucareli, had received peremptory 
royal orders to take this convenient measure ; my predecessor, don An- 
tonio Plores, indicated this step in his letter, number 57 of December 
23, 1787, but its execution was suspended, due to contrary decisions, 
contained a heap of actuations not yet concluded (que constan en un 
cumuloso exp^diente que nunca lleg6 d concluirse) and which clearly 
prove the discord between the parties informing, the partiality and per- 
sonal ends of some, the ignorance of others, and Uie tenacity with 
which all contradict one another on account of personal likes and dis- 
likes, which caused many useless expenditures and interminable 
criminal and civil suits. 

226. Even yet, some individuals are opposed to the transfer of the 
department ; but they are few and their opinion of little value, con- 
sidering that this measure has in its favor the unanimous vote o^ the 
captains of the first-class, don Alejandro Malaspina and don Jos6 de 
Bustamante y Guerra ; of the commander of this dex>artment, don Juan 
Francisco de la Bodega ; of the captains of the second class, don 
Dionisio Galiano and don Cayetano Vald6z, and of all intelligent offi- 
cers sailing in those vessels and employed in said department. 

237. No dry dock is required there for building ships. Eight large 
and small vessels can be assigned from Spain for service in this depart- 
ment (as I proposed in my letter number 44), and relieved every four 
or five years. 

[to bk concluded.] 

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THE ^^ harvest is past (or as much of it as can pass in a land 

MAROH OF where there is harvest every day in the year) and the snmmer 

SEASONS, ended and our souls are stil 1 saved — i n Californ ia. We have had 
no sunstrokes, no floods, no epidemics — and it is our perennial expec- 
tation, based on history, not to have. In place of death and disaster 
we have had a terrible earthquake which rattled several thousand 
{glasses. It was not so terrible as the usual California earthquake, be- 
cause it came in the daytime and no Eastern visitor had to sally in his 
or her nightie. But it was enough to remind us that we are human — 
and that California is the best place to be human in. 

Meantime we go on harvesting our fifteen millions in gold, our 
twelve millions in fruit, our five millions in grain, and the various and 
diversified other millions which make California the richest State in 
the Union per capita. And despite the more money, we have enjoyed 
life better, on the average, than any other population anywhere. 

Soon, now, the winter of our c<»ntent vnU be upon us. Not the cruel 
winter we knew back East where we were bom ; but a gorgeous season 
where it sometimes rains and the great peaks are snow-crowned — ^yet at 
their feet are eternal roses — a hundred thousand sometimes on a single 
bush — and heliotrope to the second story window ; a season wherein we 
arc out-doors every day, and sleep with oui windows open ; when our 
world is thick-carpeted with wild flowers, and fluttering with butter- 
flies. And as the Californian swaps perfect summer for perfect winter 
he never gets too hardened to be sorry for the poor cousins back yonder 
to whom both seasons are hostile — who want to get away from home in 
summer and have to shut themselves up in winter. The Californian 
has not much reputation for humility ; but if the East could realize his 
advantages, the only wonder would be that he is so little arrogant. 

^^ There is a general expectation that General Porfirio Diaz, 

CA8A, _ President of the Mexican Republic, is to visit the United 

8EN0R. States this fall ; and considerable special advertising is being 

done in this country by some exposition to which it is hoped he will 
give his presence. This is not wholly official, as yet. President Diaz 
writes the Lion, under date of Aug. 17, "si bien muy agradable me 
seria visitar ese hermoso pais, por ahora no me lo permiten mis numer- 
osas atenciones oficiales " ( although it would be very agreeable to me 
to visit that handsome land, at present my official cares do not permit 

Nevertheless, the Lion hopes that Prest. Diaz will make out to revisit 
the United States this year of grace. His official duties are indeed 
heavy — there is no power behind the throne, in Mexico, for the very 
simple reason that there is neither need nor room for any. Diaz is 
Mexico and needs no Hannas. But the same "hard hand ** that could 
turn Mexico from chaos to a nation can sweep aside the atenciones ofi- 
ciales if it will. And it is to be hoped it will. Diaz knows and admires 
the United States ; the United States knows and admires Diaz. There 
is good in inter- visiting. The man of Mexico will get no harm by see- 
ing here more examples to follow and more to avoid ; and we shall get 

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good by looking upon the noble face and figure of by far the greatest 
American ruler of his day ; one of the large historic figures of all 
time ; a statesman and a patriot of the very first dimensions. And the 
United States would give a warm welcome to a man every educated 
American has learned to honor. 

We are all sorry for France, and a good deal ashamed of her — *' the 
both of which feelings are always easy for us as toward foreign application 

lands. Things we know nothing about must be pretty bad, of ont." 

course. Even to those who do know, Prance is now tolerably bad. It 
is also tolerably instructive. It is a republic fool enough to let its army 
get too influential. 

San Francisco (and incidentally the State) gave a noble wel- welcome 
come to the returning volunteers. There is no American, of home, 

any complexion (except the administration) who is not glad to brave men. 

have these brave boys home. They have done their duty as soldiers 
and done it magnificently, And they wanted to come home. Not be- 
cause they had no belly for fighting ; but simply because the motive 
of the fighting is not quite American enough to command their fullest 
sympathy. Even if some of them may not be quite ready to admit it, 
this is true. If the war were one for Americans to be proud of, these 
ate the sort of boys that could not be coaxed or driven to the rear till 
the last gun was fired. The return of these volunteers is clinching 
proof of the Anti-Imperial argument 

Know all men by these presents— and not men only, but the our 
sort of provincials of whom it is necessary to take something western 

like forty to get the groundwork of a Person — that California humor. 

has just passed through its second year of drouth hand-running. In 
this second dry year alone it has brought to light more water, and ap- 
plied it to the soil than is applied to the soil by all the United States 
east of the Mississippi ; and that its crops are worth more this year, 
per head, to every man, woman and child in California, Chinese and 
Indians included, than the crops of any other State in the Union. In 
his second consecutive dry year, the Californian is better ofi" than his 
Bastem cousin ever was. The Californian thinks there is a certain 
humor in this ; but whether it is funny or not, it is true. 

Several important newspaper reporters have declared that the the 
splendid ovation given in San Francisco to our returning vol- unbaked 

unteetB "proves that the people of California believe in the reporter. 

war," and is a rebuke to the wicked anti-tyrants. Shot If the 
people of California believed in the war, they would mob soldiers who 
came home before the war was over. California is glad that the boys 
are home, that's all. And she has good reason to welcome soldiers 
with such a record. 

A great many undrunken Americans wish to know '* if we the 
can't do something.** They are convinced, as the I^ion is, that leaven 

in any fair vote of the people the iniquity and folly of Im- at work. 

perialism would be snowed under. It is, I imagine, absolutely true that 
there are more Americans who understand and value our national 
history and ideas than there are Americans who ignore both in their 
emotion ; and the dividing line between Imperialism and anti-Imperial- 
ism is precisely there. There are some mighty good Imperialists, 
entirely unaware of the cord the politicians have in their noses ; but 
Imperialism is wrong or else the United States is wrong ; as every man 
knows who knows United States history and is not temporarily daft 
with emotion. 

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The Lion has abiding faith in the American i>eople. Like all humans, 
they may go wrong. They went wrong 100 years on Negro slavery. I 
can remember when Abolitionists were persecuted ; but every Ameri- 
can is an Abolitionist today. So it will be with our dream of foreign 
oppression. Every original Abolitionist is against it now. In anotli^ 
fifty years we shall forget that anyone disputed them. 

No, the Lion knows of nothing for patriots to do, except to keep on 
fighting, each in his own sphere. The leaven is spreading faster than 
most of us realize. Kvery day the Administration's unjust and silly 
war gets colder on the averajge heart. The chill may be deep enough to 
defeat a president of the Lion's own party in the next campaign, al- 
though everything else in the world is overwhelmingly in his favor. 

NOT It is easy and wise to discount the newspaper criticisms of 

roRCE Gen. Otis — the Major-General, of course, now in Manilla; 

ENOUGH. there never were any criticisms of Brig.-Gen. H. G. Otis. 

Every reporter naturally knows just how a war should be run, a good 
deal better than any Napoleon can know. It is the core of the news- 
paper business in genei^ to be aware of wisdom by not acquiring it. 
Gen. Otis has probably done very well indeed with the force at his dis- 
posal. The only trouble is that he nominated the size of the force ; 
that it isn't big enough ; that everyone (Gen. Otis included) now knows 
it isn't. But Gen. Otis need not be smarter than his President ; and 
there is an alarming number of officials nowadays so stupid as to fancy 
that any force will whip the Filipinos out of all conceit of freedom. 
We can squelch the present fight for liberty ; but never, so long as 
there is a God in heaven (or in the human heart, which is perhaps a 
synonymous geography) can we quench the desire to be free. And we 
might be in better business than trying. 

THE Would you know the neophyte? Then watch him make 

QHEEN ♦* discoveries" in New Mexico — a bald, bare land, every foot 

EXPLORER " of which has been explored and mapped by scientists. Mor- 
gan, Jackson, Bandelier, Matthews, Hodge, Winship, Gushing, Simp- 
son, the Stephensons, the Mindele£&, and a score of others who were 
educated scholars, not raw freshmen — these have between them left no 
ruin unmeasured. Nowadays scientists nxakit little discoveries in the 
Southwest ; greenhorns make ** startling" ones. The only difference 
is that the expert details last ; the kindergarten sensations pass away 
after one or two issues of credulous newspapers. But a novice, who has 
never seriously read any one of the several hundred books wiUiout 
which no one can wisely pretend to know anything about New Mexico, 
getting into that wonderland, with an imagination in place of learning, 
natundly goes ''where no white man ever before trod,'* and ''dis- 
covers wonderful and unknown ruins" which had been squeezed dry 
by science before he ever heard of New Mexico. And if you would 
know the first test of an unripe explorer, here it is : he always looks 
on the "Cliff Dwellers" as a "lost race," and always discovers either 
that they were giants or dwarfs. As a matter of fact, it is as absolutely 
proved in science that they were Pueblo Indians, of the present Pueblo 
stature, as it is proved that La Salle navigated the Mississippi. And as 
a matter of vanity it is coming time for the unread and the untraveled 
to keep their heads out of the pillory. The world is growing smaller ; 
and not all of it is so ignorant as the people who discover New Mexico 
in 1899. 

The worst thing that can be said truthfully about Aprninaldo's appeal 
to the powers is that it uses the same logic our United States Senate 
used when it was aiming to liberate Cuba. Exactly the things that we 
said of Weyler and Spain are so soon come home to roost on the neck 
of the United States. 

Cbas. p. Lummis. 

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There was never before in the world's 
history a time when so many things were 
worth writing, nor when it was so easy to write 
them. Yet never tjcforc was bo scant a proportion of 
*'^** *' literature" worth the paper and ink it consnmes. We 

have grown nnearthly smart — and have become the only persons of 
record so foolish as to believe that smartness is all there is to it. 




Another of the too small circle of American students of 
America — one of the real ones, one of the large ones — has 
gone from the field that conld ill afford a much less loss. Dr. 
Daniel G. Brinton, of the University of Pennsylvania, died July 31, at 
the age of 62. Dr. Brinton was one of the best of the **clo6et men.** 
Except Gatschet he had no rival in accurate knowledge of Indian lin- 
guistics. His heel of Achilles was no more than lack of the Field, 
which even the foremost scholar must have to be complete. But he 
was a true scholar, a great linguist, an irreparable figure. Before just 
the man to take his place shall come, there will not be half the place 
left to take. Dr. Brinton*s works on American ethnology, and his 
editorial and contributive labors in scientific publications, were monu- 
mental in mass and in authority. Americans who know what scholar- 
ship is will always keep his memory green — perhaps most loyally those 
who best knew his limitations. 

It takes a good man to keep the unrufiQled love and esteem " teddy " 
of those who disagree with him in politics, religion or tailor- and his 

ing. That Gov. Roosevelt is such a one, it is now too late to "terrors." 

need to be said. **Our Teddy** is verily **good people,** as they say in 
a part of the country where he is best understood and best beloved. He 
can fly in our faces and trample our special corns, and we subtract 
nothing from his standing in the place we keep for Men. This is be- 
cause we all know he is absolutely genuine. He looks to be at least a 
yard and a half wide ; but anyhow, he is all wool. 

His book TA^ Rough Riden^ is not one of the solidest of books of 
the late war, but it is one of the manliest and most * 'taking.** "Teddy** 
was too dose to the firing-line to get any such philosophical perspec- 
tive as he has shown himself capable of measuring in less rampant 
fields. It is simply an unaffected, well balanced, direct personal narra- 
tive ; telling of magnificent courage and practical sense, a narrative of 
human competency told with uncounterfeit modesty and with all the 
generosity of so brave a man. It is a very human document, and no 
reader, of whatever convictions, will dodge its charm. The volume is 
sumptuously made and very fully illustrated. Chas. Scribner's Sons, 
New York. $2. 

The University of Oregon is doing a commendable work in a makjnq 
" Historical series ** of which thr^ numbers are already in oreqon'8 

evidence. Two ''Bulletins*' beginning the Semi-Centennial history. 

History of Oregon deal with "Exploration Northwestward** (by F. G. 
Young), "The Hudson Bay Company's Regime in the Oregon Country** 
(Eva Emery Dye) and " Mile-Posts in the Development of Oregon ** 

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(Horace S. Lyman). These are all good papeia ia tlieir class. More 
important is the publication of an original ** Source " — 751^ Correspond- 
ence and youmals of Capt, Nathaniel 7, Wyeth^ 1831-36. Wycth made 
two expeditions to Oregon at that early day, and his personal record is 
well worth saving. University Press, Eugene, Or. 

OF A The quaint and little-known epoch in American history when 

FORQOTTEN we had a ** New Sweden "on the western bank of the Dela- 

PERiOD ware» 250 years ago, serves as chief setting for Emma Rayner's 
interesting novel in Castle and Colony, The story opens, indeed in old 
Sweden, vdth the breaking up of an ancient &mily ; but the little hero- 
ine '' Agneta *' is transferred, after sixty pages, to the New World col- 
ony ; and here we follow her fortunes. Peppery John Printz is Gov- 
ernor of New Sweden and in New Amsterdam is his greater rival, 
"Peter the Headstrong," alias Stuyvesant. The forgotten war in which 
the Dutch wiped out the Swedish colony is climax of the book. The 
story is well told and human ; with quite as much history as usually 
falls to the lot of the '' historical novel,'' and quite as much impulse. 
The hero and heroine and presumptive villain are all well drawn charac- 
ters ; and old "Axel Bond" is an uncommonly taking one. The love- 
story is sedate and attractive, and the book altogether is one it is '* no 
trouble to read." H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

oooo There is always joy in reading Harriet Prescott Spofford. 

LOVE Whatever she writes has about it the certain witchery of 

STORIES. womanhood ; and her love-stories are among the soundest and 

sweetest. The Maid He Married is no exception to her rule ; an ex- 
quisite story of a real love. Norman Gale's A June Romctnce is of an 
entirely different category ; but like in interest and the love that over- 
comes. Without Mrs. Spoffbrd's "eternal feminine," the book has a 
poetic temperament, and leaves a good taste in the romantic mouth. 
Both volumes are of the dainty "Blue Cloth Books." H. S. Stone & 
Co., Chicago. 75c each. 

THE 8IN8 Of an uncommon sort (which may be not a pity), a gruesome 

OF THE but a powerful story. The Maternity of Harriott Wicken is one 

FATHERS, of the marked books of the year. Mrs. Henry Dudeney, before 
heard from as the author of A Man With a Maid^ here takes the sins of 
the fathers and visits them upon the children in ghastly but accurate 
fashion. The story is indeed a story, and at the same time a strong 
monograph on het«dity. It is a book to make one feel — and think. 
The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth ave.. New York. $1.50. C. C. Parker, Los 

A LITTLE The Lady of the Fla^-Flowers, by Florence Wilkinson, is a 

HURON somewhat jerky but interesting story of a willful little Huron 

MAID. maid and the lives that touched hers. The scene is mostly 
(and best) of French Canada, though with shiftings other-where. There 
is a good deal of attractive local color ; and enough of incident. H. 
S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

SEVEN The Carcellini Emerald^ by Mrs. Burton Harrison, is a collec- 

SHORT tion of seven short stories in the pleasant if slightly amateur- 

STORiES. ish way of that well known society lady, but normal good 

reading. Perhaps "An Author's Reading" is best of the collection, 

with its kind but knowing humor. H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50^ 

Jerome A. Anderson, M. D., publishes a slim volume on The Evidence 
of Immortality y from the Theosophist standpoint. In some future rein- 
carnation it may be necessary to pursue a review further. In the pres- 
ent life it suffices to say that a book is theosophy. Few fields of liter- 
ature are so satisfactory and convenient of definition. A word is enough 
to instruct alike the believer and the unbeliever. Lotus Pub. Co., SAn 
Francisco. $1. 

Chas. F. Lubuos. 

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The New Sunshine Offices. 

gJY'^^^CTIVE and comfortable as are the offices which 
jTjf the Land of Sunshine Publishing Company has for four 
^ years occupied in the Stimson Building, there has been 
daily and almost hourly inconvenience in having the business 
offices at so many blocks' distance from the mechanical de- 
partment. This inconvenience has grown steadily, as business 
increases — and the magazine is now forty per cent, larger than 
a year ago — and the wisdom of conserving all the time and 
energy lost between the two establishments has become con- 
stantly more evident. Being able, at last, to secure equally 
pleasant and comfortable offices under the same roof with its 
printing, binding and engraving departments, the company 
has removed its business offices to 121 >^ South Broadway, 
rooms 5, 7 and 9. This is in the ** Printing House Square " 
of Los Angeles ; within half a block of the Times^ Herald^ 
Express, Cultivator^ etc. Probably nine-tenths of the publish- 
ing business of Los Angeles is within a block here. 

This is one of several advantageous advancements the mag- 
azine is making. It is recognized everywhere, now, as the 
most t3rpical and most competent magazine ever published in 
the West. Califomians are proud and Easterners are glad to 
have a Western magazine whose knowledge is unquestioned, 
whose standards are high and absolutely unsubsidized, and 
whose independence rather pleases people who are Americans 
themselves, whether they ag^ree with its doctrines or not. 

The magazine expects to continue to deserve the respect of 
competent people ; and even to progress, as it has, it believes, 
done steadily from the start. It is larger than ever, its stand- 
ards are steadily raised, and its repute in the East and at home 
is higher than ever. 

Competent Opinions Regarding The 
Land of Sunshine. 

''Replete with information and entertainment. . . . The pictures 
. . . will interest anyone. Those who ro deeper will be most struck 
by the bold and independent tone of the editorial writing?, esx>ecially on 
public topics. This is not a common characteristic of the press on the 
Pacific Coast or elsewhere ; but courage has a permanent berth in the 
office of the Land of Sunshine." — TAe Nation, New York. 

" We have often, had occasion to speak a good word for this brave 
little magazine, and to wish it success. The contents include much 
matter of permanent value, besides those sections in which the editor 
keeps up a running fire of comment on the literary and political hap- 
penings of the day. . . . Mr. Lummis has spoken many sober and 
fearless words, for which patriotic Americans cannot thank him too 
warmly."— 7:1^ Dial, Chicago. 

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The Yuccas. 

BY mommmT Mowmv bell. 

The wind is ^n the yuccas, like the roll 

Of mimic waves upon a hill-girt mere, 

Or storm of tossing boughs ; the night, star-clear, 
Shows yet unmoved each rugged branch and bole. 
As from a world unseen that murmur stole ; 

Weird in the gloom these outstretched arms appear ! 

Is night but the day's absence? Surely here 
There is a presence ; night has gained a soul ! 
Ah, 'tis the spell that this fantastic tree 

Has put upon the plain. Star speaks to star ; 

Northward to where the dusk-hid mountains are 
The gossip laden wind is coursing free. 

It is a goblin world, and faint and far 

Sound the spent echoes of reality ! 


Joaquin Miller's Monuments, 

^VtHK Poet of the Sierras has a characteristic home, not 
^^i exactly Sierran but high-perched and very Joaquin- 
esque, on the dominating **Hights** behind Oak- 
land. Its oddities have been perhaps more impressive to many 
visitors than the truly magnificent outlook and the winey 
winds ; and now they will have still more to peck at. 

Since his return from the Klondyke, in July, '98, Joaquin 
has turned a good part of his nuggets to monument-building. 
On the bleakest of his hills he has set up of rough-cut stone 
his own funeral pyre — long be it before the Old Man (as he 
isn't, very) goes to it feet-first ! 

Near his celebrated Greek Cross of cypress and pine he has 
erected a great round tower of stone in memory of Robert 
Browning, who was good to him in London in the early 
•Seventies, when the young poet was hunting for his own 

Near the funeral pyre is a massive pyramid ; and graven on 
its base the simple appreciation ** To Moses." Joaquin likes 
Moses, and thinks it has been a long time between monuments 
to the most enduring, as wdl as the first, of lawgivers. 

Lastly, a fine square tower, big and battlemented on one of 
his pet ledges, is for Fremont. Joaquin cared for the Path- 
finder — as every large enough soul did. His peculiarly beau- 
tiful little poem on Fr6mont (published first in these pages in 
December, r895) will be remembered ; and now he gives as 
fine a tribute, in perhaps more enduring stone, to the first big 
Califomian. See next page. 

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Hit fnneral pyre— The Browning Tower— The Pyramid to Moses. 

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C. M DavisKnfT.Co. 

A IK-montha' old California Baby. 

C. M. Davis Kng. To 

*SAY, bossy! " 

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V. M. Dftvis Eng Co. 


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The section generally known as South- 
ern California comprises the seven coun- 
ties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura 
and Santa Barbara. 
The total area of 
these counties is 
44,901 sq u a r e 
miles. The States 
of Connecticut, 
Delaware, Massa- 
chusetts, New 
Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Rhode Is- 
land and Vermont 
could all be placed 
within the bound- 
aries of Southern 
California and still 
leave 1,154 square 
miles to spare. The 
coast line extends 
northwest and 
southeast a dis- 
tance of about 
275 miles. A 
J3, 000,000 deep-sea 
harbor is now un- 
der construction at 
San Pedro, near 
Los Angeles. 

Over $20,000,000 
are invested in 
mining.- Thous- 
ands of dollars are 
brought here by 

The population 
in 1890 was 201,- 
352. The present 
population is esti- 
mated at 350,000. 
Los Angeles county has an area of 
4,000 square miles, some four-fifths of 
which is capable of cultivation, with 
water supplied. The shore line is about 
85 miles in length. The population has 
increased from 33,881 in 1880 to 200,000. 
There are over 1 ,500,000 fruit trees grow- 
ing in the county. Los Angeles city, the 
commercial metropolis of Southern Cali- 
fornia, 15 miles from the coast, has a 
population of about 115.000. Eleven 
railroads center here. The street car 
mileage is nearly 200 miles. There are 
over 175 miles of graded and graveled 
streets, and 14 miles of paved streets. 
The city is entirely lighted by electric- 
ity. Its school census is 24,766 ; bank 
deposits, $12,000,000; net assessed valu- 
ation, $61,000,000; annual output of its 
manufactures, $20,000,000 ; building per- 
mits, $3,000,000, and bank clearance, 
$64,000,000. There is a $500,000 court 

house, a $200,000 city hall, and many 
large and costly business blocks. 

The other principal cities are Pasa- 
dena, Pomona, Azusa, Whittier, Downey, 
Santa Monica, Redondo, Long Beach, 
and San Pedro. 

San Bernardino County is the larg- 
est county in the State, is rich in miner- 
als, has fertile valleys. Population about 
35,000. The county is traversed by two 
railroads. Pine oranges and other fruits 
are raised. 

San Bernardino city, the county seat, 
is a railroad center, with about 8,000 i>eo- 
ple. The other principal places are 
Redlands, Ontario, Colton and Chi no. 

Orange County has an area of 671 
square miles ; population in 1890, 13,589. 
Much fruit and grain are raised. 

Santa Ana, the county seat, has a 
population of over 5,000. Other cities 
are Orange, Tustin, Anaheim and Fuller- 

Riverside County has an area of 7,000 
square miles; population about 16,000. 
It is an inland county. 

Riverside is the county seat. 

Other places are South Riverside, Per- 
ris and San Jacinto. 

San Diego County is a large county, 
the most southerly in the State, adjoin- 
ing Mexico. Population about 45,000. 
The climate of the coast region is re- 
markably mild and equable. Irrigation 
is being rapidly extended. Pine lemons 
are raised near the coast, and all other 
fruits flourish. 

San Diego city, on the ample bay of 
that name, is the terminus of the Santa 
F^ railway system, with a population of 
about 25,000. 

Other cities are National City, Escon- 
dido, Julian and Oceanside. 

Ventura County adjoins Los Ange- 
les county on the north. It is very 
mountainous. There are many profit- 
able petroleum wells. Apricots and 
other fruits are raised, also many beans. 
Population about 15,000. 

San Buenaventura, the county seat, is 
pleasantly situated on the coast. Popu- 
lation, 3,000. Other cities are Santa 
Paula, Hueneme and Fillmore. 

Santa Barbara is the most northern 
of the seven counties, with a long shore 
line, and rugged mountains in the in- 
terior. Semi-tropic fruits are largely 
raised, and beans in the northern part of 
the county. 

Santa Barbara, the county seat, is 
noted for its mild climate. Population 
about 6,000. Other cities Lompoc, Car- 
penteria and Santa Maria. o ' ~ 


The Pacific' Wave Motor. 

|gjy#HE last fifty years have very seriously modified onr notions about 
nS^I ^ "impossibilities/* and the word is not so sweepingly or so com- 
X monly used as it once was. It was not very long ago that people 
laughed at the idea that it could be possible to make your voice heaid hun- 
dreds of miles away ; but today these same people are using the telephone, 
not as a mere curiosity or luxury, but as a business necessity. There was 
a time, not far back, when it was thought impossible to make electricity 
give a light steady enough to displace kerosene lamps ; or to make it a 
practicable motive force for transit ; yet coal-oil lamps and street car 
horses are gone out of fashion forever. 

The problem of harnessing the ocean waves, of saving and applying 
to the wheels of progress some part of that incalculable energy which is 
daily wasted on every sea coast — a power so vast that a tiny fraction of 
it if conserved and directed would suffice to drive the machinery of 
every industry on earth, is so important that it will not go unsolved for 
want of effort. 

Many inventions, designed to utilize this vast power have been tried ; 
and some have fallen but little short of success Yet so glittering a re- 
ward as awaits the successful wave motor will bring it, if it is within 
human power and ingenuity. The chief difficulties have been Ist, how 
to control the force of the waves so as to produce a steady and even 
power suitable for mechanical purposes ; 2d, to provide against storms ; 
3d, to devise an automatic adaptation to the tide, high or low ; and 4th, 
to protect the floats and wharf from damage. 

The Pacific Wave Motor Co. of this city has been granted a patent on 
an invention which is arousing decided public interest ; and believes 
that it has solved these knotty problems. The inventors have profited 
by the mistakes or shortcomings of other motors ; and are confident that 
they have overcome all these obstacles. 


The plans of this wave motor consist principally of a wharf, floats, 
displacement hydraulic pumps, and a waterwheel. The wharf is con- 
structed so that the floats are located where the best average waves or 
ground swells are obtainable, which is out just beyond where the waves 
begin to break. There are two floats 20x16 feet each, fastened together 
in tandem by heavy rails 60 feet long. An open space is left between 
the two floats so that a double action is received from each wave. The 
float is connected with a 12-inch displacement hydraulic pump by 
means of cables passing up through the wharf and running over puUy 
wheels and fastened to the plunger. As the float rises with the waves 
a counter-weight, which is connected with the end of the plunger, 
keeps the cables tight and at the same time pulls the plunger out ready 
to be forced in again as the float lowers. 

Bach float is loaded to the weight of about 25 tons. This produces 
a pressure of 440 pounds to the square inch in the pumps, forcing the 
water into a receiver containing air. This, being compressed to the 
same pressure, forms a cushion and produces a perfectly steady stream 
of water which is forced upon a waterwheel. From there the water 
drops into a supply tank, where a pix>e leading direct to the pumps, 
furnishes the pumps with a supply of water. Thus, the same water is 
used over and over again ; and as fresh water is used it does not rust 
out the pumps as would be the case with salt water. 

The pipe leading from the receiver to the waterwheel is provided with 
a throttle valve which can be gauged to govern the action of the floats, 
so that they cannot lower faster than the water is released from the re- 
ceiver, thus giving perfect control of the floats in case of storms and 
heavy waves ; because the floats will be allowed to drop only at the 

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rate of a certain number of feet per 
minnte according to how high and 
fast the waves are coming in. As 
the swells vary from three to eight 
per minute, it is declared that this 
throttle valve will govern and pro- 
duce a i)crfectly steady power 
from the intermittent motibn of 
the ocean. 

Many wave motors are able to 
work only when the tide is at a 
certain height. This motor claims 
to have overcome that feature by 
making the hydraulic pumps 
twenty feet long, which allows 
the plunger to work at all tides, 
high or low. 

The improved plan adopted by 
this wave motor in guiding the 
floats is shown in the small illus- 
tration on the third page of this 
article, presenting an end view of 
the float in position between the 
piling. A traveler carried on an 
arm from the deck of the float 
runs on a heavy steel guide cable 
bridged out about a foot from the 
piles, thus forming a spring to take up the force of each blow and pro- 
tect the piles and floats completely. This arm is also provided with a 
traveler at the other end and allows the float to take its natural sway 
backward and forward. There is also a long guy cable, connected with 
the floats, and anchored one hundred or more feet from the floats as 
shown by the dotted lines in the large illustration, to relieve all strain 
from the wharf. 

The floats are ballasted with water and provided with valves by which 
they can be filled or emptied in a very short time, also partitions are 
constructed within the floats to keep the water from moving when the 
float is in motion. 

Engineers who have investigated and figured out the working capacity 
of this motor, say that a little more than one-horse power can be devel- 
oped for every foot of ocean frontage used, and that the cost to build 
and maintain a large plant will not exceed the cost of a regular steam 

Fuel is the greatest item of cost in generating power, but a wave- 
motor has the advantage, because its fuel is furnished by the wave motion 
free of cost. 


J. D. Mercereau, the well known wharf builder, says "The plan is 
perfectly feasible, and will guarantee to build a wharf that will carry 
the weight and withstand storms." 

Fred Baker, of the Baker Iron Works, says, ** Your plan is entirely 
feasible, and, in fact, the only practical plan of a wave motor I have 
ever seen. The principle is all right and will work.*' 

E. M. Boggs, engineer for the Southern California Power Company, 
also for the Bear Valley Irrigation Company, says, ** I am surprised, 
both at the simplicity and feasibility of the proposition. They have 
unlimited power and have it under perfect control." , 

F. H. Olmstead, city engineer, says, ** I have examined the plans of 
the Pacific Wave Motor, and am satisfied if they stay by it it will be a 
perfect success. It certainly is a feasible proposition." 

Chas. D. Martin, engineer for the Southern Pacific Railway, and C. J. 
Goucher, city engineer for Long Beach, both say, ** The plan of the 
motor is perfectly practical." 

R. C. Shepherd, machinist and inventor of a power-head for deep- 
well pumping, says, '* I have investigated the proposition thoroughly, 
and it looks to me as though it would be a perfect success." 

Further information can be secured from the inventors, Messrs. H. T. 
Hollingsworth, A. Lee Perley and A. R. Hamilton, of Los Angeles, Cal. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

When answering advertisements, please mention that you "saw it in the 1,akd op Suitshikk.'* 


ILL develop or reduce 
My part of tlie body 

A P«rfMt ConpIcBioii Baaatiaw 


Dr. John Wilson Gibbs' 


Electric Massage Roller 

(Patflotod UnitMl StatM. lorop*. 

" Ha work ii not confloMl to tbo 

flMM aloDC, bat will do food to any 

Trada-Mark Bagistarad. pvt of tka body to whieh it ia a|»- 

pllad, darelopinf or radoaing aa daairad. It Is a Tary pratt) 

addition to tha toilat-tabla."— Chioago Tribana. 

"This dalieata Daetrie Baaatiflar ramoToa aU £aoi*l bUmiahaa 
It la tha only poaitiTa ramovar of wilnklaa and arow'a-fMA It 
narar fails to parform all that is axpaotad."— Chiaago Tlmae- 

"Tha Uaetrio Rollar la oartainly prodoativa of good raanlta. 
I baliara it tha boat of any applianoaa It ia safa and affMtiTa " 
->HABain BvaaAaD Atsb, If aw Yotk World. 

For Massage aid Carative Parposes 

An Kleotric Bollar in all tha tarm impliaa Tha invantion of a 
phyiieian and alaetridan known throoghont this eoantry and 
koropa. A moat parfaat aomplaxion baantiliar Will ramova 
wrinklaa, "erow'a-laat" (pramatvra or from age), and all facial 
hlamishaa— POSITITB. Whanavar alaetrletty la f o ba nsad for 
maaaaging or ooratiTa pnrpoaaa, it haa no aqual. Ifo eharcinft 
Will laat forarar Always laady for naa on ALL PARTS OF THE 
BODY, for all diaaaaaa. Por Bhanmatism. Beiatiaa, Nanralgia, 
Narrons and Oireolatory Diaaaaaa, a apaeiflfl Tha proCaaaional 
standing of tha invantor (you ara rafiwrad to tha pablia praaa 
for tha past flftaan yaftrs), with tha approval of thia ooontry 
and Coropa, ia a parfact goarantaa. PRICE: Gold, $4 00; 
Silvar, IS .00. By mail, ar at oAoa of Olbba'Company, ISTO 
BioADWAT, Niw ToKK. Oireolar fraa. 

The Only Electric Roller. 
All others to called are Fraudulent Imltatlont. 

Copyrighi. Copyright. 

"Can taka a ponnd a day olT a patiant, or put it on."— Ifaw 
York Son, Aog. 80, 1891. Send for iM^ara on "Great Sabjeet of 

Dr. Jobs Wilsoa GIbbs' Obesity Care 
For the Permasent RedM^tlos aid Care ef Obesity 

Purely Yegetabla. Harmlaas and Positive. NO FAILURE. Year 
reduction is aasorad— radnoed to stay. One month's treatment 
$5.00. Hail, or oflloe. 1870 Broadway. New York "On obesity, 
Dr. Gibba ia a reooRnised authority.— N. Y. Press, I8W." 


"The euro is baaed on Nature'a laws "—New York Herald 
July 9, 1808. 

Ho-w's Tliis ! 

We offer One Bundred Dollars reward for any 
case of Catarrh that cannot be cured by Hall's 
Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CHENEY ft CO., Toledo, O. 

We, the nnderaigned, have known P. J. Cheney 
for the last 15 veara, and believe him perfectly 
honorable in all business transactions and finan- 
cially able to carry out any obligations made by 
their firm. 

West & Truax, Wholesale Druggists. Toledo, O. 
Walding, Kxnnan & Mar VIM, wholesale Dmg> 
gists, Toledo, O. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting 
directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system. Testimonials sent free. Price 75c. 
per bottle. Sold by all druggists. 

Umbrella Economy. 
Umbrella covers wear out — the frame 
doesn't, but although it represents a 
large portion of the cost of an umbrella, 
it generally becomes useless when the 
cover is ruined. But now comes Jones- 
Mullen Co., 396 Broadway, N. Y., with 
a patent adjustable umbrella roof of all 
sizes, qualities and prices, which any 
one can fit to a frame. If interested, 
send for their artistic booklet entitled 
Umbrella Economy. Also, see adv. on 
outside cover of this magazine. 

Another Good Thing. 
The California Cream of Lemon Co., 
who have always known that they had a 
good thing, have reorganized in order to 
let the world also know it. Its general 
offices have been moved from San Diego 
to the Wilcox Bldg., Los Angeles, with 
Mr. C. R. Ming as president. The cor- 
poration still includes Mr. and Mrs. 
Grapewine, the inventors. 


"•^^- Wood Mantels 


Tel. Brown 1821 Correspondence Solicited 

514 S. Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



5 There is not a shoddy pair of shoes in our entire stock. Our 
S name is stamped on every shoe we sell, and we propose that our 
name shall stand for good quality, fine style and long service. 
We are building up a name, not excessive profits, and for that 
reason you are sure of the best at the lowest price. 

Tel. Red 3441 

225 5outh Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cat. 


C. M. Staub 5hoe Co. 


, . . . . Mail Orders Solicited 

lAflJxruTJxruuxnnnnjiAnnnnjxnjuuiJUTnjinjrLru inji 

F. B. Silverwood for Mackintoshes and Umbrellas. 

Wbeu answering: adTcrtisetiieiiLi, plesK mention that jon ** mv Ills the Land of Stiwiams." 

raftt xitS^t-S^l^^r jrf2J:0«.s6*L^>£ J:^I_S^2_S^t._I^ jfeLS^^ \^2^hLJS^ZJ^ .S:^ \fe_sK 

At SANTA MONICA tl>ec,i„.ateistempe.- ? 


ed in summer by ocean breezes, aod in winter by sutishine. 


iq The great Siiinxncr and Winter Resort Hotel h moflern aud first-class fr 

> in it« appointments and service, and atTords fine marine aud mountain fr 

t ^ U 

1q views, hunting, fishing, the longest wbarf in the world, warm salt water r* 


plunge* snrf bntbing the year round, aud convenient and enjoyable 
headquarters from which to visit all points of interest in Southern Cal- 

ifornia. Steam and electric cars every thirty minutes. 

Frank A, riilier, Prop, 5aiita Honica, Cal, 




Los Angeles Pacific Electric Ry. 


[.as AtiRcleu 

h:iM.\. 6:30 aud 

6rOO p. m. 
reach] tig Santn 

wiihout stops 

It providca one of the mOit modern 
cquipiiients and the coolest and inoil 
sec ttic route in Southern Catiromia, 
For Elftntn Monica: Cars leave fourth and Broadway, Los Angelc;, via Hill and 
16tti itreels, every hall hour from *^'M a, m. to T.SO p. m., and hourly to 11:30 p, m. 

Via Bellevue Ave,, Colegrovc and Hberman. every hour from *€ :15 a. ni. to 11:16 p. m. 
4:45 p. tn.« h:4b ju iik and UiAb p. m. to Sherman only. Cars le^ve PlEua lo minutes later. 
For I-o» An|r«l«a : Cars leave Hill Street. Santa Monica, at •5:50. •6:10, •6:40 a. m., 
and every halfhour from 7:10 a.m. to 7:40 p. ni., and hourly thereafter to 10:40 p. m. 
Sundays, eTcrj half honr from 7t]0 a, m. to 7:40 p. m., and hourty to 10:40 p. m. Leave 
band tfand, Ocean Ave,, ^ minutefi later. 

Cars leave Hill Street, South Santa Monica, 40 minuteA after eacii hour from 6:40 a. m. 
to 9:40 p. m. Connect at Morocco €@rf» via Sherman and Colegrove. 

*Except Sundays. Offieti, Chamber M Cafnm«rta Bldg., 41h tnd Broadway. Lot Angelti 

For - - 

Horton House 

A home-like place 

A cool retreat 

A pleasant room 

Oood thingrs to eat 

Our Hotel Rates cannot be beat 

5an Diego 
Cal — 


Digitized by ' 


F. B. Sllverwood carries the larfest stock of Neckwear In Los Angeles. 

When aamrentig advertjicmcmls, pleaie meatiup Ihat you " siaw it To the L*np of ScNAHrns/ 

W. S. ALLEN.... 





Up-t0-Date Goods 

New Styles, New Finish 

No Old Slock in any Department 

Always tlie Lowest Prices. Our reputatioti for Courtesy well known. 

Come in and see us. 

J45 and 347 South Spring Street 





'"« , 




The Adjustable ** Roof " fits any frame, requires 
no sewing, and can be put on in a minute. You 
can re-cover your own umbreJIa without the sligh 
est trouble or moments delay* 

Take the measure (to tlie fraction of an inch) of 
your old umbrella; count the number of outside 
ribs; state if the center rod is steel or wood ; send to us with 
and we w^M mail postpaid, a Union Twilled Silk 25 or 26 inch Ad- 
justatle '* Roof" (27 or 28 inch, $1.25 ; 29 or 30 inch,$i.5o). Um- 
brella *' Roofs" all sizes and prices from 50 cents to fS.oo each, 
according to quality. If you are not absolutely satisfied in every 
particular, send the **roof" back, and we >vill refund the 
money at once. Including -tamps you have used for post- 
age. Over a quarter of a million '* Roofs " sold. 
Booklet, "Umbrella Economy ** with simple instnic- 
tjons necessary with your order. 
Ail first-class dealers sell Jones Umbrella*' Roofs.**, 

The Joncj'Mullcn Co.. 396-398 Broadw|y? 

Mjaitractitreri of Ui« btf beat i^des «f UmfrftUiur io ibt %mA 

^riacBi ue wori^l 


/(Cv^'^' '%>r Vol. XI. No. 5 

A LITTLE CURIO V '^^'^ ^^-^ ['^''^l^aHahiy 

THE LEGEND OF x6gHlf[~rw Illustrated 








VW>€wrea 169* ftv LAMDOF SLiHSHtrte PuBCC^ 







Wbea answerlnf ndvcrttReiDciitB. p]««K mcnljon lltmt ycra '* mw it ia th« Lamd op gumsuivB/* 

W. S. ALLEN.... 





Up. to. Date Qcmds 

New Styles, New Finish 

No Old Stock in any Department 

Always tbe Lowest Prices. Our reputation for Courtesy well known. 

Come in and see us, 

345 and 347 South Spring: Street 


Order from 

the ** Big Store." 


For our 16-pflge illustrated free booklet, American Home 
Furnishings. Every woman can fiod in it many helpful 

Then, too, she can buy Good Furniture Cheaper bere 
than anywhere else in the Soutbwest. 

Niles Pease Furniture Co. 

439-4 1 -43 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 


1545 GREEN 

110 W. SECOND ST. % 
205<2 S. MAIN ST. 



Digitized by 




Photo, by Ormham. 

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Vol. 11, No. 5. 


OCTOBER, 1899. 

A Blossom of Barren Lands. 


j FLOWER grows in old Cathay 

Whose blood-red petals ease our woes, 
It lulls our haunting cares away 

And gives our weariness repose. 
When tortured heart and fevered brain 

Long for black slumber, dull and deep, 
The poppy's charm can ease our pain 

And bid us — sleep. 

And subtler Egypt's fabled bloom, 

The lotus of forgetful breath, 
Brings to remorse oblivion's doom 

And gives the shameful past to death. 
When bitter memories, fierce and fell. 

Scourge our dark hearts with wild regret — 
O for the flower whose languorous spell 

Bids us — forget ! 

But dearer, more divinely born, 

Amid the deserts desolate, 
The yucca blooms above its thorn 

Triumphant o'er an evil fate. 
Brave, stainless, waxen miracle, 

So may we with our fortunes cope. 
Who in life's burning deserts dwell. 

You bid us — hope ! 

iCngle. N. M. 

Coprriffbt 1S99 bj Und of Sunibint Pab. Co. 

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A California Coat Ranch. 


..^^, lALIFORNIA ranches vary in interest as iheir 
^'''' location and staple vary. The monotonous 
grain-ranches of the great valleys, with per- 
haps 5000 acres of wheat or barley in one 
field ; the fruit ranches of the smaller val- 
leys and their circumvallation ; the vine- 
yards and stock-ranches of the foothills ; the 
sugar-beet fields of the lowlands — all are 
interesting, but not all in like degree. Perhaps none, in all 
the wide classification is more remunerative (as per capital in- 
volved) less laborious or more picturesque, than a goat-ranch. 

The perpendicular lands are available for the beautiful Per- 
sian or Angora goat. Drouth has no terrors for a flock which 
can forage on bald hillsides and inaccessible ledges worthless 
for anything else ; which can subsist and multiply on scrub- 
oak, poison-oak, weeds, stubble, pine needles — even the as- 
tringent eucalyptus. 

It is traditional that the common goat's digestion is cast- 
iron ; and as much is true of the Persian. He can eat pretty 
much anything ; and I never saw, nor heard of, a sick goat. 

One boy can herd a flock of 500 the year round. The 
lambing season, from February to June, calls out everyone on 
the ranch, to hold the mothers while the kids nurse; for 
(sheep-like) goats are parents either unnatural or hopelessly 

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Stupid. Every human mother knows the most wonderful 
child in the world ; but a goat does not. All kids are alike 
to her. In a flock of 500, not five per cent, will own their 
o&pring or can recognize them. 

The young are kept in a corral, into which the mothers are 
driven at night. At evening and morning this corral witnesses 
a performance rivaling any circus. The ewes are ** roped," 
thrown and held; and the kids need no other summons to 
their meal. The ** table seats two," but perhaps seven or 
eight will crowd about, seizing any coign of vantage what- 
ever, nutritious or dry wool ; butting, tugging, and generally 
conducting themselves with so scant table manners that it is 
no wonder their mothers dread the ordeal. 

The kids are beautiful and graceful and of tireless activity 

(like youth in general). They are never at rest. They climb, 
jump, run, devour fences and ropes, and divert themselves with 
an ingenuity worthy of human imitation. They can utilize a 
see-saw as well as the boys who made it. A barrel left in their 
reach is welcome — they can balance on it and ** walk the ball" 
with the dexterity of an acrobat. I have often seen one in- 
side the barrel, apparently enjoying the rolling process. 

No matter how many times a day you visit them, they are 
always friendly-inquisitive, sampling your raiment with sober 

The thoroughbreds are pure white, with long, fine hair — a 
link between silk and wool. They are shorn twice a year, the 
fleece averaging in weight with that of a merino sheep ; but 

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with no little the advantage of it in value. They are hardy, 
and less susceptible to diseases and parasites than sheep. 

The success of goat farming lies chiefly in feeding the kids 
up to the second month. After that, they shift for themselves. 

The flesh of the kids is a delicacy worthy of place on the 
most epicurean bill of fare ; and the milk of the ewes is par- 
ticularly rich and nutritious ; and as a cosmetic is unsurpassed. 
All in all, there is much to be learned and much to be enjoyed 
on a California goat-ranch. 

Aboriginal Art in Obsidian. 


H >^ >»j^ g^ |S in the Indian veomaa of certain Cilifornia tribes 
L^^^'^r^Nffly the art impulse found expression in the ornate 
[S/ ILill'* )S|| basket which has made her famous, so in the In- 
dian man it found outlet in some equally extraor- 
dinary artifects of obsidian. This is particularly 
true of the aborigines who once peopled the lower 
San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. Their ideals 
found more perfect expression in form, line and 
color, in textiles and in stone, than did those of the Coast Range and 
Sierra tribes. They were less given to the warpath and the hunting 
trail. They had more leisure and 'more comfort; and the art instinct 
had among them a better chance of development. Theirs were the un- 
dying streams, the abundance of fish ; the countless water- fowl with eggs 
and young ; the swarms of crickets ; the vast bands of elk and deer that 
our American pioneers still found in these valleys ; the acorns on 
thousands of burdened oaks. What the mountain Indian gained by 
the long journey, the swift chase, the armed raid, indulgent Nature 
dropped in the lap of the valley Indian. He was neither invader nor 
invaded. Hunting was so tame that it took little of his vitality. He 
had time and content to think. And he did think— and feel. The 
women wove baskets that it is no absurdity to call poems— the most ex- 
quisite baskets known to man. The men chipped atone as I believe it 
was never chipped elsewhere in America. 

The resultant workmanship in these lines was art, even by the white 
man's canons. His artifects not only ministered to his utilities ; they 
fulfilled his esthetic tastes. As compared with other ancient village- 
sites in central California, those of this locality show a far smaller pro- 
portion of broken or ill-made specimens, chips 
and the single finds which indicate the loss of an 
arrow, in hunting or otherwise. 

In 150 arrows taken from a local site, only 10 
were ordinary and but three crude. Among 100 
carved obsidian objects from the same site, none 
were crude, though a few were doubtless unfinished. 

Barr Collection ; actual size. 

Digitized by 


C M. Davis Enc Co. 

All actual size. Arrowheads from writer's collection. Two lower "carves" froa 
Barr collection ; rest from writer's. 

Digitized by 




The serrations arc a striking feature of all the specimens shown, save 
one which is not of obsidian. 
These Indians did not attempt 
serration, so far as I know, 
except in obsidian. Artistic 
arrows of jasper, agate and 
iossil wood are found along 
with these curious ** curves" 
but never serrated. In the 
series of six arrows, the four 
smaller are from near Sacra- 
mento, the two larger from 
near Stockton. The ''spears'* 
are of a series of eight in the 
writer's collection and were 
found all together 20 miles 
west of Stockton. The other 
arrows are from an ancient 
burial place within the limits 
of this city. 

The curved artifects are 
found at Stockton, and here 
only.* Some of them have 
not only the simple curve, 
shown by the illustration, but 
a compound or lateral curve. 
No. 16, for instance, is bent 
to the left till its point is far out 
of line. 

A more exact acquaintance with the 
miscalled *' Digger Indian " will make 
him a more interesting creature than 
he has been. Instead of the most de- 
based of Indian culture-types, he niity 
yet appear not only the most harmless c m. datu tog. co. 
of American Indians, but among the writer's collection ; 
most artistic and the most amenable to civilization. 

; two-thirds natural size. 

*Mr. Merodith'a "eurves" bare mad* eoniiderable troobl* amoog unrMMl or ontraTelcd eollcctora. Asa 
■inple matter of fa«t, tboy ar« morcly artifecte made of that shape, b«caiu« that shape is the natoral claaTate of 
the nodular obsidian acceflsible to those lodians. As they eoaldn't depend on its breaking straight, they worked 
it as it did break, and made their knires thus sickle-shaped. As erery expert knows, this shape is peeuliu-Iy 
•ffeetirefor certain kinds of cutting : but the Indian adopted it simply because his material foreed him to. 
Like m<mt discoreries, it was parely empiric As to serration, the reason the Indian serrated obcidiaa and no 
other stone is merely that obsidian is the only stone that can be serrated, practically. There is no doubt in my 
mind of the authenticity of any of the specimens shown in these cute. " Curves " have also been found in Inyo 
county, CaJ.— En. 

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Ban- Collection ; actual size 

('. M. Divii Collection of writer and J. A. Barr ; actual sixe. 

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The Myth of Queen Xochitl. 


Of N the tenth century the Toltecs, according to ancient Indian chron- 
j iclers, were powerful and flourishing. During the "reign" of Tec- 
^ pancdUzin there lived in T611an an Indian named Papdntdn, who 
was an extensive cultivator of the Mexican aloe, or maguey. 

From the fiber of this remarkable plant the people made paper, rope 
and a coarse kind of cloth ; while its thorns served for pins and needles, 
and its roots when cooked formed nutritious food. 

Its crowning virtue (or evil) was yet to be exploited by this same Pap- 
dntzin, who discovered that its milk-white juice, when slightly fer- 
mented, made a more or less palatable beverage. 

He resolved to send some of the liquor as a present to the war-captain ; 
and that his beautiful daughter X6chitl should be the bearer of the gift. 

Accordingly X6chitl, who was reputed to be the most lovely of Indian 
maidens, donned her finest attire, decked herself with flowers, and, at- 
tended by her father and her women, appeared before Tecpancdltzin, 
bearing in her hands a bowl of miel de maguey (honey of maguey). 

The war-chief, who was young and ardent, was equally delighted with 
cup and cup-bearer. 

He privately ordered his people to seize the maiden and convey her to 
his castle on the hill of Pdlpan. 

He afterwards made her his wife, and on her presenting him with a 
son, called the child Mecan^tzin» which signifies "son of maguey,^* 

At the birth of the child certain signs and wonders were observed, and 
the sage Hu^man was consulted as to their meaning. 

He declared, after much deliberation, that the boy would become war- 
chief but that during his reign would occur the destruction of T611an. 

In spite of this evil augury Tecpancdltzin abdicated in the fifty-second 
year of his "reign" in favor of his son, in accordance with the law of 
the T61tecs. 

Mecan^tzin was then forty years of age, and extremely noble and vir- 

For nearly forty years he governed wisely and well, but at their expi- 
ration the evils prophecied by the seer began to manifest themselves. 

The war-captain in his old age became extremely profligate, and his 
vassals followed his example. 

Mecan^tzin had his first premonition of disaster when, on going one 
morning to his garden, he encountered there a rabbit with horns like a 
deer, and a humming-bird with enormous spurs. 

Having learned that these were certain signs of impending doom he at 
once inaugurated a series of grand fiestas and sacrifices to placate the 
angry gods, but in vain. 

The calamities commenced the following year with fierce hurricanes 
which lasted 100 days at a time, destroying the harvests and laying the 
towns in ruins. 

Next year there was not a drop of rain, and the terrible heat dried up 
trees, plants and every sign of verdure. 

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In the third year came heavy frosts which destroyed as surely as did 
the winds ; and the fourth brought such intense heat, alternating with 
snow and hail, that the few remaining magueys and trees perished. 

When the plants commenced to grow again, great flocks of birds, lo- 
custs and other pests devoured them, and to add to the general misfor- 
tune the weevils ate all the grain in the store-houses. 

The barbarian allies of the T61tecs, seeing the plight of their once 
powerful neighbors, now began a war against them, which lasted twenty 

Then came the pest. An Indian wandering in the mountains found 
the body of a beautiful infant, pure white, with golden hair. 

He carried it at once to the war-captain ; but Mecan^tzin, fearing that 
it was another omen of evil, ordered him to return it to the place where 
it was found. The body putrified and bred a pestilence, which spread 
like wildfire among the people, 900 in every 1000 dying of it. 

The ** king" made a law, that in future every white child should be 
killed at the completion of its fifth year. 

In the meantime the enemy had advanced on many of the principal 

Mecan^tzin, to propitiate them, sent two of his chief men to their 
camp, bearing gifts of gold, rich cloths and ornaments. 

The barbarians were implacable, and advanced rapidly upon his army. 
A bloody battle ensued and a portion of his troops was vanquished. 

Mecan^tzin fought personally, as did his aged father and many women, 
including X6chitl. 

Mecandtzin retreated with his forces towards T611an, but was repeatedly 
overtaken by the enemy. His old father was killed, and his mother, 
X6chitl, fell bravely defending herself to the last. Mecan^lzin escaped, 
and concealed himself in a cave. 

He later placed himself again at the head of his remaining warriors 
and met the barbarians in a fierce battle in which he was killed and his 
army totally destroyed. 

Thus ended the great T6ltec nation, whose ruin, according to the Tex- 
cocan * 'historian" Ixtlilx6chitl, may be directly attributed to the beauti- 
ful but unfortunate X6chitl, and the introduction of pulque. The Indians 
of Mexico still cling to this seductive drink. 

The famous painting by Jos^ Obreg6n, from which the accompanying 
illustration is taken, shows the maid X6chitl, accompanied by her father 
and attendants, in the presence of the " king " Tecpancdltzin. 

The last of her women carries the plant itself, from which was ex- 
tracted the fatal beverage destined, so runs the fable, to debauch a king 
and his people. 

City of Mexico. 

It ia. of coon*, nndentood that the "Toltee Nation" is an invention of Iztlilzocbitl and Jr. Duran ; 
the Btorjr of Xoebitl is an Indian myth of Meiico. It is not hittory.— Ed. 

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My Brother's Keeper. 


WHATEVER may be our religious, political or social affiliations ; 
however much or however little we may have studied of ethnol- 
ogy ; whether we know Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Sanscrit, Tigua, 
Aymard and a few more, or only English and not much of that ; whether 
we have read one or all of the several thousand necessary books on the 
subject ; whether we have lived near enough to Indians to care for them 
or far enough to despise them — every manly man and womanly woman 
(common sense and ordinary schooling being taken for granted, in this 
country) can agree to certain basic truths, which are as scientific as they 
are decent : 

1 . A mother is a good thing. 

2. A mother without a child is void. 

3. Likewise, a child without a mother. 

4. Item, fathers who have no sons and sons who have no fathers. 

5. Education is meant to be an enabling for the life of the person 

C. M. DavU Rng. Co. Copyright by C. F. Lummis 


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educated ; not for the person who does not get it ; nor is it designed 
simply as the easiest way for the teacher to make a living. 

6. Learning to read does not balance the loss of parents. 

7. Having smart children does not compensate for their death or dis- 
appearance. A live child who cannot read is worth more than two dead 
ones who could. 

8. The everlasting absence of a child is equivalent to its death. 

9. An estranged child is not as comfortable as a trusting one. 

10. No country is bettered by having citizens who have forgotten 
their fathers and mothers. 

11. A good son or daughter is as valuable to the nation as a good 
farm-hand or scullery maid. 

1 2. A republic is not benefited by the creation of a class of consti- 
tutional peons. 

13. American labor, which had fathers and mothers, will not welcome 
any competition from a class which, by government fiat, had none. 

14. People truly strong and brave are always tender to the weaker. 
Bullying, no matter in what name of ** humanity," is left to cowards, 
who are strong only when they have the advantage. 

15. The American Indian occupied this land before we did. 

16. He numbers a quarter of a million; we are about seventy-five 

17. No matter how poor his title to the land on which he was the first 

human being; no matter how scant 
of laud offices and deeds and sur- 
veyors he was^the fact that he was 
before us, and is one to our 300, is 
enough to make honorable people as 
considerate of him as they decently 
can be» 

18. He has a little land still — what 
we thought a few years ago so worth- 
less that no one else would ever take 
it as a gift— but we have all the land 
that is good for any 

19. Thanks to the 
whisky, the vices 
and the diseases he 
never heard off till 
he met us, he is 
slowly but surely 
disappearing. A 
modest forbearance 
should lead us at 
least to *• let Nature 
take her course, "and 
not kill him off before 
his appointed time. 


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'C. Jl. DaTii Inff. Co. 


Phota bj Wahr. 

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20. If we wish to kill the Indian off we should go at it like men and 
risk our lives ; not like cowards sneaking behind the skirts of " philan- 

21. If we must " educate" the Indian we should not educate him to 
death. We should adapt our curriculum to his capacities, and our de- 
mands to his humanity. We can gain nothing ourselves, and certainly 
give him nothing, by trampling upon his love for his mother and his 

22. If we are going to educate the Indian— or anyone else — we should 
give him an educated teacher. He cannot learn to read from a teacher 
who cannot read ; he cannot become a good American by an instructor 

was invented 
and family 

who thinks God 

in 1899; that 
is an accideut 

tiei a vain 

23, No im- 
was ever yet 

world by aoy^ 
didn't know 
about it and 
to learii. 

24. The time 
a man shall 
thing, and the 
ized worlfl de- 


done in this 
one who 

didn't care 

has couje 
demand that 
know sonne- 
whole civil- 
m a E d s it. 


C. JI.DaviiInc Oo. 

A FATHER WHO CARES. Copyright by C. F. 

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We dislike to have a congenital fool do our sanitary plumbing. Are the 
human souls of 250,000 prior Americans, upon whose lands we disport 
ourselves, less important than our sewer-gas pipes? 

25. The American people has troubles of its own. It does not care 
much for Indians, except in a tiny majority of it. But it cares for 
justice, fair play, honor, mercy. It cannot afford — ^and it would not 
knowingly aflford, even if it could — a cowardly oppression or injustice. 

26. The Ameri- 
can public doe§ not 
yet believe that 
any class of peo- 
ple within its bor- 
ders has to be kid- ^^^^^^^^^^^^K^W^^ k 
napped from fath- 
er^ mother, broth- 
ers and iisters. It 
does not yet be- 
lieve that any man 
is a t>ettcr Ameri- 
can for having no 



C. H. D»Tia Bng. Co. 


Copyright by C. F. Laiamii. 

home. It does not yet believe that the facility to spell *' c-a-t *' is worth 
more than filial devotion. It has not yet discovered that a salary, little 
or big, entitles any man to break up an American home. 

27. These things it feels most vividly for itself ; but it also feels 
them for other people — the best test of the depth of its own conviction. 
I would very much like to see any person now making a living by the 

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Indian Service deny any of these heads as an abstract proposition. If 
true in the abstract, it Is true in the concrete. As a matter of fact, all 
these things are true ; and every one of these truths our Indian Service 
is today violating in practice. It is depriving parents of their children 
and children of their parents on the notion that the ability to stumble 
through a first reader outweighs the ties of family. That is the socio- 
logic fool of it. The ethnologic fool is in presuming that Indians have 
no family. They think that while God may have been so vulgar as to 
invent sex, it was reserved for our smartness to invent motherhood and 
fatherhood, the glory and the consummation of sex. This is, perhaps, 
a rough way of saying it ; but it is cold truth. 

But possibly those who are tx oficio wiser than all human history 
(for history never got a salary) should not be blamed for being also 
smarter than their creator. A man who knows nothing of history — 
and ** history " does not mean six-bit school-books, but some sober re- 
view of what man has done (and learned by the doing) between the 
time he was a shivering savage and the now of his wonderful wisdom — 
may fairly be expected also to suppose that the law of gravitation (or 
of maternity, which is as primal) was invented in 1898 and by an 

But the quality of mercy is not strained to the mesh of a Ph. D. We 
can be human without being savants. The love of parents and of 
children; of something like justice, of something from which philan- 
thropy flowered, is in every human heart. And all of us can love and 
do love fair play. If the salaried theorists — unread and untouched 
by Indians— who live on the Indian, will simply give, their involun- 
tary feeders fair play, I for one will forgive them for lack of scholar- 
ship. And for an American, this is very forgiving ; since our scholars, 
whose judgment of Indians is now and will be through the genera- 
tions accepted by the serious world as authoritative, are in luck to get 
as much for a year's hard study— or rather for their maintenance 
through a year's hard study — as the lucky political persons get a month 
for taking Indian children away from home and teaching them useless 

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CM. DkTis Enf. Co- 

From an old Jtsuit nap. (See p. S37.) 

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A Little Curio. 


lOME years ago, a pair of tourists in California chose another than 
the beaten track in the northern part of the State. They had 
traveled delightedly on mule back along the dashing current of 
the Salmon, and up the winding Klamath, beholding such marvels of 
mountain scenery and breathing such intoxicating atmosphere as made 
their past lives seem tame as un fermented wine. 

" Did you ever visit one of these Indian rancherees ?" their guide 
asked one day. 

** No," answered the lady, eagerly, ** no, no, no I" 

An hour later they rode into an oddly silent cluster of huts, barking 
dogs suddenly rendering the place vocal, and a strange, wild odor of 
earth and pines, and the birth-scent of a nomad race pervading it. 

The huts, or cabins, were set in an open space, yet near to the shade 
of pines, and were built of slabs, or puncheons, split from trees, one 
round hole cut near the bottom, sufficiently large for ingress and egress. 
From one of these huts the guide stirred an old crone, clad in a garment 
cast off from civilization ; her eyes rheumy with age and the smoke of 
green wood ; her face seamed with wrinkles ; her skin like leather. 

After a word or two with her, he turned again disgustedly : ** Blamed ef 
it ain't ration day, *n they're all off thet c*n walk. Let's go to the reser- 
vation house ourselves." 

The clatter of hoofs at this place scarce disturbed the sleepy Indians, 
but a little girl of about ten years of age turned from a knot-hole, and, 
holding up her hands, began telling off her fingers to those in the back- 

" Isa, one ; akh-uk, two ;" counted the guide: "kwi-rok ; pisi ; ter- 
a-oap ; kri-vik ; hok-i-ra-vik-y nine ; ten,— she's sayin' they're cuttin' 
up ten sheep inside there." 

There was not a gesture made, nor a sign given, to denote the pres- 
ence of strangers, till this same little creature, making a swirling motion 
with her arm, called out: ** W6-hah I" 

At once a gleam lit up the faces of the company ; there was a glimmer 
of white teeth here and there ; more than a half-dozen score of black eyes 
danced for one brief instant ; then the luminous flash died out as light- 
ning dies. 

The guide smiled as he said, *• They're laughin' at ye. Thet's asmart 
little 'un, too ; she's caught on young. She give the nick-name fer the 
whites, 'n' was makin' big fun. She was imitating a whip-lash, 'n' 
sayin' 'whoa', 'n' 'haw', 'n' how ridikulous the whites is, anyhow. 
She's cute, you bet." 

Then came the parceling out of the ration. One old mahala* took off 
her dirty skirt and tied up her quota of flour in it ; the bucks slung legs 

*The oommoa name for Indian woman in Oalifornia am-ing such as know Indians. I believe the credit of 
identifying its etymology— inevitable when onoe thought of (a corruption of the Spanish mujer)— belongs to Eve 
Lnmmis.— Ed. 

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oi mutton and smeary chunks of beef over their shoulders, and the old 
and infirm were laden with the heaviest packs of the company. 

" I would like an Indian child for a curio," suddenly announced the 
blonde-haired, blue-eyed lady, a dash of red in her cheeks and lips, 
"that little girl." 

Shades of the Yurok, the Karok, the Modok, what curios these tour- 
ists had already — beads, elk-horn utensils, bone brushes and combs, 
shells, obsidian, red- woodpecker scalps, a pair of tiny chipmunks, baskets 
of all sizes, shapes and patterns — and then baskets and more baskets 1 
How could they ever be got home ? And now, a human curio ! 

In five minutes more the bargaining was going on. How much al-li- 
co-chik would the white woman give? No, the thing couldn't be done 
anyhow ; their tribe would scorn to sell children ; this one very smart, 
too. Many head shakings succeeded, with an occasional cluck from one 
of the women. 

"Where's Captain George?" demanded the guide. 

A tall, middle-aged brave, with a coat buttoned across a shirtless 
chest, and an ugly scar reaching across one cheek from ear to mouth, 
was summoned from the spot where he was busy loading his family 
rations on his father's back, and directly engaged in a conversation so 
mixed in pedigree that no parent language could be distinguished. 

"B'iled down, its just a question of how much?" said the guide, 
finally. "As it happens, this child don't belong to the tribe. When 
she was a pappoose, her mother was captured, cradle 'n' all, from the 
Upper Klamath people, and was one of their shamans, or holy prophet- 
esses. So these folks was afraid to kill either her or the young 'un ; 
bime by, the woman died." 

" How much ? " reiterated the little lady in the saddle, anxious for 
fear she couldn't get the child, and then, again, anxious for fear she 

Evidently, Captain George understood the situation, for he stripped 
his coat sleeve up, and on his bared arm, began measuring ofif a string of 
dentalium shells — "al-li-co-chick," or Indian money — by the tattoo 
marks which extended under the skin, clear to the elbow. He was 
plainly but gaining time, and calculating what price the lady could be 
induced to give, while pretending to reckon up the child's value. 

'* Twenty dollars ! " he hazarded, finally, and when the bargain was 
closed, without any haggling, the Captain turned away with a vexed 
look lurking aVout his scar, at not holding out for more. 

(Extract from Laura' s Journal :) August 1, 1870. My •* curio " has 
attracted no little attention. Before I reached home with her, I con- 
cluded I might as well have secured a lizard, or a pet snake, or a bear's 
cub, the way people looked at her. 

Arriving at Eureka, I had her well scrubbed, especially her head, and 
hastily ran up some red calico with my needle, in which dress I thought 
her short, squat figure very picturesque. Her pudding-bag face, indented 
with its two, little, black, berry eyes, and ornamented with three tat- 

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tooed fern leaves on the chin, I thought very striking as it looked ont 
from above that bright calico slip. Bat the other passengers on the 
steamer kept their distance ; and one coarse, frowzy woman, with dirt 
in her finger nails, said : *< You coaldn*t get an Injun clean ! '* 

The Stewart objected when I wanted her in my state-room, and then, 
as the steamer began to roll on the bar, she turned a sickly yellow, and 
I realized that a little Indian girl's stomach was formed on the same 
plan as my own, after all, and consented that she should be taken 

Sept. 5. Well, here we are, in a furnished house in San Francisco, 
having had, I am persuaded, the most glorious honeymoon among the 
wild doves of the mountains that could have been planned. Besides, 
my health, about which they were all so foolishly worried, is quite re- 
covered, and I hope to stay here indefinitely. 

I have decorated my hall, dining-room, and parlor with my own bric- 
a-brac, including beads, baskets, and child. I am« astonished to find 
that the latter has been homesick within her silent and swarthy breast ; 
yet, what wonder ? It occurs to me, with some pricks of conscience, 
that I may have been rash or thoughtless, in thus transplanting her. I 
don*t know what could have suggested to me th^ word, " cruel^** in this 
connection ; but I indignantly repel the idea. 

Dec. 8. Captain George said her name was Mary ; but, sometimes, 
she chatters like the chipmunks, and then, if I choose to question her, 
her broken speech trickles on like one of her own little mountain 
streams, on a summer day. 

Today she has been in the mood, and she gave me her Indian name — 
Mil-ch6i-mil — meaning ''I talk;" bestowed upon her because of her 
ready tongue. But her command of language is limited ; she cannot 
converse on '*high*' subjects — how could I expect it of such a little 
lizard ? Sometimes she makes me ** creep,*' just to look at her. 

Feb. 11, 1871. Today I bought a dear little English pug, so 
homely that he's pretty ; also, a harness with bells. Mary's nose matched 
his own, as she looked at his curly tail, his crushed strawberry ribbon, 
and his dainty blanket and basket. '* Very good eat," she said, to my 
consternation, poking his fat sides with the finger of judgment. 

March 26. A lovely day, that suggests wet violets. 

Hearing loud voices on the sidewalk, this morning, I went to the win- 
dow, and, on the gate-post sat Mary, listless and blinking, surrounded 
by a dozen curious, teasing gamins. 

** Oh, what it is ! " exclaimed one, derisively. 

** Shure, its a naygur ! " suggested another. 

** Naygur ! naygur ! " shouted the crowd, catching at the familar and 
democratic epithet. And then the spirit of persecution abroad in the 
world condensed upon the lawless little horde : '* Twist her fingers ! 
pinch her ! tear her dress ! pull her hair ! " they shouted. 

For one moment she bore their indignities, then with a jump she 
landed in their midst, suddenly alive ; her hands eager talons ; her eyes, 
shooting fires; and such a torrent of Indian invective pouring from her 

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month, as reminded me of one of those mshing, northern cataracts. 
The effect of that wild-cat leap I need not describe ; bnt I heard the 
dishevelled " wash ladies " in the alley talking, an hour later, over their 
fences, about the " little diyil " in front. Evidently, their children 
had embellished the narrative as they carried it home. 

April 10. I have been teaching little Mil-ch6i-mil to sweep, and she 
asked me if the broom was a ** woman-stick." Partly by words, partly 
by the clever way in which she seemed to take the broom unto herself, 
but more by the gleam of her face, I understood the * 'woman-stick" to be 
a badge of sex. She took me out in the back yard to illustrate its use, 
and, with the end of the handle, begsm turning over the ground for a 
little space. I was astonished to see the quantity of angle-worms that 
came squirming to the surface ; and these disgusting, wriggling thing^s 
she caught deftly between thumb and finger, finally extending a particu- 
larly rich and corpulent one toward me, with the grave remark : " Make 
soup; very good." Oh, has her diet really been pug dogs and angle- 
worms, or is she playing upon my credulity ? 

June 8. We have been having the third of three warm days that some- 
times attack cool San Francisco. 

I found Mary, about noon, gohig round the house almost entirely 
without clothing. I endeavored to explain something of the term mod- 
esty, but she looked at me with a perfectly blank countenance. She 
said that title new corsets I bought her yesterday got hot, and burnt her, 
as if that were quite enough to account for her action. 

July 4th. This morning, early, I wakened at a peculiar sound. Fire 
crackers and bombs were splitting the air outside, but this was no Fourth 
of July celebration ; it was evasive, ghost-like and intensely mournful. 
I threw on a shawl, and, bare-footed, ran down the hall. Was it ? Yes, 
it certainly came from Mary's room. Pushing her door gently I saw her 
squatting on the floor, with bent shoulders ; and, then, again, issued 
from her lips that strange, low cry, such as a wounded animal might 
have given. And, yet, again, great heavens ! it might have been the 
death note of a stricken hare or deer. 

I craned my neck forward, and over those bent shoulders I saw that in 
her hand she held the stiffened form of one of the chipmunks. Its 
mate, in fright and excitement, was frantically turning the little wheel 
in the cage ; but evidently Bunny was dead. Mary seemed that moment 
herself but little higher in the scale of creatures than the chipmunks, 
and, my foot-fall lost in the pile of the carpet, I stole away. 

Before night, Tricksy, most diminutive and sprightly of encaged 
spirits, had joined her fellow, Bunny, and would never tread her wheel 
again. They say you cannot keep these wild things long ; that they in- 
variably die when taken from their free life and mountain air. These 
two have been so cunning, and so bright-eyed, that I felt a tear drop over 
my cheek as I saw them stretched out, and all that pretty agile life gone 
from them. 

Mary looked at them, and at my tears, with stolid face ; but, as I went 
to bed, again I heard that mournful, evasive cry stealing out like a soft- 

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footed ghost about the house. It seemed to say : " Hwen-ne-ni-ny, hwen- 
ne-noo-o-o, hwen-he-nu-u-u 1" with an indescribable wail running all 
through the vowels on which her voice dwelt. 

Almost overcome with nervous t motion, I shuddered and sobbed as I 
drew the bed-clothes over my head, and I shall always remember this 
July Fourth, as the day the chipmunks died. 

Sept. 19. Mary is growing fond of me ; and I had thought she never 
would 1 I wonder if she has a soul, too— why, yes, of course ! But she 
has never seemed human, as I, for instance, am, or mother, or the girls, 
in Boston. I am so used to being loved, that I miss it inexpressibly 
when I meet with one who seems to have no response in her souU 

There it is again — I said soul! 

Nov. 12. The fall of the leaf among the mountains I I can fancy the 
leaves yellowing and dropping with that gentle, little, scraping sound, 
that seems almost like the rustle of a spirit in the woods. All the shrub- 
bery must be quite denuded now, but the pines still stand, dark and 
green, clad the winter through. 

I am trying to teach Mary to read, but she doesn't enjoy it ; still she 
spends incredible patience on crochet. I believe she can learn to sing 
simple melodies, and she will do what she can to please me. In spite of 
her remark about roasting Pug, he is "hers devotedly," although she 
seldom speaks to him. Sometimes I am conscious of that very attraction, 
when she sits by me with her crochet, communing silently with herself 
and me. 

I hope she may remember some of the Indian songs — ^lullabies, and 
war chants and harvest dances, like the Manzanita and the Clover. I 
will give a unique evening then to the friends who have entertained me 
so charmingly during our stay here. She talks very well now, and 
knows what I want of her. Today, to prove that she understood, she 
fell into a monotonous rocking movement with her feet, accompanying 
herself with a growling note or two, which she kept up for several 
minutes without pause. It was the oddest ''song and dance" I ever 

I have learned much from her, too. Sif>san-di pek-i-d-vish is a cer- 
tain singing, dancing, gaming, Hasting ceremonial, by which the great 
spirits of earth and forest are conciliated. This averts such disasters as 
fires in the woods ; scarcity of rain ; land-slides in the winter after 
heavy rains; perhaps earthquakes. Then there is the U-ma-laik, or 
Salmon dance ; the Woodpecker dance ; dance of the White Deer ; 
Boat dance, and so on. 

I mean to get a tonic for Mary ; she doesn't seem quite well. In fact, 
I am far from well, myself. It's natural, I suppose ; in the fall of the 
year, when the leaves drop, nature must be at her lowest ebb. 

Jan. 5, 1872. I am amused at Mary in my dressing-room, she is so in- 
terested in my bright fineries — my curling-tongs, my little gold hair- 
pins, my powder-boz ; and oh, how she loves perfume and scented soap ! 
She never wearies of my Saratoga trunk; ''heghl heghl" she says, 
lifting all its lids, and plunging her hands into its empty oompsrtments. 

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She thought the hat-box must be meant to carry Pug in. She thinks 
my silk skirts sound like the leaves that I said fell in the autumn. 

But Mary isn't well, and the doctor's tonic doesn't seem to help her. 
Perhaps she needs a priestess-doctor, such as her mother was ; perhaps 
the Indian medicines of roots and herbs, gathered in the full or the dark 
moon, or with some other witch-like proviso, alone, will send the ichor 
along her veins. 

If I believed that ! 

I have thought today, that, perhaps, and all innocently, I am depriv- 
ing my little ward of a part of her birthright. If heretofore I have 
thought of anything beyond taking her for an amusement and a play- 
thing, it has been with the vague idea that in giving her civilization, I 
was hanging upon her life the gteat jewel, the one pearl. Just now it 
occurs to me, that there usually comes a day in a little squaw's existence 
when she is espied by some susceptible brave, and he makes commercial 
advances to her father ; then, without further ceremony, takes her re- 
ioicing to his wickiup. Such a day can never come to Mary, if she stays 
with me. Thus, has she, through me, lost home, husband, and children. 
But then, what folly to accuse myself! The idea was suggested by a 
question of hers. 

''How much," she asked, "did Ae (meaning my husband) pay for you? 
Many dollars, I suppose, because your hair is the color of dried grass, 
and your eyes like two openings in the clouds. He likes you." 

< ' He does love me, I should die if he did not 1 " I cried impetuously. 
But her face, the three fern leaves on its chin standing bluely out, setUed 
into that stubborn calm which is so much her characteristic, and I could 
not coax her into that contented and pleasing mood, which now she 
oftener wears. 

Blarch 15. I can scarcely write for tears — Mary, littie Indian Mil-choi* 
mil, is dead ! 

And she loved me — ^I cannot doubt it — ^for she followed me with her 
eyes when I left her, and when I returned held my hand closely between 
her weak fingers. I must write no more, for I am quite worn with the 
events of the last few days. 

March 30. I must finish littie Mary's history in my diary ; it will take 
few words. 

I did not dream she was going to die ; I really did not ! but the rest 
saw it, months ago. I had her photograph taken, one day, and she said, 
then, that would kill her. I laughed at her superstition, and to reassure 
her let her see me sit for mine, directiy after. 

She took a sudden cold, which developed, alarmingly soon, into pneu- 
monia. She said, so yearningly, when she was uneasy with fever, that 
the salmon were beginning to run up the Klamath ; and, then, again 
that the thimble berries would ripen in June ; and told, as she refused a 
drink from the faucet, how cool and fresh the water lay, up there, in lit- 
tie pools among the rocks, under the shade of the banks. Oh, it just 
hurt my heart to hear her longing voice ! 

I insisted that they should take her up on the steamer, her littie shoes 

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tucked in beside her, add bury her out among the pine*— a little alien 
whom I had robbed of home and family— >a human curio, which I tore 
fix>m its euTironments, and would have attached to me like an ornament 
to mj watch chain. I hope God will forgive me I A woman can be so 
careless and so cruel ! 

Awaj up there, under the pines, with their gently-swaying tops, I 
shall idways think of her as sleeping, in her red calico dress, her strings 
of shells around her neck, the red-woodpecker tufts in her braided hair. 

Sleep, little Mil-ch6i-mil, sleep well. Run, salmon, run up the Klam- 
ath ; swirl, cool waters, among the mountain pools ; ripen, berries, upon 
the bush; clasp hands, winds, and whisper near the spot where she 
sleeps ; for to you all she belonged, and never to crowded street, and 
bell, and book. 

But had she a soul ? oh, she had — I know she had ! 

The Big Bonanza. 



0f T took but a comparatively short time, under the management of 
I such men as crowded over from the western side of the Sierra Nevada, 
^ to find out, not only that the blue stuff that had been contemptuously 
rejected in the neighborhood of Gold Hill was substantially the same as 
that which was found at Ophir, but also that the vein which furnished 
it extended all the way between the two places, and a mile or two south- 
erly from Gold Hill to what became known as Silver City in Gold 
Cafion, a distance of about twenty-two thousand feet, or a little more 
than four miles. It was a large, irregular layer or dyke of metalliferous 
rocks, chiefly quartz, with bunches, pockets or streaks of exceedingly 
rich ore running through it, lying between what was called the foot- 
wall, which was generally hard diorite, on the lower side, and the hang- 
ing wall, consisting of porphyritic rocks, on the upper side. It would 
seem that when the mountain was originally formed or was forming, 
there was an immense split or series of splits in its mass, and naturally 
in its weakest part, a thousand feet wide in some places and narrowing 
or ''pinching*' to a mere trace in others, but forming a continuous line 
of fissure, into which nature interjected from the uuknown depths be- 
low, and under conditions of heat and chemical action that are incon- 
ceivable to the present dwellers upon the earth, the materials, includ- 
ing some native gold and silver and many argentiferous and other ores, 
that form the great vein. It was formed under substantially the same 
conditions as the great veins of Potosl, Guanajuato, Zacatecas and 
Chihuahua. All are of the same kind, having much the same general 
topographical position with reference to the mountains in which they 
are found, with nearly like directions and nearly similar dips ; and all, 
as before stated, belong to one and the same family of gigantic 

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In the case of the Mount Davidson vein or Comstock lode, as, not* 
withstanding the character of **01d Pancake," it got to be called, it 
will be noticed that when O'Reilly and McLaughlin first struck the 
ledge, a little above and back of what is now Virginia City, it turned 
into the mountain or, in other words, seemed to dip westerly ; but on 
further investigation, it was found that the dip was decidedly easterly, 
out of or away from the perpendicular axis of the mountain. It might, 
on account of this general direction, be supposed that it was like a 
stratum of the sedimentary rocks and had been lifted up like many of 
the strata with the general rise of the mountain chain ; and it is indeed 
possible that its position may have been more or less shifted in the 
course of time and the slow changes of myriads of years ; but it is to 
be borne in mind that it is not in any respect a stratum and was not 
formed or deposited in any manner like the limestones or the sand- 
stones of comparatively recent geological periods. It was of plutonic, 
not neptunic, origin. It was not formed on the top of other forma- 
tions, but it protruded up through them. It does not lie alon^ or in 
conformity with other rocks, but cuts or splits right through them, 
changing their character more or less on each side ; and it goes down» 
probably getting richer and richer as it descends, to depths that can 
never be reached, and the composition of which we can only surmise — 
depths where the heat is sufficient to melt and vaporize metals and the 
pressure great enough to crystallize diamonds. 

When and how the great split in Mount Davidson and the injection 
into it of the fluid silica, with its metals and metalliferous ores, took 
place are questions that geology will some day answer ; but for the 
present purpose it is sufficient that after lying there for millions of 
years — as many other lodes as yet undiscovered are still lying among 
the mountains — the Comstock lode was found ; and men were also found 
who knew or soon learned how to appreciate and use it. Its extent was 
of course at first unknown, but there was enough of the ore in sight to 
make it well worth working and sinking for more. This sinking com- 
menced at the Ophir mine, where the vein was found to dip into the 
mountain, and was carried on in the beginning with ordinary hand 
windlass and bucket. The product was so promising that the windlass 
was soon succeeded by a horse-power whim ; and not long afterward 
the horse-power was succeeded by a steam-engine, which was used, not 
only to carry the men up and down and hoist ore, but also to pump 
out the water that trickled and seeped into the excavation. The shaft 
or incline followed the well-defined ore body between the foot wall on 
the one side and the hanging wall on the other, because outside of them 
there was no metal or ore, and it was found that the vein grew wider 
and better as it went down, until at a depth of less than two hundred 
feet it was fifty feet across. As excavation and removal of the ore pro- 
ceeded, the problem presented itself of how to keep up the hanging 
wall and superincumbent mass. Pillars were left in many places, but 
the ore was comparatively soft and would not sustain any great amount 
of pressure. Large timbers were also used as in ordinary tunnels, bat 

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the great weight warped and twisted them out of shape, and in some 
instances squeezed them into less than half their original size or 
crashed them into splinters. 

For the purpose of meeting this difElcnlty, Philip Deidesheimer, a 
Califomian mining engineer, who had been consulted on the subject, 
suggested the use of what were called "square sets," consisting of 
short, thick, heavy timbers mortised and tenoned at the ends and braced 
diagonally, so as to form cribs four or five feet square. These could be 
piled up on top or by the side of one another, so as to fill up almost any 
sized or shaped space. They were found to answer the purpose admira- 
bly — ^much better than anything else that could be devised — and after^ 
ward vast cavities, hundreds of feet wide and nearly a thousand feet 
in depth, that had been emptied of ore, were thus filled up. 

In addition to the Ophir, as the ledge was found to extend southward 
to Silver City, other mines were opened at various points all the way to 
that place and beyond. These mines received different names, in some 
cases those of the first claimants, such as Best and Belcher, Gould and 
Curry, Savage, Hale and Norcross, Chollar, and so on, and in other 
cases more fanciful ones, such as Sierra Nevada, Mexican, California, 
Virginia, Potosi, Yellow Jacket and Crown Point. On nearly all the 
claims shafts were sunk and work commenced ; and as it had become 
known that the vein dipped eastwardly, many of these shafts were 
located in favorable places east of the outcroppings of the ledge, which 
might thus be struck by sinking perpendicularly. In less than two 
years nearly a hundred mines were opened ; and though all were not 
profitable, several bonanzas or pockets of rich ore were encountered, 
and several of the mining companies at work made large profits, such 
as the Ophir, Gould and Curry, Savage, Hale and Norcross, Chollar, 
Potosi, Yellow Jacket, and Crown Point. All of these and a few others 
had their bonanzas ; and up to 1870, ten years after the silver discovery 
occurred, the Comstock mines had yielded over a hundred millions of 

Among the young, active and intelligent Califomians, who had 
drifted over to Washoe in the early days were John W. Mackay and 
James G. Pair. They were both of Irish birth and both ordinary work- 
ing miners, without wealth or influence. But they went into the Washoe 
business and especially the underground business with great energy and 
became recognized as men of superior skill in their line. Both by close 
and persistent attention to their work rapidly advanced and by degrees 
got to be interested in the mines in which they labored. Pair became 
superintendent of the Ophir mine and Mackay of the Caledonian and 
part owner of the Kentuck, which, though not among the great mines, 
were well managed and yielded large returns. In the meanwhile they 
had come together and joined forces with James C. Flood and William 
S. O'Brien of San Francisco, who were as skillful in stock transactions 
as Mackay and Fair were in mining operations, and thereby constituted, 
what was known and became famous as the bonanza firm of Flood 
Sc O'Brien. In that connection they invested in Hale and Norcross 

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and several other of the Comstock mines. In Hale and Norcross 
they made some money ; but in sevend others, which they endeavored 
to develop, they lost, or at least made nothing. Though little or noth- 
ing of note was rewarding their labor they were learning all the time 
and had implicit faith in the mines. Their confidence, or rather the 
confidence of Mackay — for he was the " brains " of the mining branch 
of the firm as Flood was of the stock branch of it — was phenome- 
nal. Other men have persisted in risks and perilous undertakings ; and 
some have won and got credit for undeserved luck ; but Mackay and 
Pair in the mines, supported by Flood and O'Brien in the stock center 
of San Francisco, though they could not look into the mountain, be- 
lieved implicitly in its bonanza character and invested their money and 
labor with that kind of assurance based on knowledge and good judg- 
ment, which lies at the bottom of all great undertakings. Their ven- 
tures were in no proper sense a "gamble." They pictured to their own 
minds, and on trustworthy data, the nature of the great vein under their 
feet ; and they proceeded to lay out their plan of campaign in search of 
the treasures, which they had convinced themselves were still buried in 
the mountain, with the same faith and reasonable certainty of success 
that a merchant relies on in sending his products to a market which in 
the ordinary and natural course of trade must be remunerative. As the 
great merchant exercises and displays a genius for commercial profit, so 
the bonanza firm, in their operations on the Comstock lode, exercised 
and displayed a genius for bonanza. 

There were toward the northerly end of the great Comstock vein, as 
known in the early Seventies, several claims that had never yielded any- 
thing of sufficient value to encourage much exploration. They em- 
braced a lineal distance on the main lode of thirteen hundred and ten 
feet, but the outcroppings were few and nothing of importance was pro- 
duced from the same kind of shafts and inclines that had paid so well in 
other mines. The common understanding was that the ground had been 
tested and found worthless. But Mackay and Fair thought differently. 
They reasoned that the Comstock was a great vein filling up an immense 
continuous fissure. It was known to be wide and extensive in the Ophir 
mine, just nortH of the neglected claims, and in the Gould and Curry 
south of them, and to extend into the Mexican, Union Consolidated and 
Sierra Nevada, north of the Ophir, and into the Savage, Hale and Nor- 
cross, Chollar, Potosi, Yellow Jacket and Crown Point, south of the 
Gould and Curry. They were all evidently locations on one and the same 
great vein. It might be, and was likely to be, pinched in some places- - 
that was the nature of great metalliferous veins— but there was no good 
reason to infer, because there was a pinch or very little good ore at 
the surface or because there might be a pinch here and there below the 
surface of the reported barren ground, that it should extend throughout 
its whole distance. The likelihood was that as good and perhaps better 
deposits could be found in that large and centrally located extent of 
ground than in the claims on both sides of it Ophir was only six hun- 
dred and seventy-five feet in length, and Mexican six hundred feet north 

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of that ; while Best and Belcher on the other side was only two hundred 
and twenty-four feet, followed by Gould and Curry of nine hundred and 
twenty*one feet. They were all bonanza mines; and why should the 
large intervening space of thirteen hundred and ten feet all be pinched 
and barren ? There was no good reason ; and Hackay and Fair would 
not and did not believe it to be ; and they were willing to spend their 
time and money in justification of their fidth. 

It was not very difficult, with the bad name the reported barren 
ground had acquired after ten or twelve years of neglect, to buy it all 
up for a comparatively small sum of money. The bonanza firm seem to 
have commenced with purchasing the various claims to the seven hun* 
dred and twenty-one feet, next north of the Best and Belcher, which 
they united into the so-called Consolidated Virginia mine, and then 
bought the six hundred feet, next north and up to the Ophir, which they 
called tiie California. The two mines together, being thenceforth sub- 
stantially under the same ownership and management, were usually 
named in conjunction as the Consolidated Virginia and California. It 
is said that the bonanza firm paid out about one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, for which they purchased about three-fourths and the entire control 
of the two mines, and they consummated their bargain and took posses- 
sion and mangement in January, 1872. They determined to devote 
their attention first to a thorough exploration of the Consolidated Vir- 
ginia ; and for this purpose they commenced with levying an assessment 
of over two hundred thousand dollars upon its stock — ^most of which 
they had of course to pay themselves — and expending it in develc^ 
ment. They had a shaft, four hundred feet deep on the ground ; but 
their main and important work was, by consent of, and under arrange- 
ment with, the two mines next south of them, to run a drift or tunnel 
from the deep shaft of the Gould and Curry mine, at a depth of nearly 
twelve hundred feet below the surface, through the Best and Belcher 
ground and into Consolidated Virginia. It was a costly operation, as 
they had to run eight hundred feet before reaching the edge of their 
ground ; and, after reaching it, they ran a hundred feet or more into the 
Consolidated Virginia without finding anything except a mere thread. 
At one time they lost even this ; and the prospects were very unfiEivor- 
able ; but the same confidence that had induced them to run their tun- 
nel induced them to continue it. And continue it they did. They 
knew they were on the vein because the hanging wall and the foot wall 
were present and, by persistently following them, they finally came to a 
place where the vein widened — and widened rapidly. The further they 
went the better became the prospects. It now became very certain that 
they would want their separate shaft ; and it was accordingly pushed 
downward day and night without interruption until it reached the depth 
of the tunnel, or eleven hundred and sixt3rHieven feet, and struck the ore 
body which had been first found in the tunnel communicating with the 
Gould and Curry shaft. The ore body was not of the very best ; but it 
was good and was getting better the further they went into it. A drift 
of two hundred and fifty feet was run from the bottom of the shaft and 

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it went the entire distance through rich ore. They had struck a portion 
of the Big Bonanza. The ore ran up from sixty dollars a ton to more 
than six hundred ; and in every direction, as they advanced, it grew 
wider and richer. The shaft was sunk down to the twelve hundred feet 
level ; and there still continued an increase in the extent and value of 
the deposit. 

In the meanwhile large quantities of the ore were being taken out ; 
and by the end of October, 1872, the bonanza firm were shipping bullion 
to the value of about a quarter of a million of dollars every month. 
Without saying much or anticipating all, they knew they had an ex- 
ceedingly valuable mine, and they proceeded now with redoubled energy 
to find out the extent of what they had. , 

Neither Mackay nor Pair was at that time especially interested in the 
stock market. They were not anxious to have their mine or their suc- 
cess in it known. They were perfectly well aware that they had found a 
great deposit ; but they wanted, before making their final arrangements 
about it, to know exactly how large and valuable it was. By the end of 
1874» they had gone down to the fifteen hundred feet level ; and at that 
depth the ore was richer than ever. They had evidently struck some- 
thing unprecedented ; and the more they examined and probed and ran 
cross-cuts through it the larger and more valuable the bonanza seemed 
to become ; and curiously enough the California ground was now sup- 
posed to have a larger and more valuable bonanza them the Consolidated 
Virginia. By January, 1875, the seven hundred and ten feet of the Con- 
solidated Virginia were estimated — and the company stock, which had 
been increased from 10,700 to 108,000 shares, sold — at the rate of seventy- 
five millions of dollars ; while the six hundred feet of the California 
mine rose to eighty-four millions and upward. In other words, the 
thirteen hundred and ten feet of n^lected and supposed barren ground, 
which in 1870 was rated at forty or fifty thousand dollars, and for which 
the bonanza firm paid about one hundred thousand dollars, was now 
worth and selling in the stock market at the rate of about one hundred 
and fifty millions. At this rate every running inch of the ground along 
the vein was worth over tea thousand dollars ; and every one of the two 
hundred an^ sixteen thousand shares, in which the two mines were di- 
vided, was worth on an average seven hundred dollars. But on the 
other hand, and in justification of these prices, an immense body of 
ore of the richest description, from one hundred and fifty to three hun- 
dred and twenty feet wide and more than five hundred feet deep, was in 
actual sight ; and in a short time and for a number of months actual 
dividends of over two millions of dollars were paid monthly, or at the 
rate of about ten dollars per share or one hundr^ and thirty dollars on 
each running foot every month. ^ 

Such was the huge deposit found by Mackay and Pair in the Consoli- 
dated Virginia and California mines, or the Big Bonanza as it was 
called. The ore was not all of the same character ; but the most of it 
was very valuable and some of it exceedingly rich. In general color it 
ranged from pale green and bluish gray to deep black, some of it con- 

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. taining native silTer, all more or lest gold, and in many places there 
were masses of crystals of quartz, blue, violet, purple, olive-green, rose, 
pink or white. The most gorgeous jewel-bespangled caverns, with 
whose story Sheherazade beguiled Shariar from his bloody-minded pur^ 
pose, and the most gem-fiUed of the **dark, unfothomed caves of ocean," 
were nothing in comparison. Here were at least five hundred thousand 
square yards of ore, and it was supposed to be worth at least three hun- 
dred dollars in gold and silver a square yard. It was not the bonanza 
firm that gave it this value. The mine actually yielded something in 
the neighborhaod of that valuation. Experts at the time fixed the 
value much higher. The lowest estimates put on it were over a hun- 
dred million ; the director of the United States mint thought that the 
ore in sight indicated three hundred millions of dollars, and Deides- 
heimer, the engineer, who rendered the working of the mines practicable 
by his suggestion of the cubic frames of timber, was disposed to place 
the value at some fifteen hundred millions. 

Some men have been bom to great fortunes, though rarely to anything 
like one hundred or even fifty millions of dollars, and some have man- 
aged, by a long course of attention to careful business, to accumulate 
great fortunes. In these cases, as a general rule they, by degrees, grow 
into or up with their fortunes ; and there is nothing specially remark- 
able or interesting in contemplating these or their wealth. But let the 
reader imagine these hard-working miners down in the lower levels 
of the Comstock, who had the brains to conceive and believe in the con- 
tinuance of the vein through the barren ground between the Ophir and 
the Best and Belcher mines and had the pluck to put all their money and 
all their labor into the work of proving the truth of their convictions — 
imagine the feelings of these men, still young, vigorous, sober, sound in 
body and mind, with nearly all of life before them, when they suddenly 
burst into what seemed one of the great treasure-houses of nature, where 
she had been elaborating and storing wealth for uncounted and un- 
countable myriads of years ; and it was all theirs. 

One of the old Califomian pioneers relates how, at Weber Creek, in 
1848, he did his first day's work at mining. After laboring severely till 
near evening and clearing off several feet of surface dirt frofi the top of 
a large rock, he unearthed some thirty dollars worth of bright, shining 
gold that was lying there before him. He did not pick it up at first ; he 
left it lie for a time, and enjoyed the consciousness, without touching it, 
that there it was within his grasp, and more of the same kind all along 
the creek. The enjoyment was worth more than the gold. If thirty 
dollars in golden grains, thus exposed on the rough surface of a piece of 
bed-rock, can make a man feel glorious, what language can express the 
feelings of Mackay when he struck the Big Bonanza of over a hundred 
and fifty millions? 

San FnodMo, C»]. 

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Early California. 


^rtHB following installment concludes the (translated) re- 
^^l port of the Viceroy Revilla Gigedo, reviewing the his- 
^ tory of California from 1768 to 1793. The translation 
was begun in the June number. 

228. These naval forces I deem for the present sufficient in Acapulco, 
for the purpose of cruising frequently along the northern and southern 
coasts; for watching and impeding smuggling in our establishments 
which the vessels of any foreign power might attempt ; for carrying the 
yearly supplies to the *' presidios'' and missions of the Califomias ; for 
assisting the peninsula in case of invasion ; and for undertaking voy- 
ages to higher latitudes if circumstances should so require it, either to 
acquire information about the progress made in these remote northern 
provinces by the Bnglish or Russians, or in reference to the fur trade, 
or because necessity arises to make a special examination of certain 
parts of the coast. 

229. It may be that we shall require in the future a larger fleet for 
the objects indicated, according to what events may happen. But no 
matter if we increase or not this naval force in the Pacific, we will al- 
ways be able, as far as it is possible, to protect our commerce, reduce 
the expenses of the department, and defeat, as much as is within our 
power, the combinations upon which the English have calculated. 

Fourth Proposition about the Better nfanagement and 

Improvement of the Special Funds of the 

Missions of the Oalifornias. 

230. The fourth proi>08ition contained herein must be considered as 
an incident of the second, the same as proposition five will be subor- 
dinate to the third ; and this because the present has reference to the 
development of the salines of San Bias, whose products are to be ap- 
plied for the expenses of the department, and because proposition five 
will treat about the exercise of greater care in the administration of the 
special funds of the California missions, so that this capital may not be 
impaired, and a new burden imposed upon the treasury. 

231. These funds, if properly cared for, are sufficient for maintaining 
the actual missions ; but ever since the expulsion of the Jesuits, who 
personally managed the landed properties (fincas), the products thereof, 
which the society formerly used for pious purposes, have begun to 

232. For this reason it was considered convenient to relieve the man- 
agement of funded ecclesiastical properties from the charge of these 
revenues, and confide same, in accordance with a royal oider, to the 
former auditors of the cashier's department of the royal treasury, don 
Francisco de Salas Carrillo ; but at the death of this magistrate a still 
greater decadence was noted. 

233. There were many applicants for the vacant administration, and 
my predecessor, don Manuel Antonio Flores, thought that the safest 
thin^ to do would be to place the management in charge of the two 
magistrates of said royal treasury and hold them jointly responsible. 

234. So he decided and advised His Majesty, accompanying his letter 
(number 159, of January 27, 1789) with an authenticated copy of the 
proceedings. But in another letter (number 178, of March 27th) 
he informed that this measure, far from producing any good, was fast 
precipitating the funds to utter ruin, and that they could be saved only 

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by an active, intelligent and zealous general manager, who should fre- 
quently inspect the estates and be capable of developing their resources 
and disposing at a fair price of the products ; and who also should keep 
watch over the conduct of the subaltern administrators. Such a general 
manager should have no other office or employment, and should be 
paid a competent salary. 

235. These letters he addressed to the Marquis de Bajamar, the same 
as I did with my number 22 of Nov. 26, 1789, wherein I agreed with the 
opinion of my predecessor in reference to confiding the estates to a 
General Administrator of the Califomias ; because, among different 
other notable matters in the management of those properties, I noted, 
that after estimating in four or five thousand dollars the construction of 
a water reservoir on the estate, called Arroyozarco, more than forty 
thousand dollars had been expended and the work is not yet finished. 

236. Afterward I forwarded with my letter (number 202 of Nov. 30, 
1790) an authenticated copy of the proceedings had for the purpose of 
complying with the royal order of May 20, 1781, which commanded the 
sale of the rural properties of the special funds, providing that the 
product of such sale should be placed with the necessary guarantees at 

237. This measure was not carried out, because the auditor, don 
Francisco Salas Carrillo, presented a diffuse representation in which he 
persisted in making out that the special fund would suffer still more in 
case its landed properties should be sold, stating therein that if the 
necessary improvements should be made the estate '* Ibarra" would 
produce $40,000 every year, and the holdings of Arroyozarco four or Rye 
thousand dollars. 

238. With such fair prospects in sight, the sale of the properties was 
suspended. After listening to the argument of the fiscal of the royal 
treasury and to the advisory opinion of the Royal Commission of Coun- 
cillors the viceroy, don Matias de Galv^, informed His Majesty of these 
proceedings, in a letter (number 670 of April 27, 1784), and in conse- 
quence thereof, the royal order of December 14, 1785, decided in &vor 
of the measures proposed by Carrillo until its results should be known. 

239. These results were far from satisfactory, for instead of a yearly 
net product of $40,000 derived from the Ibarra estate, the whole income 
for a period of five years (1784 to 1788 in which latter year Carrillo died) 
only amounted to $32,023 ; and in another period of five years (1785 to 
1789) the estate of Arroyozarco suffered a loss of $1 ,324. 

240. For this reason, the fiscal of the royal treasury petitioned for, 
the Assessor General of this vice-kingdom agreed thereto, and I decreed 
in conformity therewith, that the rural property of the special funds of 
the Missions of the Californias should be sold at public auction to the 
highest bidder or bidders, with the express condition that the pur- 
chaser should acquire said property subject to the payment of a per- 
petual annuity (d censo perpetuo), and that no cash deposit should be 
made on the sale price, but that the buyer should furnish the corre- 
sponding bonds so as to insure the payment of the interest and also the 
value of all the live-stock. 

241. In my letter, number 202, I reported on this matter, propos- 
ing also if it should not be possible to effect a favorable sale of the es- 
tates, to place same under the charge of a general manager, having the 
qualities mentioned by my predecessor, even if his salary should be 
triple the amount now paid to the magistrates of the treasury for man- 
aging these funds, which they are unable to do properly, owing to other 
official duties requiring their prior attention and impeding these magis- 
trates absolutely from personally visiting and inspecting said estates, 
which impoverish more and more every day, as is proven by the former 
expenditure of $98,000 and by the $140,000 required, according to the 

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eetimate of the engineer, don Mignel Constanzo, for the pnrpoae of fin* 
ishing the water reservoir at Arroyozarco. 

242. This has been the estate which suffered most, because its prod- 
ucts giye no revenue whatsoever ; and as, besides, large amounts had to 
be expended in continuing the improvements, it became necessary to 
rent this property, and consequently another interminable lawsuit arose 
about the insufiiciency of the sureties on the bond of the lessee (already 
deceased), and about complaints and discords of the settlers or sub-less- 
ees of the same estate. 

243. In my letter (No. 283 of July 23, 1791) I reported all this to the 
Marquis de Bajamar, repeating my proposition to sell the properties ; 
and again called attention to my own opinions and those of my prede- 
cessor. I begged to be informed at the earliest convenience of the sov- 
ereign decision of His Majesty, so as to be able to save the public funds 
of this Vice-Kingdom being burdened with a considerable part of the 
costs whi(^ the missions of the Cidifomias will cause to it, in case that 
the special funds are insufficient for maintaining said missions. 

244. The landed properties of the special funds are valued at $527,- 
500; its capitals loaned out on interest amount to $188,000; therefore 
the total is the large sum of $715,500, whose yearly interest at the rate 
of five per cent, should be $35,575. The missionaries receive every 
year a little above $22,000 ; consequently a balance should remain of 
$12,000 to $13,000 to be used for the establishment of new missions, 
traveling expenses and transportation of the missionaries by land and 

245. These last two items are neither of frequent occurrence nor 
very expensive. At an average they ma^ amount yearly to about two 
or three thousand dollars. Deducting this from the before mentioned 
balance, the remainder will serve to increase the special funds ; and as 
these iMilances are the most available resources, they are to be safely in- 
vested, and with the revenues derived therefrom not only the actual ex- 
penses can be covered, but also those which in the future may be re- 
quired for the spiritual conquest and for subduing pagan Indians. But 
all these fair hopes will vanish if no stop is put to the ruination of the 

246. This calamity can be guarded against by the disposal or sale 
of the properties, and also by placing the estates under the charge of an 
intelligent, honest and active general manager ; although in my opinion 
it would be preferable to dispose of these lands in the manner indicated 
t:^ the fiscal of the Royal Treasury, whose propositions are (and had 
to be) suspended until Your BxceUency informs me if His Majesty ap- 
proves this measure. 

Fifth Proposition, about Conserrinsr the Primitive Man- 
ner of Managringr the Salines of ZapotUla. 

247. Under date of June 18, 1790, I received the decisions sanction- 
ing the measure in reference to restoring the salines .of Zapotilla to 
the former mode of management. This measure I supported by an au- 
thentic copy of the actuations, which I enclosed in the letter (No. 368 
of February 26 of the same year), addressed to don Antonio Vald^. 

248. The simple and safe management of these salines had been 
changed, in the hope that the product would be increased by working 
the s&nes directly on account of the royal treasury. But the contrary 
happened: for since 1781, when the new administration was installed, 
until 1788, the out-put decreased and the considerable sum of nearly $73,- 
000 was lost. 

249. After the salines were again placed under the former manage- 
ment, it was possible to bring them back to their old standard of pro- 
ducing $75,000 a year and without exposing this money to be inverted 
in extravagant and useless expenditures. Besides, the towns and settle- 

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ments within the jurisdiction of the saltworks have been improved. 
The reason for it is that the salt wells are rented at the rate of eight dol- 
lars each ; the product is more than thirty thousand **carga8" [about 
300 pounds in a "carga"] of salt, for which the king pays 6 reales [75c] 
per ^'carga," and sells it for sixteen reales [$2], Consequently the lessee 
does not lose the price of his labor in working the wells, and the just 
profits of the royal treasury are assured without any danger of bank- 
ruptcies nor any salaries to administrator or interventor, for the reason 
that the management has again been entrusted to the Commissary of the 
department of San Bias ; and, for the present there exists no motive to 
change this state of afEairs. 

Bemarks to Obviate a Difficnlty which misrht he Alleged 
aiT&inst New Enterprises and Expenses* 

250. As the enterprises necessary for the new establishment at the 
port of La Bodega, the examination of the stretch of coast to Juan de 
Fuca strait, the occupation of the entrance of Ezeta and of the Colum- 
bia river (to all of which I have referred in H 185 to 195 and 216 to 219), 
must occasion expenses to the royal treasury, which will be still further 
increased by the cost of fortifying the "presidios*' of the Califomias 
(of which ii 220 to 223 treat), it may seem that these propositions 
contradict the contents of ?§ 196 to 198, wherein I oppose every project, 
no matter how advantageous it may be, which compels us to incur great 
expenses. But in reference to these propositions I must make the fol- 
lowing distinctions : 

251 . Our establishments of the Califomias reach to the *' presidio " of 
San Prandsco, and if, as the English think, this is to be tne boundary 
line, then they might establish themselves at the port of La Bodega, 
which is so close to that peninsula, that it is practically the same as if 
they were on it. 

252. Consequently, as such pernicious neighbors must surely be 
avoided and at once, we cannot do less than occupy without delay said 
port ; and therefore it is apparent that this is not one of those projects 
t>ased upon future advanta^ or which originate heavy expenditures. 

253. Neither can we dispense with a minute exploration of the stretch 
of coast up to Juan de Puca strait, because we ignore what mediums the 
English may acquire for approadiing our establishments, and neither 
know if the Columbia river, immediate to the entrance of Bzeta, Is the 
supposed passage between the two oceans ; a matter which it is absolutely 
necessary to investigate. The costs thereof will not be exorbitant and 
this exploration does not compel us to continue in larger expenditures. 

254. The expenses would be greater if we had to buud establishments 
at the entrance of Bzeta, in case that the Columbia river should really 
be the passage or if other matters of great importance should compel us 

255. It would also be very expensive to build or construct regular 
fortifications and to garrison same with the corresponding number of 
California presidial troops, as it seems is required oy the proximi^ of 
foreign vessels, and the facility with which an enemy in open war might 
invade and take said peninsula, absolutely defenseless as it is. But 
neither this very serious matter, nor the promptly required establish- 
ment at the port of La Bodega, nor the conditional occupation of the 
entrance of Bzeta have anj other remedy, but to do our best and at once 
furnish all the money required for these purposes. The treasury should 
in preference to all other actual needs, no matter how important they 
mav be, use its revenues for sustaining and maintaining these new fortifi- 
cations and additional troops. Besides, in the special treaties already 
made or to be hereafter entered into with the Bnglish or Russians, a pre- 
cise condition or stipulation should be inserted, prohibiting either of 
them fixxm settling on localities immediate to our possessions of the 

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Califomias. These territories of ours can at once be placed in a state of 
adequate defense for resisting invasions or attacks from vessels, by the 
means about which I advised in mj letter ^No. 124 of November 30, 1792) 
and which I repeat in the second proposition under J2 220 to 223. 

256. I am perfectly well aware tiiat such defenses are insufficient 
against a formal and decisive invasion, as also that it is not probable that 
the English will agree to any such stipulation or condition. But how- 
soever wis may be. I think to have removed the apparent contradiction 
of {2 196 and following, by proving that the steps to be taken and the 
expenses to be incurred are for the purpose of defending and maintaining 
our peninsula of the Califomias, and not projects based upon future 
advantages ; but that they are simply precautionary measures to guard 
ajg^ainst the alienation of a territory we conquered at the cost of many 
lives, hardships and treasure. 

257. This would not be the case if we pretended the absolute posses- 
sion of all the extensive coasts north of the Californias ; because this is 
a project to which I am opposed snd which I consider a distant, adven- 
turous and costly enterprise. 

Statement tliat the Occupation of the Port of Nntka or of 

any other Harbor on the remote coasts North of 

the Califomias is Useless to Spain. 

258. The preservation on our part of the port of Nutka, has in my 
opinion been as useless to us, as would be the occupation of any oth^ 
advanced locality, excepting those in the immediate vacinity of our 
establishments in the Califomias, for the reason that such occupation 
will always be productive of large expenditures and grave obligations 
and may even be the cause of involving our Court in troubles and diffi- 
culties with the Court of Saint James. 

It is Proposed to Cede the Port of Nntka to the Engrlish. 

259. Therefore I am of the opinion that we should cede voluntarily 
and absolutely our establishment at Nutka to the English ; for according 
to everything I have been able to understand ana discover about the 
ideas of the ISnglish commander, Vancouver, and his emisary, Brough- 
ton, their desire and ambition seems to be to raise the Bnglish flag in 
that port without recognizing the flag of Spain ; and this rather impelled 
by a spirit of vainglory to uphold a claim which has been controverted, 
into a point of honor, than for real interest and advantages to be derived, 
which m truth are very problematic so far as they have reference to the 
fur trade. 

260. In 2 205, 1 sUted that the Bnglish had gathered the first fruits ; 
in effect, different merchants of that nation, residents of the Qast Indies, 
fitted out in 1786 two vessels and placing same in charge of the lieutenant 
of the navy, John Mears, traded during that year and the next. 

26 1 . When Mears undertook his second expedition, he entered into the 
port of San lA>renzo de Nutka. For the purpose of facilitating his trade 
with the Indians (and also to be better able to defend himself against 
the natives and the inclement weather) he considered it convenient to 
reside ashore. For this object he choose a small piece of land, fenced it in, 
within the stockade built a house or temporary shelter, and raised the 
Bnglish fiag. 

262. It may have happened, as this officer avows in the diary of his 
voyage, that Macuma, cacique, chief or headman of the natives inhabit- 
ing the district of Nutka, sold him that piece of land whereon Mears 
built said provisional hut ; but it is also certain that the same Indian in 
his voluntanr statement made by him in the presence of witnesses 
worthy of fiuth, insisted he had never made any such sale or donation. 

263. Notwithstanding this, let it be supposed that the Bnglish have a 
lust right to the establishment acquired by Mears, and consequently 

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there seems to be no difficnlty in complying with the last convention 
made between onr conrt and that of Saint James, abont retnming to the 
Bnglish all of which they had possession in April, 1789. 

264. To carry this stipulation into effect the captain of the first- 
class, don Juan de la Bodega y Cnadra, known as an honorable and intel- 
ligent gentleman, was chosen and appointed. His orders were to pro- 
ceed promptly to Nutka ; to treat witn the commissioner of the court of 
Sdnt James, to deliver unto him the part belonging to the Engli^ and 
to settle amicably whatsoever difficulty might anse. 

265. The commander of the Spanish expedition and George Van- 
couver, English commissioner, havmg met at Nutka, Cuadra fitly judged 
that his fSst step, considering the spirit of the treaty, should be to 
inform or state to the Bnglish the boundaries of the lands corresponding 
to each. But Vancouver, who possibly could find no ground upon which 
to take possession of all the buildings and territones as he had been 
commanded by his court, answered that his orders stated that full sur- 
render of all ttie territory and port of San Lorenzo should be made to 
him, and that his instructions aid not authorize him to enter into dis- 
cuMions about the legitimacy of these rights. 

266. Howsoever tnese orders may have been dictated, they are open 
to the suspicion either that the Bnglbh had veir little knowledge about 
the places claimed by them, or that they desired to acquire what was not 
theirs, but which might be useful. Cuadra, with the object of conserv- 
ing harmony and of proving to the court of Saint James our sincerity, 
was inclined to yield to every reasonable claim, and gave to understand, 
as it seems, that he was ready to comply with Vancouver's request. 

267. The Bnslish commander, satisfied and pleased with this com- 
plaisance, made his plans for placing a guard at the establishment sur- 
rendered to him and to continue on his voyage. He ordered that the 
" Dedalo*' should be unloaded, and the cargo and ammunition deposited 
in the warehouses. But after Vancouver's crew had been engaged in 
this work for a few days, the commander, don Juan de la Cuadra, 
changed his mind, thinking he had exceeded his powers, and con- 
sidered it safer to acknowledge his error than to continue a procedure 
contrary to the true spirit of his instructions. 

268. Therefore he informed Vancouver, that having maturely con- 
sidered the orders g^ven him for complying with his mission, he thought 
he could venture to surrender to him absolutely the port of Nutka and 
the territories of its districts, but only place him, Vancouver, in pos- 
session of that part which had been obtained or acquired by Hears and 
whereon the abandoned hut had been built. 

269. Still Cuadra proposed that, Vancouver beinj^ convinced of the 
right which the Bnglish nation had to the whole district and exclusively 
to the port of Nutka, he would at once place the whole temporarily 
under his orders, and formal surrender thereof should be made as soon 
as their sovereigns should decide upon this point. 

270. The Bnelish commander could well have afforded to accept this 
provisional cession, but he did not deem it convenient ; yet he is entitled 
to some excuse for his apparent displeasure when Cuadra informed him 
of his new decision, by reason of the loss of time and useless work 
suffered by his crews in unloading and loading the *' Dedalo," and also 
because this delay compelled him to return next year, in case our court 
should decide to surrender the whole of the district and the harbor of 

271. This commander has had no reasons for exaggerating what he 
supposes himself to have suffered, nor yet for sayinguiat my orders to 
don Juan de la Cuadra were obscure, because these instrucdons agree 
and are in conformity with the sovereign commands of the king. If 
Vancouver was firmly convinced of England's legitimate right to the 
territory and port of Nutka, and that this would be the fin^ decisioii, 

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then he could have easily agreed to the provisional surrender proposed 
to him. 

272. After all, if Cuadra's change compelled Vancouver to delay his 
stay in Nutka and to impose work upon the crews, which of his own 
accord he discharged, it also afforded the English commander an oppor- 
tunity for reconnoitering the posts of San Francisco and Monterey, for 
providing himself with fresh supplies not obtainable in the Sandwich 
Islands, and for resting his men without the fears and precaution which 
communication with those islanders awaken . 

273. Finally the delay of one year in his expedition, about which 
Vancouver complains, seems to me to be without foundation, because 
he could neither know the time required for examining the coast, nor 
the point from which he could start on his return to Europe. 

274. All the foregoing demonstrates clearly the true designs of the 
British, and still more, knowing, as is evident, that the profits which 
can come from the possession of Nutka are very precarious, because the 
English cannot now hox>e that this locality will become the trade cen- 
ter for otter skins, where they may have facilities for acquiring from 
the Indians laige quantities thereof, for the reason, that the bulk of 
this kind of furs comes from the interior, and that at the present time 
the Nutka Indians have hardly any intercourse with the Nuchimases. 

275. Formerly the channel of Fuca was unknown, and consequently 
the vessels did not go up by the northern outlet to the ** ranch eiias ** of 
the Nuchimases, who, not being able to dispose directly of their mer- 
chandise, were compelled to sell same to the Indians of Nutka, ex- 
pressly occupied in this trade. But now the vessels visit those ranch- 
erias and trade directly with the Indians. 

276. I have mentioned briefly these points so as to prove that if the 
English nation, in the hope of continuing without loss in the fur trade, 
or for other reasons, whose dangers would be greater to us if their set- 
tlements should be nearer to ours of the Californias, desires to sustain 
as a point of honor the possession of the establishment of San Lorenzo 
de Nutka, then it seems to me that we should be greatly gratified in 
having the best of opportunities in selling to them as a favor our com- 
plaisance to their pretentions. Because those possessions far from 
being useful to us, will be the cause of heavy expenses and damages 
against which we must guard. 

The Propositions are Ratified and the Report Brought 

to an Elnd. 

277. In my opinion, the dangers which threaten the peninsula of 
the Californias and the rest of the Spanish possessions situated on the 
coasts of the South Sea, can be avoided if the measures contained in 
these five propositions (and which I have tried to prove in this diffuse 
report) are carried out. 

278. I now arrive at its conclusion, and hox>e that Your Excellency 
will receive it as proof of my zeal, love and profound acknowledgment 
of the sovereign virtues of the King, informing His Majesty of the 
contents, so that he may advise me of his royal pleasure. God, etc., 
etc. Mexico, April 12, 1793. 

The Count db Rkvii^i^a Gigkdo. 

This is a true copy of letter number 162 of the correspondence with 
the government at Madrid through the Secretary of State. 

So I certify. Carlos Maria db Bustamanxb. 

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^ wwcH It might not be so dazzling^a form of conquest, but it would 

BETTER cost less and leave a better taste in the month if Uncle 

INVESTMENT. Sam would •* liberate** the arid lands of the West 
There is an area many times as large as the whole Philippine 
archipelago, right here inside his own fences, which he could 
convert from desert into good homes for twenty million Americans. 
He wouldn't have to crowd anyone out, the campaign would 
make no widows and orphans (though it would make no generals), 
and he would be getting something for his money — as now he is 
not. The old gentleman used to have a reputation for being a pretty 
good hand at a bargain. If the West can nudge him sufficiently on this 
point — and it is now rather planning to try — it will be doing a service as 
great to Uncle Sam as to itself. It is time for a concerted movement 
for the development of our own country. It is a better country than 
the ones we are gunning after — better for Americans, at any rate. It 
will support two hundred million people before it is as crowded as the 
Philippines are now. And water will earn a good deal more in the 
West than gunpowder will among the heathen, as a business invest- 

LitTLE A Devoted Son was considerably Chagrined to see Pire break 

JOHNNY*8 out in a Neighbor's house whither his Mother had gone to make 

^80P. a Call. It went against his Finer Peelings to perceive the Au- 
thoress of his Being at a Third-story window, waving Loudly for 
Rescue. His Embarrassment increased when the absurd Bystanders sug- 
gested that he would better shin up the fire-escape and bring her 

"That is all very well,** he replied with Dignity, "for you people 
who have no Real Reverence for Women. The man who Lays his Hand 
on them, save in the way of Base Flattery, is a Coward. My mother has 
no real Business up there, but there she Is, And who shall Dare to 
Haul her Down.** 

Moral : Any place is good enough for the flag. 

MORE A Self-Respecting Person (and Prox>erly so, as he was a 

LITTLE Billionaire and of enormous Muscular development) seeing 

JOHNNY. two Newsboys fighting on the street, felt a Humane Impulse 
to Pull them Apart. Having inherited the love of Fair play, he took the 
Bigger boy by the Scruff of the neck and kicked him Pour Blocks. But 
though a Champion of the Downtrodden, he was No Fool. Having had 
a Business training himself, and knowing that Some Other big boy 
might come along Any Minute and bully the Poor Little Fellow again, 
he put the little fellow's Pennies in his own Pants Pocket where they 
would be Safe, and tied the Little Fellow up in the Dog House, where 
he promised to Educate him. 

" Lemme go I I don*t want to,** cried the Ungrateful brat. But the 
Good Man picked up a Club and said, soothingly : " Sh I Sonny I 
You don't know what's Good for you. Under my Enlightened Rule 
you will enjoy a far larger Measure of Freedom than you could possi- 
bly have Running around the Streets by yourself. I will let you Sell 

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PapeiB, and I will take Care of your Money for yon ; and if you are a 
Very good little boy, maybe 1*11 Adopt yon some day.** 

Meantime the first Bad Boy was pnlUng the Hair of another Smaller 
Fellow. The which being observed by the Self-Respecting peison, he 
Flew to the Rescue. '' Kick him, Sonny 1 ** he cried. '* When I get 
there I'U teach him to Weylerize the Helpless ! ** And he laid the Bad 
boy out with a punch in the Belt. 

The Small One danced with Glee, crying : " Didn't we Do 
him I '* But his Deliverer answered : ** We nothing I / did it. It*s 
my Mission to Relieve the Oppressed. Here, let me take Care of your 
Papers for you.** 

The Small One put his Thumb up to see if his Nose was still On, 
and threw a pebble at the Good Man, who thereupon sprang upon him 
and Smote him, and kept smiting. About half who saw the scrap said : 
'* Oh, let the kid go and play.** But the Self-Respecting person had 
his temper with him. " I don't Like the Job,** he confessed, " for this 
brat is only 70 pounds and I'm at 240. But I owe a Duty to Humanity. 
There has not been a Moment when I could have Retiied with Honor. 
If I let him Up, he*ll think I'm Afraid of him. Besides, he isn't Pit to 
run around Alone, and if I don't take care of him some Unprincipled 
Person will certainly Hurt him and take away his Hard-earned Pennies. 
I*ve got to Pound him till he Squeals, for I feel Responsible to Civiliz- 
ation for him.'* 

This fable teaches how unwise it is to be Smaller than your Bene- 

Roosevelt for Vice-President? When someone gets up San those 
Juan Hill ahead of him I As *' Teddy ** is not dead yet, there unselfish 

need be no hurry about burying him. Historically, that is souls i 

what the Vice Presidency means. It is the political grave. And that 
fact is no stranger to the very kind gentlemen to whom *' Teddy ** is the 
Handwriting on the Wall, and who have no other polite hope of eras- 
ing him. Roosevelt has nothing to drive him to suicide ; and as he 
is not many kinds of a fool he doubtless will not be led. 

Certainly no one can accuse the You/A's Companion of lodging opinions 
incendiary opinions. Its most structural characteristic, per- of a 

haps, is a conservatism so serious as sometimes to verge on conservative. 

timidity. It has something like three-quarters of a million subscribers 
and several million readers ; being far ahead, in circulation, of any 
other publication in America. It has won this vast commercial suc- 
cess in every State in the Union, by taking the last pains not to offend 
anyone. Sio it means something when the YouiA*! Companion says 
editorially (in its issue of Sept. 7) : 

** It it a matter of common comment that the people are tired of the conflict [in the 
Philippines] and wiah to see it ended. Those who regard the war as an immoral at- 
tack upon a people . . . have been reinforced by politicians who think they see 

... an opJKMtunity for party success. Besides . . . many supporters of the 
administration are apprehensive lest their political opponents are correct in their esti- 
mate of the effect of tne war upon future elections. On the other side there is no en- 
thusiasm for the war. It is merely regarded as a painful national duty. . . . Carry- 
ing on a distant war ... is new business to the American people. They do not 
like it, and only accept its cruel, distasteful burdens when they must^' 

The pr^xMition to set aside as a national p«u:k the wonderful a test 
Petrified Forest near Holbrook, Ariz., should be carried out — of our 

and will be, unless in our zeal to convert the heathen we are civilization. 

going to turn heathen ourselves. There are many ** petrified forests " 
m the Southwest ; but that marvelous area strewn wiu logs and chips 
of agate and chalcedony and amethyst is incomparably the finest on 
earth. It is rapidly being despoiled by relic-seekers and money-grub- 
bers. What they could r^ulily carry off, of this heavy material, would 
not count so fast in a deposit so enormous ; but vandals are even blow- 

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ing up ** logs " of ten tons of agate to g^t a fist-tize specimen from the 
heart There is a great deal more in New Mexico and Arizona which a 
civilized gOTemment should preserye— 'like '* Inscription Rock " and the 
chief mins of the cave-villages and cliff-dwellings, the monuments of 
'' the Cities that were Forgotten *' on the plains of Gran Quivira, the 
matchless Natural Bridge of Arizona, and so on. But it can make a 
good beginning at the Petrified Forest. Unless these steps are taken 
soon, our posterity will wonder what colossal conceit made their philia- 
tine forefathers account themselves civilized. The scrubbiest nation 
takes better care of these things than we do. Mexico, Peru, even Spain, 
protect their antiquities, govemmentally. We do not. Isn^ it aoout 
time we b^an to catch up? While it is very glorious to know that we 
can " lick " them, there might also be some quiet satbfaction in know- 
ing that we were more intellectual. 

If *' adopted,*' President McKinley will be the Sixteenth Amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

LET us It would be comic, if it were not so tragically serious, to ob- 

LEARN serve how few Americans today really know anything about 

TO READ. the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution of the 

United States— except the names. Not one voter in a hundred can 

S've a reasonably intelligent summary, even, of the contents of those 
ndamental documents ; not one voter in a thousand can quote a par- 
agraph. Not only the noblest and wisest creed ever devised by patriots, 
but the actual charter and explanation of our government, these 
papers have become mere curios. Everyone has heard of them, very 
few know what they are. Very few care to know. They might about 
as well be the hotel rules bannered inside a room, which no guest reads. 
And this is what we fondly believe to be the smartest and moat business- 
like nation on earth I 

THERE'S NO There seems to be a wholly un-American impression among 

QETTiNQ some certain people who befieve themselves very good eitisMis, 

OUT OF IT. that an American has no business to discuss politics. It is a fact 
so sure and clear that no sane man dare dispute when he stops to face it, 
that while despots very kindly save their subjects the brainfag of worry- 
ing about polmcs, a republic rests wholly on the responsibilUy of every 
voter to bc^ his ^are of the government. When i>eople are too lazy, 
too cowardly or too fcuitidious to " meddle " with their own government, 
they have ceased to be fit citizens of a republic. When a majority of 
them lose the ability or the care, then the republic is no longer. It is 
definitely launched to some new sea— of despotism, of militarism, of 
heelerocracy, or whatever its tendency may be. But the United States 
has not yet ceased to be a republic. The people are still the govern- 
ment ; the administration is simply a servant hired for four years, hon- 
ored by having — and honored beoiuse it has — charge of the house sub- 
ject to its employer's will. It cannot even recommend its own successor 
as house-keeper ; it can even be turned out of the house before it has 
served the time for which it was hired. To pretend that the master of 
the house has no rijght to criticise the servant is to betray absolute igno- 
rance of the American form of government and of all others. 

Now, any government has to think. A government under one hat 
can think in silence ; a republic can think only by discussion. And 
that is the way this republic always has thought. It is the way it 
learned to think Negro slavery wrong — after nearly 100 years of deem- 
insr it «* aU right" and "the will of God." It is the waj; it came to 
think of the Republican party and Abraham Lincoln. It is the way it 
came to think of everything it has ever done — except the Philippine 
war, the only large national act in which the people or Congress were 
never consulted. It is the way it will do everything as long as it re- 
mains a republic. 

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This being the case, it is every citizen's duty to know whst is going 
on, to form the most intelligent opinion he can, and to discnss matters 
of pnblic policy in whatsoever forum is at his command. It may be 
easier or more politic to shut his mouth and let someone else think for 
him or let things go by default ; but it is not his duty as an American 
citizen. He may blind himself with " party fealty »' (and many noble 
men do) ; he may shirk it for laziness or cowardice (and so do many who 
are not noble); but if he b the full stature of an American he will know 
his part and take it, at anv cost. 

Nor is there any disability clause. ClergTmen» magazine editors, col- 
lege professors— even these are American (3tizens. And it is well that 
they be. Their profession does not acquit them of the duties of citizen- 
ship. And no man who at all understands the American genius wishes 
them acquitted. Th^ must not skulk behind the petticoats of their 
profession and beg off from the plain duties of a citizen as if they were 
more sacred clay, and exempt from plain men*s responsibilities. Priv- 
ileged classes do not belong m a repuoUc. Every back is entitled to the 
common burden of the patriot, we may all make mistakes in bearing 
it ; but to a democracy no other mistake is so &tal as the idea that we 
can get rid of it. 

And it b noticeable that we never virtuouslv reprove editors, profes- 
sors or clergymen who "go outside their calling '' (as the thoughtless 
say) to favor our side of the question. Their impertinence becomes 
evident only when they oppose us. Yet only an ignoramus is unaware 
that the Opposition is the safety of all governments. 

The administration newspapers are all trembling (but mighty what 
secretlv) for Admiral Dewev's sanity. How does he dare dis- OEWfeV 

pute tne wise reporter and the editorial hack, who have as- 8ay8. 

surcd us, rather hysterically, that the PiUpinos are savages, Aguinaldo a 
selfish despot, and the whole lot saved from killing one another only 
by our Christian kindness in killing them; and Uiat everyone who 
wished to give these poor devils a show is a "copperhead" and a 

In the August "Den" were printed some of Dewey's official words to 
the Secretary of the Navy. Here follows the pith of what he says to 
the London Daify News : 

> "I know the Filipinos intimately, and they know I am their friend. 
. . . The Filipinos are capable of governing themselves ; they have all 
qualifications for it. . . . I have never been in favor of violence towards 
the Filipinos. The islands are at this moment blockaded by a fleet, 
and war reigns in the interior. This abnormal state of affairs should 
cease. ... I should like to see autonomv first conceded ; and then an- 
nexation might be talked about. I should like to see violence at once 
put a stop to. According to my view, the concession of self-govern- 
ment ouent to be the most just and the most logical solution." 

Can tms be the real reason why Cousin George is coming home ? And 
do you see the administration papers printing his words? Not much I 
The readers who are so unlucky as to read nothing else do not dream of 
the size nor the authority of the opposition to Uie war. As someone 
has well said : " an 'organ' is valuable to an administration not for 
what it prints but for what it leaves out" 

Meantime the American people are not borrowing any trouble about 
George Dewey's sanity. They love him and believe in him. He may 
think with or against the administration — or us — as he will ; he has 
quite as much chance to know the islands as Prest. HcKinley has, and 
we have as strict confidence in his honesty. It would be natural for a 
war hero — ^ita greatest hero — ^to believe in the war. If Dewey doesn't, 
so much the worse for the stay-at-homes who do. 

Chas. F. Lummis» 

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It is rarelj that we can add a new bead 
to the rosary of "classics/' The printing 
press has become a disease. Every year aome- 
thiog Hke 3500 new books befalJ us. Qf theee, maybe (in 
a good year) one hundred are really admirable, two or 
three times as many are probably worth while. Possibly not much 
more than six-sevenths of the annual new books are practically worth- 
less. But we are in great luck if among the best books of two or three 
years we find one genuine classic. That is an elusive word, compact of 
so many and so rare qualities 1 So much literature comes so close to its 
fence that in the contemporary glance we count it inside — and so little 
literature ever really gets there I 

I do not believe, however, that there can be any serious doubt that 
Bmest Seton Thompson's fVild Animals I Have JCnown will stand the 
long test. Here are the classic grace, simplicity and fancy ; above all, 
they body the classic spirit. They are not polishings of the trivial nor 
the provinciid ; they are as elemental as the hates and loves and hopes 
and fears which we call ** human," indeed, but which are in fact 
animal. A man must have brains and experience to r^ize this ; but 
Mr. Thompson has both. As he truly observes, man has no qualifica- 
tion the beasts do not in some degree share ; nor the beasts any trait 
which is not in man. And from this primal wisdom Mr. Thompson 
has gone forth into paths of detail of rare beauty and truth. His book 
takes rank at once with JRab and the Jungle Stories^ than which no more 
could be said. It is the kind of a book no American child should be 
deprived of; and one person who has grown hard with the frontier is 
sorry for the man who does not melt to it. ** The King of Currumpaw'* 
is the greatest wolf in literature except Akela ; and " Raggylug " the 
most notable rabbit, not excepting the bunny of Wonderland ; 
and *' Vixen '* a figure never to be forgotten, mother-fox as she 
was ; and *• Bingo " and ** Wully ** and ** Redruflf " are worthy of their 
company. As for ** the Pacing Mustang," there is no nobler horse on 
any page. 

The dress is worthy of so fine a book ; an ornament to any shelf-— as 
the contents are a grace to any mind. Mr. Thompson's own illustra- 
tions (he is admitted the foremost living illustrator of animals) adorn 
nearly every page. But his great triumph is that he has drawn the 
Pour-feet in such words that rough hunter and cold naturalist and 
tender child all know that it is not only beautiful but true. Chas. 
Scribner*s Sons, New York. $2, 

Why a man who can write such stories as the first four in The 
HIS Lion and the Unicorn should ever attempt martial and other 

ELEMENT. fields to him unripe, is one of the things no fellow can find 

out. These pages have more than once said severe things of Richard 
Harding Davis ; and all intentionally. But that is only when he med- 
dles with things que no le tocan. As a writer of short stories, he has few 
equals. If the precise knowledge which must inform a book of wars 
or travel be outside his equipment, he has just the hand for proper 
short stories. He knows people — in his orbit — and a great deal of the 


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world as fashionables know it. He has a very fine sense of constmc- 
tion and treatment, and an unnsnal aptitude in the word. It is a rare 
^ift to write such tales as have made him famous, and he would do well 
to tie by it. 

The title story in this present bool^, and ** On the Fever Ship,** are 
admirably human documents. ** The Man with One Talent,** though 
marred with Mr. Davis's pattern of travel, is a strong thing ; and **The 
Vagrant'* has attractions. The last head in the book is apparently a 
*' filler ** only. It does not belong here ; nor, apparently, anywhere 
else in steady type. But the collection as a whole is Davis at his best 
side—and that is always delightful. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. 

The wide and merited success of Horace Annetley Vachell's more 
IVocession of Life gives new interest to his work ; and there California 

will doubtless be welcome for his A Drama in Sunshine^ an- of vachcll. 

other strong novel of California, reprinted from an edition of last year. 

Mot so compact nor so convincing as its predecessor, this story is more 
stirring with adventure. A land-boom and a Mussel Slough feud with 
the evicted squatters are the general sta^setting ; against which a 
dozen characters, in Mr. Vachell's recognizable hand, love, hate, in- 
trigue, swindle, stab, hang, and get shot. 

Mr. Vachell's work is good. His plot is well within the limits of the 
law, and is worked out conscientiously and without hitch. Such things 
have happened in California. He has, too, without the master's hand, a 
good hold upon his characters. He cares for them — and thay care for 
him. They have verisimilitude and vitality ; and though often a little 
overdrawn, and without the quickest instinct of "enough 1 " they do not 
go beyond patience. "Chillingworth" is doubtless the best conception 
In the book, with his strength and weakness, his rise and fall and 
getting up again. But "Damaris" and "Joan" and "Casanegjra"-- 
even "Mellish" and "Nora"— are good company, and the story is no- 
where laggard. 

Mr.Vadiell's rather blighted afiFection for California (that is, San 
Francisco and Santa Barbara) is neither to be wondered at nor harshly 
judged. He is English— and that is a great gulf fixed between the twain, 
bravely as his climatic approval doth bridge it. Were it not for this 
natal accident, he might find the material for his final masterpiece in a 
novel of the (average) Britisher in California. It has the making of 
the most humorous, Uie most pathetic, the gentlest yet the most sar- 
castic fiction yet written in the West— almost, in fact, of TTie American 
Novel, from which it should fall short only by its geographic limitations. 
Mr. Vachell, of course, will not write it ; nor do I know quite who may. 
But so long as he gives us novels up to these two, we snail not blame 
him that he leavesr the moon unplucked. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. %\ .50. 

A civil engineer with unmistakable literary turn, Wolcott Le the 
Clear Beard has built some irrigating reservoira in the South- mythical 

west, and now presents a book of ten very clever stories of frontier. 

New Mexico and Arizona, under title Sand and Cactus^ Those are evi- 
dently the features Mr. Beard saw most of in his professional way ; the 
thinm he heard after the day's work were of "tough*' people wholly — 
"tin^ioms," devil-may-care cowboys, saloon-throned Bad Men, irre- 
deemable Mexicans, and all the other familiar "properties" which every 
visitor heara. The large advantage of Mr. Beard is that he has the Gift ; 
and that instead of parroting these familiar inventions he makes a new 
painting of their colore. eBs constructive skill is excellent, his char- 
acterization quick and graphic, his instinct for a story uncommonly 
good. It is no small success that he has made every one of these ten a 
"rattling good story" — ^though in fact nearly every one is decidedly "too 

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fpod to be trne." Without Owen Wiiter't real genhu for m^ing 
Uie Teritict of thin^, at a rule, eren in a brief acnnaintanre, 
fiir. Beard haa aomethins of Wiater'a imaginative power. If his char- 
actera are moatly drawn from the Wild West Tanderille instead of from 
life— and much longer and roo^her experience with both Territories rec- 
ognizea verj few familiar faces in the book — they are vital on the printed 
page ; and perhaps that is enon^ The engineers are real ; some of the 
gamblers fairlv so ; and "Sheriff Barton" is as actual as he is amiable. 
The rest are the fine old " p roper ti es" by which the West is represen ted 
in melodrama — and the West's own fanlt, for it never tirea, even yet, of 
rehearsing its m3rths to every willing ear. Pew indeed hear them to so 
good advantage. Bven those who nave aeen the toughness can rarely 
tnm their fiunitnre to such account. And while one mis^t not reco^ 
nize his mother's portrait, he can admire the eolorist — and wish she did 
look like that. 

One may be aorry that Mr. Beard did not find anything more interest- 
ing or more accurate in the Mexican population of the Territoiiea, in- 
st^d of swallowing the character whole from the border tough. But 
there should be no complaint of this. The Mexican la always handy 
far a stage villain, though not strictly original. The real paisano is not 
so picturesGue as the Wolfville stuffed type ; and fiir. Beara's strength is 
the dramatic, not the actual. This is eqnallv visible in his plots ; all of 
which are well taken — and nearly all as likely as a fairy-tale. Some 
would be absurd, in less beguiling hands ; but the author has the trick 
of entertaining us so well uiat it aeema ungrateful to amile at certain 

There is no real need, however, in the mi8^)elling of latigo, biznaga, 
''bronk," zahuaro (here ateadily '*sujuarro ! ") and the like. Certainly 
the vulgar term " Greaser " should not be so intimate in a book from 
this firm. It is a word confined to the same breeding in the West that 
is gauged by the use of ** Nigger" in the East; a sure stamp of low 
brMding— or of a '* tenderfoot " — and as ip^orant as it is coarse. It 
should not disficme later editions— into which such readable atories are 
reasonably certun to run. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50. 

STRAY It was a Boston publication, of course, which gravely announced 

LEAVES. in a recent number "the instantaneous photograph showed 

that not a single sitter had moved." 

No one who reads it ever has to ask "la Life worth liviag?" The wittiest of weeklies* 
It is also a stiUwart fior good dtisenShip and humanity. It is never a skalker, never 
an opportunist, never an apologist Its high standards of morals and manners, its 
courage and the quality of its edge have made it a class by itself among the ** humor- 
ous papers " of the world. 

The unioa of the succcssftd young Doubleday & McClure Co with the 61d and com* 
manding firm of Harper & Bros, is the most interesting combination in the history of 
American publishing. It should be good for both parties to the contract, and decidedly 
good for the reading public 

"A bird in the bush is worth two in the hand." says Bird-Lore, the competent and 
beautiful little magazine for bird-lovers. Which is very true of the large study. I<ile 
is more scientific than a stuffed skin, as welt as more beautiful. Prank M. Chapman. 
Englewood, N. J. flaycar. 

Chas. A. Keeler, of this staff; will issue at once with Elder & Shepard, San Fran- 
cisco, A First Glance at the Birds. Later, the same house is to publish his complete 
Bird Notes Afield. Mr. Keeler's popular ornithology is authoritative as science and 
full of poetic sentiment. 

Bliss Perry has come into the editorship of the Atlantic MontkJf, the quietest maga- 
sine in America but one of the very best. 

The Southern Pacific Railway issues for free distribution two attractive booklets, 
Aill of compact information and pictures, of Wayside Notes Along the Sunset Rouie^ and 
California South of Tehachapi. The company's regular monthly Sunset is well known 
for its beautiful Olustratlont. 

Chas. P. Lummis. 

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tr*t^ -H- 


( II.D.Ti.r.DK(o. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA *« WINTER. '* **»'°*«* *»' *«*"*" '*^~'^- 
Snow on the peaks, flowers at their feet. 

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C. M. Davis Eof. Co. Pbotoi. by Robert Cbu-lton. 


Wash Bzercises — The Procession — Planting the Tree. 

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C. M. na\ is Knc (.0. Pholo. by BoW. Chwlton. 


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ft II i II ii II ii ft ti II II 1 II II 11 11 i 1 





1 ! II II 11 II II II 11 II II II II II l1l 

C. M DavU Eof Co. 


Photo, by EoU. Charlton. 

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('. M. Davis Eng. Co. 



ii t 

C M. D»Yis Enf . Co. «« i Qg^ AI^ONG SWIMMINGI^Y. 

>» Photo. l»j 

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C. M. DATis Eng. Co. 

'holding my own.'* Photo, by 8ohuni»«her. 

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C M Da\ IS Knr < 


Photo. .by Afocs D. Brown. 

C. M. DavU Eng. Co. SUNSHINERS. 

....„ by 


When KOSwerfDg ndverttiemciiis. pleKiie meatlon thmt 70U **iaw It in the Laico op ^^jm^Bjn i*/' 

Make Your 
Advertising Pay! 

Bright and clever illus- 
trations will do it. We 
make them. We are after 
your business. 



12:5 S. Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

s,^ Telephone 

Main 417. 

has for b»1c 
the largest 




\WA s. mm ST. 


A^ mm Ji I I brings good rrturos hf In- 
^ M A U U Tested m a MAGIC LANTERN or 
^* A D I T A I Stcreopticon for exhibition 
WMr^l ■ MU purro«ea. v\ rite for 1J^»»j page 
illuitTatel catalogue. Vt^p. 

tmimi til DDiidon, 43 lossou 11 m ni 



Los 4ngcles Pacific Electric Ry. 


mrr In Hiut'ItclI. at icii- 
i.w<i44ni, Ijiiiint^K plate*. 
tliurclaw. fefclh. etc At- 
cc|»le<1 by th« Board nt 
fit* Ul»iJ*rwtJtrri, W« 
arc Dffari>ig 

Special luduc^mfflts 
to Agfnts 

«nc| ottrt who fint Intr**' 
di^cQ li]» biuroi III their 

li^rikJjty ri>r pkniculin 

M*iu R* , 1 

« **••••«« •«•• »•*•«***« 


Los Angefes 
oriKi, 5:3(( and 

ft:tM»p. TO, 
TeJ^tchmii;: Sants^ 

without siopa. 

J I provides one of the moit modern 
equipments and the coolest and lUOit 
scenic route in. Southern Caliromia. 
For SantA Moni€A: Cath leave Fourth and Broadwav, Los Angeles, via Hill and 
16th streets, every halt hour from •€:l^0 a* tu, to 7:30 p, m., and hourly to 11:30 p. in. 

Via EcHevne Atc., Colegrove and Sherman, every hour Irom ♦GrlS a. m. to ll:l&p. m, 
4:lfi p. m.t .'>:45 p. ui. and 11:15 p. m, to Sherman ooly. Cars leave Plaxa to m 1 an te& later. 

F«r Loa Anyelea: Cars leave Hill Street, Santa Motiica. at •5;&0.»G:10, •tj:40 a. m., 
and erery half honr from 7:W a. m. to 7:40 p. ni., and liourly tbcTeafter to 10.40 p. m. 
Suodayi, every half hour from 7:1U a, m. to 7:4U p. m., and hourly to 10:40 p. m. L^ave 
band stand. Ocean Ave., 5 tiiioutes later. 

Cars leave Hill Strett, South Santa Monica, 40 minuter after eacli hour from 6:40 a.m* 
to 9-iO p. 111. Connect at Morotro cars via Shertnen and Colegrovc, 

•Except Sundayp. Offlcii, Chimbtr of CoiPiRtret Bldg., 4th and ^^^£jij%JlS^ 

When SEUwerinf ftdvert]«emeiiUf please mention tbftt you ** saw it In Uie Land of 8uirBMi]fB.*' 



Mrs. Graham's 

Cucumber and Elder 
Flower Cream 

tl €lea.ii!)e>i, whkeus uud bratitiges the 
skin, feeds and uoiirt&hes skia tissues* 
thus bauish'mg wrinklea. It is laAriules« 
1^ ^ as dew, and as nourishtof; to the skin as 

"^ dew is to the Hower, Price tl.OOat druf- 

1:^ gistH itod a^euts, ot sent anywhete pre- 

paid. Sauiple baltle, 10 cents. A hand- 
some book. "' How to be Beaiilifiit," fre*. 





Both guaranteed barxnle^ as water. fiSoltl hy bettt Druj^glvtH, or sent in plnin Aea1e<l 
wrapper by expieas, prepaid. Price, SI .Oa ©Hf:li. 
J For sale by bH Druggiit* and HaiTdeilers. 

^ Nt*iii1 for FRH:!;: BOOK : *' A Confidealial Chat with eald Headed, Thin Haired and 
^ Gray Haired Mm and Wrimeii." Good Agents wanted. 


RKIMNUTON & CO,, San Franelscf>, Gtin, Paclfk' Coaat AjentB. 
Mils, <>l^:[iVAISI'] IJHAMAM. 1250 Mtehlsan Av^., €bioii.KO. 




Hotel Westminster.... 

American and 

European Plana 





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Every Modem 
Comfort and 
Convenience that can 
be fouad in any 

Send for Illustrated Booklet on Los Angeles and environs. 

JOHNSON & FONt,9P<fi>jlStorl 


Vol. XI, No. 6 

?ii^^i|3i ^^^^y^ 









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Wben anvwerliif advertlEetsiaiU* plemse mention IfaAi you " asw it la Ihe Vamd of &TnnmsMm.*' 

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trations will do it We 
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12^ S, Broadway 

Los Angeles, Cah 

Main 417. 

Order from 

the '* Big Store/' 

A Ql/ to bring you our free booklet | 

.\r^zjy — on home furnishing. \ 

UNCLE Let him bring back your fafl ;. 

O A liil furniture order. \ 

^ OAIVI You'll be well served. The 

[HMt Government is to be trusted, and so are we. 

li»J [Miles Pease Furniture Co. 

439.41-43 S. Spring St., Los Angeles 

Everybody Oocs to ^antfl MonlCa 
Via Los Angeles-Pacific Electric Ry. 

U prDvidefi one of I he most modern equipments mid Uic 
cool e fit and must scenic loule in Son the in CBlifornU, 

For BttutA Uoislcii : Cars leave Fovrtb aod Brc«idwmT» 
Los Angclcfl. via Hill and 16tli rtrcet»» crery hour from •*:»> 
a. m, to lliSO p m. Sundays every hall hour from 7:30 a.m. 
to 7:;tt> pni , and hourly Id IhlVi p m. Saturday's, ejitra care at 5 p,m and i> p.m. Cart 
leave Plu^a 1(1 minutes earlier. 

Via Bellrvne Ave.^ Colegxovc and SbettnaD, every hour from ♦6iiB a. m . to 11:10 p, m« 
aud ll:-!.^ p. m. to Sherman only. Cars leave Plaza lu minutts later. ^ ^^ ^ ,„ 

For I-oa Atiffvlea: Cars leave Hill Street. South SanU Monica, at ♦6:50» •6:40 a. in.» 
and e^ery hour to 10:«) p. m. Sundaya, T:40H,m. and every half bowr from 8:40 a, m. to 
7:40 p,m., atid hourly to 10:40 p.m. Saturdays^ extra cars at 4:10 p.m. and 5:10 p.m. LeaTC 
band «tand. Ocean Ave , f> minutes later. 

Cars leaving Hill Strett, South Santa Monica, 40 minutefi after each hour from o:4u a.m- 
to 9:40 p.m. connect at Morocco cars via Sherman and Colegrove* 
«Bxcept Sundays. ONIcai, Ctiimtoir of Comfnerct Bldg.. 4th «fid lrftidwi|, Lm Aii|«»m 

» * •■ *••» ••«#•*•■ »•«••••••■•• »•■«•<•• ■«««**4« *ti«9«**ti >» 

Reliable help prooiptly furaldwd. Hummel Brn. 


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Vol. 11, No. 6. 


NOVEMBER. 1899. 


8«n Di«co. CaI 

Dry Loco-weed. 


HEAR it now as I heard it then 

Along the sandy reaches, 
Within a wandering whisper 

Of the crooning, southern beaches — 
That lonesome sound along the ground, 
That runs the island o'er ; 

A tiny musketry to roar — 
A promise gone to seed — 
The rattle of the loco-weed 

That grows along the shore. 

A fanfare brave the silence gave 

Athwart the treeless spaces. 
Like warning signal of the snakes, 

That coil in dryest places, 
That lusty sigh beneath the sky — 
A cheerful lisping lore 

Of solitudes the hares explore, 
Afar from hunters' greed — 
The rattle of the loco-weed 

That grows along the shore. 

I love it now as I loved it then, 

A sound of winnowing wind, 
At work among the drying herbs 

That starving cattle find. 
A cadence low, the warm stars know, 
When day has wandered o'er, 

A blithe complaint of sunshine more 
Than any hint of need — 
The rattle of the loco-weed, 

That grows along the shore. 

Oopyrifkt 18M hj Land of SonshiiM Pub. Co 

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The Mexican Wizard, 

^rtHIS magazine seems to have been the only periodical in 
\ the United States which was apprised two months ago 
^ that Porfirio Diaz, President and creator of modern 
Mexico, probably would not be able to visit this country this 
fall, as interested promotors had scheduled him to do. As may 
be seen by reference to the September number, Prest. Diaz 
wrote Aug. 17 to this magazine : "Agreeable as it would be 
to me to visit that handsome country, at present my official 
cares do not permit me to do so.*' Up to within a few days of 
the Chicago function which he was expected to grace, the 
newspapers were arranging their biographies and romantic 
sketches, and everyone seems to have been expecting the hero 
whose life has been more romantic than any fiction ever writ- 
ten, and whose statesmanship secures his position as one of 
the ten greatest rulers in all human history. At the last mo- 
ment, almost, the official announcement was made that he 
could not visit us. The sickness of his young and beautiful 
wife — whom no one in Mexico calls by formal title but 
everyone knows and loves as **Carmelita*' — made it impossi- 
ble to leave home even for a brief tour. In his place he sent 
the second man in Mexico, that fine scholar and gentleman 
Sr. Lie. Don Ygnacio Mariscal, vice-president of the republic 
and Secretary of Foreign Relations. Next to Diaz himself, no 
Mexican statesman could be more welcome in this country — 
where no other is so well known. A master of international 
law, several times Secretary of State, Mexican Minister to 
Washington, and of other high honors in his native land, a 
trained diplomat, a master of English, Sr. Mariscal has been a 
tower of strength to the cabinet of his great chief, and the 
United States is entitled by many selfish considerations to give 
him warm welcome. 

It is nevertheless a great disappointment that Diaz himself 
could not revisit the great republic which has learned, despite 
provincialism and race prejudice, to honor him as one of the 
world's great men. And the occasion may be taken for a very 
brief sketch of his marvelous career — this man who has made 
a truly great nation from more chaotic material than states- 
men ever worked on before. 

Porfirio Diaz was nobody, a little over half a century ago — 
nobody, that is, but a poor orphan boy in the little earthquake 
city of Oaxaca, in Southern Mexico ; working his way 
through an obscure college and studying law — having turned 
his back on the priesthood to which he had been dedicated. 
Today he is the autocrat of fifteen millions of people — and not 
merely autocrat but idol. The Czar has no more power ; but 
no Czar ever used his power so wisely and none was ever so 

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beloved . For that matter, no president of the United States 
was ever so universally admired, trusted and loved during his 
term of office. We always have an Opposition — and Mexico 
has been used to having several. But she has found at last a 
man before whom all opposition has melted. There is no 
party against the administration. There are a few *'anti" 
newspapers — but it is mostly a form. For Mexico is not par- 
ticularly a fool — even though green travelers find the country 
wrong because it is not run for their benefit. It knows when 
it is well off ; and so long as Diaz can or will hold the reins 
there is no sober Mexican (and of late years hardly a drunken 
one) that would for a moment wish them in any other hands. 

There have been several reasons for this change from un- 
rest, revolution, bankruptcy and brigandage to national suc- 
cess and content ; all focussing on the fact that Diaz is a great 
man in all ways. A man whom only ignorance will deny a 
place in the same rank with our two greatest men, Washing- 
ton and Lincoln. Indeed, he combines much of the qualities of 
the two. 

In the first place he won the hearts of his countrymen by 
perhaps the most brilliant and romantic military career in all 
the history of America. His battles (and they were more 
than fifty) were all won at the head of his men and nearly 
every one against odds. They were mostly with half-licked 
peons against the flower of a European army. It was very 
much as if Aguinaldo should whip our forces in a pitched 
battle — in which case it would certainly not be the troops that 
did it, but their general. So it was when the green boy law- 
yer of Oaxaca chased the outnumbering French armies off the 
landscape. ** Better an army of sheep with a lion for a leader 
than an army of lions with a sheep for a leader." Certainly 
the Mexican rank and file were not — and are not — exactly 
sheep, as we must admit so long as we talk of Chapultepec, 
where Scott's veterans had all they wanted with the 15-year- 
old boys of the Mexican cadets. But no sane person would 
compare them, in discipline or equipment — or numbers — with 
the seasoned legions of Bazaine and Forey. And it was the 
lion leader that won for Mexico and spoiled the investment of 
the Third Napoleon. 

War is one thing ; and of course, though peace outnumbers 
war in years, it is always commoner to find great generals than 
great statesmen. In battle, Diaz showed the directing power 
of a Grant, with the crusading dash of a Custer, a Roosevelt 
or a Funston ; and in literal truth his personal perils and ad- 
ventures outclass all three of these splendid heroes in a lump. 
But the rarer quality, though several times clearly foreshown 
in the lull of battles, was never generally realized until Diaz 
came up, by the once expected stormy ways, to be Presi- 

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dent of Mexico. The country was then all our bilious fancy 
paints of the Spanish- American "republics** — bankrupt, torn, 
volcanic, and moth-eaten with thievery. Office was a place in 
which to steal, with more or less politeness ; the roads were 
simply infested with brigands. There were no railroads, no 
telegraphs, no security in person or in property. Official 
thieving, highway robbery and assassination were chronic ; 
and Mexico was about as much like our idea of a republic as 
— well, as Sulu is. Today the remotest country road in Mex- 
ico is safer than any street in New York city. There are no 
brigands, no stage-robbers, no train ** holdups." The country 
is netted with railroads and telegraphs — and has fewer train 
wrecks in proportion to mileage than the United States has, 
for in Mexico somebody is always responsible. 

All this is thanks to Diaz. He has done it all, and almost 
out of whole cloth. The public service is at least as clean as 
ours. All over the republic the free public school is at work 
— in every village. In every State excellent normal schools, 
are training the teachers. There are manual training schools 
technical schools, colleges and universities, hard at work — 
and none of them to be sneezed at. There are as free and full 
educational facilities for girls as for boys. And in all Mexican 
schools above the primary, English is a compulsory study. 
Diaz again. 

Materially, the nation has been as marvelously uplifted. Its 
credit, before worthless, is now first-class. Instead of falling 
into debt it is steadily climbing out. It is making enorm- 
ous public improvements — harbors, drainage, and all that — 
and has multiplied manufactures in a degree perhaps without 

Above all, it has changed its political temper absolutely. 
Only twenty years ago it was one of the uneasiest countries on 
earth ; today it is one of the quietest and most compact. 

All this is the handiwork of Porfirio Diaz. He is 69 years 
old now — though almost incredibly young for his age. In 
the nature of things, he cannot last forever. But he has ap- 
prenticed Mexico to progress and good government ; and who- 
ever shall succeed him will find it incomparably easier and 
safer to continue on the same patriotic lines. Any doubts as 
to the future of Mexico are confined to them that are ignorant 
of its real present. It is a republic even our older and greatest 
one need not blush to call sister ; and if the wonderful man 
who has made her what she is cannot come in person to re- 
ceive the evidences of our distinguished consideration, we can 
send him, at least, greetings of good will. Viva Porfirio, and 
the example of a man ! L. 

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Some Unknown Missions of Cali- 


And there h« made with wiailM from the manb 
k little lonely charch in dajt of yore. 

— Tennyeoo. 

HE traveler in California, curious of novelty, 
is sure to have his attention early directed 
to the Mission churches, a few intact, some 
restored, and many in ruins, which remain 
as monuments to the zeal and fidelity of the 
Spanish priests who founded them, carrying 
the cross and its message in a pathway 
opened by the sword. 
Those were toilsome journeys which the missionaries took 


niaatntloDB (fob photoe by the author . 

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through desolate wastes and tangled wilds. It was no easy 
task to teach and civilize a nation of untamed savages ; but 
sincerity of purpose gave success to their labors, and the seed 
which they planted still bears a visible harvest. 

The mission churches arose in the wilderness, here beneath 
the shadowing mountains, there beside the shining sea, or far 
in uplying valleys where acre upon acre of wild grass waved 
in the wind. Soon the wastes were smiling gardens, culti- 
vated fields and olive orchards. The arched cloisters of the 
missions were reared by native builders. Their rude art fash- 
ioned unique decorations for the church walls, while their in- 
stinctive love of color and ornament welcomed the beauty of 
saint and Madonna that smiled from glowing canvasses 
brought from Spain. The church bells cast in Madrid or San 
Bias sent mellow tones across the fields at dawn and evening. 
The cross arose in the cemetery, and dying eyes found hope in 
the emblem of salvation. 

The Indian is instinctively religious, capable of metaphysi- 
cal speculations, and possessing a lively sense of the power of 
the unseen. It has been said : ** Men are merely intelligences. 
Only children, primitive people, those of the ecstatic type and 
of amorphous uncrystallized mentality, are souls.** 

Without formulating this philosophy, the Spanish friars 
acted upon it. It was as souls that the Indians appealed to 
them, souls to be saved, and for which they must give account. 
It is as souls, pathetic, humble, groping after light, that they 
appeal to him who has witnessed and shared in their worship 
upon the soil where the first missionaries reared the cross. 

Far in the **back country,** sixty miles or so from San 
Diego, in a region untrodden by the tourist, are the ruins of 
the Mission of Santa Ysabel. Leveled by time and washed by 
winter rains, the adobe walls of the church have sunk into in- 
distinguishable heaps of earth which vaguely define the out- 
lines of the ancient edifice. 

The bells remain, hung no longer in a belfry but on a rude 
framework of logs. A tall cross made of two saplings nailed 
in shape marks the consecrated spot. Beyond it rise the walls 
of the brush building, ramada, woven of green wattled 
boughs, which does duty for a church on Sundays and on the 
rare occasions of a visit from the priest who makes a yearly pil- 
grimage to these outlying portions of his diocese. On Sun- 
days, the General of the tribe acts as lay reader and recites the 
services. Then and on Saturday nights the bells are rung. 
An Indian boy has the office of bell-ringer, and crossing the 
ropes attached to the clappers he skillfully wakes a solemn 

These bells were cast in Spain, and are the offerings of 
charity ; the votive gifts of silver ornaments and household 

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plate having been melted with the casting and forming a large 
proportion of the whole. One bears the date 1723, the other 
1767. A bullet hole in the side of one of them commemorates 
equally the accuracy of aim and the sacrilegious motive ot 
some forgotten soldier. 

Opposite the church is the cemetery, a small enclosure care- 
fully guarded from intrusion by a tall picket fence. A bare 
wooden cross rises in the center, and at the head of each little 
mound formed of the dry sun-baked earth, a small cross is 
placed, emblem of a hope beyond this world of unrighted 

I first saw the old Mission site on the evening of St. John's 
Day. The annual service had been held that morning, but 
priest and people had departed. The decorations still remained 
in the brush church whose walls had been freshly woven of 

c M. D»Tit Kng. Co. Qj^jy ANGELA, THE LAY READER. 

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green boughs, through the interstices of which the late sum- 
mer twilight sent a subdued religious light. At the further 
end, to distinguish the chancel from the nave of this primitive 
building, soft white muslin had been fastened over walls and 
ceiling, and upon it were pinned the sacred pictures preserved 
with care from year to year, gaudy prints on cheap paper, 
Madonnas, saints, a last judgment terrible in its crude inten- 
sity, a Saviour's pitying face. 

The altar was covered with a drawn-work altar cloth of 
similar fashion, no doubt, to that whose rent Ramona so skill- 
fully repaired. This represented months of patient labor, and 
who can say how much devotional feeling in the hearts of the 
silent Indian women whose hands had placed it upon the altar 
and set up the blessed candles in their cheap tin candlesticks, 
together with the image of the Madonna, a decked doll with 
an expressionless face as it might seem to the critical observer, 
but to the fervent worshiper the symbol of a purity and love 
transcending human thought. 

Over the hills at Mesa Grande, eleven miles from Santa 
Ysabel, a three days' fiesta was to be held to include August 
fourth, the day dedicated to Santo Domingo, the patron saint of 
the place ; and on this occasion I arrived betimes to witness a 
unique and interesting scene. 

The Indian reserve, or rancheria, occupies a narrow valley 
and sweep of barren hillside. On a level space at the foot of 
the mountain, industrious hands had reared a village of green 
ramadas forming three sides of a hollow square, leaving a 
wide plaza in the midst. These cool brush houses had a pro- 
jecting roof in front, forming, as each joined the other, a nar- 
row colonnade where wooden benches were placed in the 
shade. At one corner was the restaurant where a Mexican 
and his wife served meals at a price of "two bits," as the 
Californians count it. For this privilege they paid a dollar 
and a half for a license ; and the few white men who came as 
venders of watermelons and other goods paid a similar sum. 
So did, perhaps, the barber who was busy trimming the shin- 
ing black locks of such of the Indian youths as were especially 
careful of appearance. A butcher shop was advertised by a 
fresh hide hung upon a pole, and from this quarter the restau- 
rant obtained the beef which appeared in savory stews redolent 
of garlic. Families richer or more provident than others 
brought their own supplies of jerked beef which was invit- 
ingly displayed overhead in bags of pink mosquito netting. 

On this first day of the fiesta, an air of expectancy and prep- 
aration pervaded the scene. There were finishing touches to 
be put here and there. The school-house bell in a wooden 
tower was transported from its place on the hill to the vacant 

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space on the opposite slope near the church, since Mesa 
Grande boasted no Mission bells. 

The church was built like that of Santa Ysabel, of green 
boughs, and the chancel was decorated with muslin draperies 
and ornaments of paper and ribbon, in whose preparation a 
faithful Indian woman had spent the greater part of five days. 
The altar was furnished with drawn-work cloths, and in a niche 
above it was a plaster image of Santo Domingo, one hand hold- 
ing a book, the other outstretched in benediction. Upon the 
outstretched hand a rosary had been hung with appropriate 
e£fect. Some mystic letters appeared in the muslin that 
draped the ceiling, which, being interpreted, proved to be the 
initials of the solitary member of the altar guild, and of such 
of her family as she was pleased to commemorate. 

Near the church a ramada had been constructed for the ^q- 

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commodation of the visiting priest and the Bishop, whose rare 
presence at this fiesta lent it an especial sancity. This house 
had been furnished with care. A bed had been borrowed from 
the school-teacher, the only person on the reserve who could 
boast such a possession ; and cane- bottom chairs had been se- 
cured, together with other articles of comfort and luxury. 
Under the portico of this episcopal residence, some of the 
older and more important Indians were seated in a row upon 
the ground, in silent contemplation of the results of their 

The self-contained and quiet manner of the participants in the 
fiesta was a striking feature, distinguishing it from the gather- 
ings of white people of the lower classes. There were no loud 
voices, no rude and boisterous actions, no vacant laughter. 
Everything moved smoothly without apparent effort. Indians 
in wagons and on horseback came in during the day, some from 
a distance of fifty miles in other reservations, but all of the 
same tribe, the Dieguefios. They quietly took the places as- 
signed to them. 

An Indian police in uniform was on the grounds, and with 
none of the self-assertion of the important guardians of our 
cities, he managed effectively to preserve the peace. The Cap- 
tain of Mesa Grande, an intelligent looking Indian, lately 
elected to oflSce, nailed in a prominent position the following 
notice written in legible characters : 

'* Any and all persons are warned not to bring nor sell wine or 
other intoxicating liquors on the grounds of this Indian re- 
serve. Any person selling them will be prosecuted to the full 
extent of the law.*' 

So effective was this order that not until the evening of the 
second day was an Indian observed who showed the influence 
of liquor, and as soon as his tottering steps and quavering 
song betrayed him, the police was quietly summoned and the 
man disappeared with marvelous celerity, unaccompanied by 
the notice of the crowd or by a retinue of small boys as is our 
more civilized custom. 

The Indian small boy, indeed, in no way resembles the 
gamin of our streets. Now and then with an arm about his 
fellow's neck he strolls quietly by. He is nowhere prominent ; 
he is not in the way. Family affection is everywhere mani- 
fested. The father sits in the ramada doorway holding a baby 
whose contented silence is equal to his own. Love and trust 
are expressed in the attitude of both figures. Another with 
three or four little ones clustered at his knees is making 
whistles of green reeds, pipes such as Pan once played upon, 
and the children accept them gladly, and run off with dis- 
tended cheeks. No doubt the whistles make a noise to the 
credit of the maker's skill, but it does not reach our ears. 

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Religious worship is the most important feature of the day. 
At evening and at dawn vespers and mass are said, but the 
ten o'clock service proves most attractive to the few white 
visitors who have come from the neighboring farm houses 
and villages. It is an impressive occasion, gaining rather than 
losing in e£fect from the pathetic lack in the accessories of de- 
votion. The women and children kneel upon the floor of 
beaten earth. The men stand crowded against the walls. The 
visitors are provided with chairs, as, of course is the Bishop, 
who, not knowing Spanish, takes no part in the service which 
he distinguishes by his presence. 

The officiating priest, Father Antonio, has wprked for thirty 
years among his Indian flock, seeing them at rare intervals, 
but bearing them upon his heart. With his long beard and 
fiery eyes he has the commanding presence of Michael An- 

. M. DiivU Knu'. C* 


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gelo's Moses, and like him he is a law giver. His words have 
weight and authority. If it were not for his invincible mod- 
esty which forbids it, much might be written about this in- 
teresting man who is the original of "Father Gaspara" in 
Helen Hunt Jackson's masterpiece. 

An Indian youth acts as acolyte during the mass, and makes 
all the responses, serving as reverently about the altar as any 
cathedral assistant. The singing of the Holy, Holy, is led by 
old Angela, a remarkable woman, whose wrinkled face, like 
that of every Indian woman of advanced age, is quite devoid 
of beauty, except that in her case, the beauty of a religious 
soul illuminates the outer form. Old Angela is lay reader 
for the church at Mesa Grande. She knows by heart every 
word of the services. In Holy Week she remains upon her 
knees night after night. She daily spends hours at her devo- 
tions. If there were no other than old Angela to show the re- 
sult of the Mission Fathers* early labors, they would be amply 

Her daughter Petra, who decorated the altar, is an estimable 
woman, acting for good upon all who come within the circle of 
her influence. Another devout soul is old Jos6 Trinidad Cris- 
tiano Yechefio, who when asked his name always rounds off 
these titles with "Apelativo," as if that were itself the sur- 
name. He wears a rosary about his neck, and his voice sus- 
tains that of Angela in the chant, '^ Santo, Santo,'* while the 
quavering minor tones of the others take it up, and it rises a 
thin volume of sound upon the summer air. 

Father Antonio preaches in Spanish, and the Bishop follows 
with an address in English which only the younger ones can 
understand, though all listen patiently. The air in the small 
crowded building is warm and close. A few small children 
whimper in an undertone. The sunshine flickers through the 
interstices of the green boughs, and falls in tiny **patins'* of 
gold upon the altar, the Bishop's head, and the upturned 
faces of his listeners. 

Urged by father Antonio's encouragement, this little congre- 
gation have determined to replace the brush church with an 
adobe building like the old one that has long since crumbled 
to decay. They have taken upon themselves the task of mak- 
ing ten thousand adobe bricks for this purpose. Already a 
goodly part of the tale of bricks is finished, and the Bishop 
promises to return and consecrate the building when it shall 
be done. 

The long service ended, the people stream forth into the 
open air ; but return again to the Rosary service at three 
o'clock, in which the kneeling congregation make fervent re- 
sponses ; and to the christening at four, when a dozen dusky 
little Manuels, Marthas, Samuels and Maria Trinidads are re- 
ceived into the body of Christ's church. Clean they are, and 
carefully dressed by proud mothers ; and the compadres and 
comadres who stand for them do not look unworthy of their 
charge. „, „_, _OOgle 


Tennessee" and "partner." 


NE of the best of Bret Harte's 
early Califoroia stories — of 

renewed interest because 

now upon the stage — is * * Tennessee's 
Partner.** We all remember " Jim- 
my,** the long-suffering mule ; 
" Parttier's ** unfortunate matrimo- 
nial ventures; ** Tennessee's'* ras- 
cality, and '* Partner*s*' deathless 

The originals from whom?Harte 
took the suggestion of his fiction are 

TENNES.PE AND PARTNER. fj/^j ^'Y^?« ?° California, on their 

little claim m the Sierras. In real 
life they are Chaffee and Chamberlain, two cheery old Argonauts who 
peg away with pick and shovel still, digging a modest livlihood from the 
earth, and but dimly concerned with the big world in which their ficti- 
tious fortunes nightly thrill an audience. 

Their home is not a log cabin, as in the story, but a pleasant little 
home-like two-story dwelling built with their own hands. It is shaded 
by friendly trees and vines. A little distance away are a few scattered 
apple-trees ; and the whole place is surrounded with beautiful, spread- 
ing oaks — the same oaks that have so often borne human fruit, both in 
literature and in reality. Inside, the home is comfortable and a model 
of neatness. Pictures relieve the rough-finished walls, and a great fire- 
place takes up much of one end of the living-room. Books fill the 
shelves that occupy every available corner. 

It was late when we reached their home ; but a kind^faced old man in 
the trellised doorway bade us welcome. '* You can camp in the orchard 
yonder,'* said *' Tennessee,** adding: ** You'll find some wood there 
that we cut specially for campers." Later, as we munched a tardy 
camp supper, he brought us some fresh picked strawberries. " There 
ain't many,** he said, ** but it's all we've got " 

Two pleasanter old men than those with whom we spent that evening 
could not be found, or more sincerely hospitable. Par from being of 
the rough and lawless school of Harte's fiction, ** Tennessee" is genial, 
merry, open-hearted, and ** Partner " not exactly the child-like bribe- 
offerer of Sandy Bar. They are well-read men, take newspapers and 
magazines, and converse in a manner rather surprising to one who tries 
to measure them by the story. 

'*So you come from old Massachusetts, do you ? " said Chamberlain, 
while Chaffiee nodded quiet assent now and then. **Well. so did we — 
or rather I did, for Chaffee came from Connecticut. We sailed early in 
the winter of '49, by the Horn. It took us 176 days to reach San Fran- 
cisco. It was a big change from our steady New England home. 
Mining was the only thing talked about and gambling was the chief 
amusement. Men just back from the diggings, with their pockets full 
of gold, would stake their last ounce on the turn of a card. Almost 
every day there'd be a suicide or a murder. 

''There were six of us New England boys. We had a tent and camped 
where the Palace Hotel is now. 

* 'Chaffee was a wheelwright — I a carpenter. There was plenty of 
work and wages were big. Common laborers got |7 a day. We went to 
work at |i2 a day—ought to have been satisfied. But on the arrival of 
news from the mines great reports would be posted through town, and 

Illa«tr«t«<l from photos, by the author. 

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it didn't take us long to get the fever. We gave up our jobs and started 
for the mountains. 

"At last we landed in Second Garrote. The store-keeper kindly offered 
us goods on credit, for fifty cents was the sum total of our cash on hand. 
We dug a hole in the mountain side, ran rafters across, put boughs and 
clay on the rafters, made a fireplace and chimney, and thought we had a 
very comfortable mud hut. 

" It rained for three days steady about the middle of April. One 
night, sitting in the mud hut, Pard and I saw little chunks of soil be- 
gin to drop. Pretty soon the whole thing caved in, and we left. We 
stayed in the store that night. 

"We struck it rich at first — took out four hundred dollars in a few days 
— ^bnt then the claim went back on us. I got discouraged and proposed to 
Pard that we go to 'Frisco and work at our trade, but we didn't go. Af- 
ter a while we sold our claim and bought a new one — the one we own 

"And you've been working it ever since ? " 

"Yes — we've never struck it rich, but we've managed to get along and 


build us a house. Chaffee works the claim alone now — I do the house- 
work and a little gardening. Chaffee hasn't taken out fifty dollars in 
the last five years, but he's just as keen as he ever was. You can't 
down a miner's spirit." 

" You and Chaffee have lived together all these years ? Don't you 
ever disagree ? " 

"Yes, all these years — ever since '49. Ought to know each other, 
hadn't we? And as for quarreling" — looking toward his wrinkled com- 
panion of fifty years — " I guess we get along pretty well, don't we Chaf- 
fee? " And Chaffee smiles an answer. 

" How did you happen to know Bret Harte ? " 

"O, we never knew him — never saw him even. He had a friend in 
Second Garrote and it was through the friend that he heard of us and 
wrote the story. When Chaffee went to 'Frisco a few years ago he was 
introduced as * Tennessee's Partner.' It was a big surprise to him." 

" But where did Harte get the hanging part of it? " 

" There had been a man in Second Garrote^ne Peters — charged with 
outraging a child. He got away, but parties started in every direction, 

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and he waa run down. They brought him back to camp and he con- 
fessed. Peeling ran high. The prisoner was taken from the authorities, 
and a few miles outside of camp, in the moonlight, Judge Lynch held 

** A spokesman was chosen. He asked what should be done with the 
prisoner. Some said whip him — more said hang him. Chaffee made a 


vFrom TenegM's " Noticitu," 1757.) 

Badger. Albatross. 

Mountain Sheep. Coyote. 

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^pery eloquent plea for tnming him over to the courts. A vote was 
tiJLen, and ChafRee's motion was carried." 

" And was that all Harte had to build on ? " 

" Yes, but of course the main part of the story was Partner's faithful- 
ness to Tennessee, and he told that all right." 

Tennessee chuckled, ** To think I've lived all these years with a rope 
around my neck." 

We said good night to the two old gentlemen and retired to the ab- 
breviated bunks of our camp wagon. The next morning we took a 
picture of Tennessee and Partner standing under a gr^t oak that 
branches over the road near their dwelling — under a tree with a history 
— for many a grim figure has swung &om those strong limbs the 
victim of Judge Lynch. 

We looked back through the cloud of dust. There by the gate, their 
hands screening their eyes from the early morning sun, stood Tenn- 
essee and Partner. God bless them I — ^kind old men. May they ever 
be as happy as they have been and are. ** Thar — I told you so I — thar 
he is— comin' this way, too — all by himself, sober, and his face a- 

Uiwfme*, HsM. 

The Nature of the Beast. 



^ifHBRE is always something interesting and quaint in 
\ the old chronicles — English, French or Spanish — of 

^ the early explorations of America. All three nation- 
alities were about equally ignorant and superstitious as to 
geography, natural history and other matters we know a good 
deal atx>ut today ; but this very quality, joined with their clear 
good faith, makes the naive reports of these pioneers far more 
flavorsome reading than the more accurate statements of the 
contemporary savant. We all love the unconscious humor of 
a good blunder ; and all of tts have still some sympathy with 
fables of "Gorgons and Hydras and Chimaeras dire*' — as 
Milton wrote in the age when these most abounded. A won- 
derfully ** taking" book could be written about the grosser 
superstitions which cluster about the very first news of Amer- 
ica — the Amazons, griffins, mermaids, golden emperors ; the 
bumps on the earth, and the danger of foiling over the edge if 
one sailed too far west from Europe. Gomara, three hundred 
and fifty years ago, devoted a serious chapter to prove '* that 
the world is round, and not flat." 

But that is material for a book. My idea is merely to note 
some of the smaller but no less amusing notions which per- 
sisted up to a relatively late day — and may still be found, in 
&ct or in kind, among the ignorant classes of our own Amer- 
ican people. Nor do I mean merely to poke fun at these earn- 
est chroniclers who on the average got things about as straight 
as our own pioneers. Some of their descriptions stand the test 
of modem enlightenment very well ; and nearly all are relia- 

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ble when they recount personal knowledge. ' Their lapses 
come when they accept the current story— just as our Eastern 
writers of today publish as laughable m3rths about the West. 

One of the most interesting lines of this sort of reading is 
as to the natural history of tibe New World. There is a dis- 
tinct pleasure in reading the first descriptions that made known 
to the civilized world the animals now more or less household 
words to every fairly intelligent American ; and along with 
the sincerity of these descriptions there is enough humor (to 
our eyes) to double the interest. I mean to present extracts, 
literally translated, which have never before been read in En- 
glish, from some of the early reports on American animals. 

Let us begin with the "best things" in a '* Memoir on the 
Natural History of California written by a Franciscan Priest 
in the Year 1790." * For the exactness of my translation I 
am allowed to lefer to the editor.f 

CALIFORNIA ** This animal has made itself formidable to the Indians by its 

LION. rapacity. When it sallies from its ravines it makes a horrible 

destruction among the horses, mnles, asses, oxen and sheep. 
The lighted torches, fire, the crowing of cocks (which, according to 
some naturalists surprise and put to flight the lion) are not enough 
to repress the fearless voracity of the California lion. Only the true 
aim of a bullet or of many arrows tumbles him dead or dying.'* . . . 

THE "In his stature, yellow color, shrewdness, inclination to do 

coYOTfi. harm, manner of barking and spongy tail, he is very like the 

fox. He is supremely detested for the very serious damage he 
does in the settlements. Various ruses have been discussed for say- 
ing lambs, sucking pigs, doves and hens from his teeth ; but without 
effect. The best ruse is a good musket, a great care in making the 
walls of the corrals high, good dogs, and above all the herb called es- 
cumpatle, which grows in the country around the city of Puebla. This 
herb, mixed with meat, is a poison of such activity that soon as he eats 
it the coyote rolls over, howls and agonizes with terrible anxieties and 

"The rustics of California have observed that the warm skin just taken 
from a coyote is most efficacious to resolve every sort of rebellious 
tumor and to relax the nerves and tendons of horses or mules su£kring 
from convulsions. This practiced cure of the countrymen of Califor- 
nia has been approved by countless experiments. Perhaps it would be 
of equal utility if applied to paralysis in man." . . . 

WILD- Wild-cats *' multiply greatly, and all are perilous. Their 

^'''^* size is a little more than that of a house-cat. . . They are 

extremely hungry. They are accustomed to eat their own 

whelps, and not even men are safe from the assault of their voracity." 

* " MaBoriM pan U blstorU natmni de CiOifaniU," tte. Doevrnwlos pva U hiilorlA d* MtKlm, Mk 
t iMunU*, if Bot partieularl7 gnawtal.— la. 

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The badger or ** Tf/on does considerable damage in the the 
cnltiyated fields. . . Two kinds are known in California, baooer. 

• . . the first species is common on all the mainland of 
America^ ... the second kind, which the Califomians call Lonely 
Badger iTefon solUario] is much feared by the farmers for the destmc- 
tion it makes in the fields. Hunting the best ears of com it destroys 
many and makes them useless for any other liying thing. The dogs run 
in pursuit of it. Soon as they come near, it flings itself mouth-upward 
[on its back] and with its sharp claws defends itself in such fashion that 
the dogs Come out wounded and it escapes without hurt." 

*' There are two sorts. Some are larger than the Mexican the 
cacomisdes and have a handsome tail ; the color varied and skunk. 

the fur very soft. Others are of the size of the said cacomiscles. 
They meddle themselves, without noise, in the hen-houses and dove- 
cotes, and destroy the chicks. .... When the householder pur^ 
sues them they infect the air, discharging a stink so pestilent that there 
is no nose can resist its impression." .... 

"It is very certain that there is a species of hunter-snakes hunter 
which, with their breath, attract the unhappy butterflies and snakes. 

little birds to their very mouth, and then they swallow them. 
Perhaps in these circumstances we may philosophize thus : the warm 
vapor rarefies the air in a straight line — of this there is no doubt. This 
line being occupied by more subtile air, the other particles of air, agi- 
tated and seeking by their elastic impulse to recover their former place, 
sweep the little birds along with them to the jaws of the wise serpent." 

** Of vivoras two species have been observed, both greatly RATTLE- 

feared among the natives their rattles are like snakes. 

little dry bladders The efiect of their bite, commonly, 

is mortal Various specifics have been discovered which now and 

then have operated happily. They praise very highly the fang of an 
alligator, applied to the bite ; or some shavings of it taken in warm 
water ; a poultice of peppers frequently renewed ; and above all to cut 
ofi" the wounded member promptly. It appears that the rattlesnakes do 
not secrete in their mouths any poisonous fluid capable of producing the 
ravaves that are suflfered by those they have arrived to bite. The fangs 
and the teeth of the rattlesnakes are of such a texture that it slackens 
the circulation of the blood or hastens its course by the too great thin- 
ning of its corpuscles, and this may be considered the primary cause of 
these lamentable effects." 

** The Salamanqnesa, a kind of lizard. The color and hardness sala- 
of its body give the impression of a broken [medio] flint or a manoers. 

piece of opaque glass. At the blow of a stick, or when it 

fslls from a height, it bursts into small fragments Many times 

the Indians have placed it in the fire, and it has never been seen to die ; 
the which is confirmed by the experiment of Father Ignado Tirs. Be- 
ing a missionary in Santiago [Lower] Cal., in the year 1763, he took a 
Salamanqnesa and when it was put alive in the fire it lasted there more 

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than an hour, so lively and so complete at if it wete insensible to the 
action of the fire. Perhaps this is the Salamander which has made so 
much noise in natural history." 

THE HAND-OF- '* An iusect abounds upon which is seen stamped the hand of 

000 Buo. (]jQ Creator. It is a handsome worm, something larger than the 
common fly. Its color is purple, and its hair thick and dis- 
posed like the best plush." 

The anonymous Father describes the California deer, ante- 
lope, elk, sea-lion, otter, fox, squirrels, rabbits, wild mice, 
spiders, scorpion^, centipedes, frogs, toads and other beasts and 
insects, trees, plants, fish, minerals, etc. He remarks that 
'^there is gold and silver (he writes in 1790, remember) though 
not in quantity, as yet, to correspond to the great efibrts which 
have been made in search of them.'' 


Amid a very creditable list of the "Known Birds of Cali- 
fornia" he mentions the Royal Eagles ; and that ''when they 
descend from the height of the Sierra (perhaps because the 
air below is less rarefi^) they fall to the ground, so that the 
Indians catch them with their hands.'* 

The Bopilotes or turkey-buzzards "are great and of very 
black feather. They maintain themselves upon dead horses 
and other animals, and exhale an odor of musk which cannot 
be borne. The stew of their flesh is an anti-venereal of the 
highest esteem. Taken warm on an empty stomach it pro- 
vokes most copious sweat, which expels the malignity of the 

Quel61es are " a kind of btizzards which nest in the highest 
trees. The heat which this animal emits withers in a short 
time the leafy trees in which it makes it home. Even in the 
springtime [these trees] remain barren tninks, and never again 
ttun green." 

"The Ckurca is a kind of pheasant which has a long bill, 
dark plumage, a handsome tail and four feet. It has these 
latter facing outward in such fashion that when it runs it 
leaves the track of two feet going forward and two going back- 

The Pito Real, or Pajaro Carpintero (Carpenter-bird — wood- 
pecker) — "its beak is so hard that it bores the trees . 
white as ivory, and so hard that when it pecks the trees it 
makes a noise as if they were pounding with a hammer. The 
steam of its feathers when burned is one of the great specifics 
against epilepsy. Its flesh, toasted in the oven, reduced to 
fine powder and taken, fasting, in wine or pulque, is an anti- 
venereal with which marvellous cures are obtained." 

* Thia to tlM " road-rmnBcr " or • h » y rr>l-»oek. ~Bd. 

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The feathered skin of the alcairaz (albatross) '' enjoys much 
esteem among the Spanish Mexicans, because it is very bene- 
ficial to asthmatics and consumptives when worn upon the bare 
chest, feather-side in." 

Of I/Kusts there are two kinds, one peculiar to the country. 
Fifteen days after the eggs are laid, the moisture and warmth 
helping, *' they cease to be eggs and appear in the form of sen- 
sible beings. Directly they begin to exercise their office, 
which is to eat by day and by night without ceasing except for 

the time they are flying in search of new food 

The mere contact of their mouth conmiunicates to the plants 
a malignant heat which consumes their sap, bums and devours 

There are ** wasps, little and big, and all prick well" 
\iocUis jfncan bien\. It may be observed that if the good mis- 
sionary had not the exact science invented within a few years, 
he at least did not lack observation and a dry humor of his 

My Brother's Keeper. 



lELli, then, what should we give the Indians ? How 

can we assuage our aching to '*do something for 

them ** without doing them too much harm? By 

hat methods may we practice mercy, without 

sing fools or bullies ? 

My answer is very simple — by using common- 
mae. That of course includes j nstice and mercy ; 
»r to be unjust or unmerciful is to be a fool. I be- 
. eve in the humane impulse of Americans ; but I 
do not believe any man, no matter how humane, 
is wise in a thing he has taken pains not to study — any more than a man 
can be wise, no matter how scholarly, who is not humane. 

The first applicadon of common-sense to the Indian Service would be 
to employ no one professionally ignorant of Indians — and that means, 
in a way, ignorant of all humanity. Such a rule would make an enor- 
mous number of vacancies now ; but no harm would be done if they 
were not filled until we could find people who would not rattle around 
in them. 

The second application of common-sense is to remember that educa- 
tion must reckon with the pupil as well as with teacher and public. It 
might be very nice to turn all our own school-children into Websters ; 
but as we know it cannot be done we do not break them down by at- 
tempting it. We try to adapt their education to their capacity and their 
need. If we taught them how to step a scslp-dance and make flint 
arrow-heads, it would be quite as useful to them and quite as creditable 
to our wisdom as two-thirds of what we teach the helpless Indian chil- 
dren in our government factories. It does not make better citizens of 
people to teadi them things they cannot learn or cannot apply. Sensi- 
Dle education strikes a balance between what the ideal man should have 
and the actual man can assimilate. God knows we might every one 
have more learning than we have without its doing us serious harm. 

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Yet we live and move in comfortable society, and get children and love 
them, and lead very decent lives even if we are not experts in herpet- 
ology and integral calcnlns. We would know any man for an off-hand 
fool Who should demand our children at our hands that he might illur 
mine their young lives with a six-years' course in paleontology ; but he 
would be no more serene an idiot than the man who invents most of 
the courses in our Indian schools. In education, whatever is silly is 
wicked ; for it is plajing with human life. Any plain American can see 
how stupid a thing it is to take a nomad Indijm to Carlble and spend 
£ve years of his time (and government money) to teach him to be a 
watch-maker, a type-setter, a sanitary plumber. We have too many al- 
ready. There is none too much room for our own children as it is ; 
why force into the competition a people who do not wish it ? Or, if 
they are not to be pushed into the competition, what is the lofty wisdom 
of educating an Indian boy to tinker watches and make tin roofs and 
set type — and then sending him back to forget his trade in a home where 
they have no more use for these things than a wi^on has for five wheels 
or an ''Indian educator" for scholarship? Bither alternative is as 
stupid as it is cruel. Indians are Indians. You cannot make them 
Negroes or Dutchmen or Yankees. You can make them better Indians. 

No one who has not gone blind and deaf with a theory or a salary 
would question this. 

But the government spends some miUions a year to support in great 
comfort and a certain cheap prominence, a great many people just as 
deaf and blind as that; and incidentally to do a feaiful injustiee to a 
race which has more claim on us than any office holder has. 

The plain, hard sense of it is simply that we should teach the Indian 
what he can learn to his advantage and ours. And by our advantage I 
do not mean the salary some office holder gets, or the convenience to a 
Pennsylvania farmer of having reliable cheap labor at the expense of 
those who were Americans before we were. Both advantaires agree. 
What will make (or keep) the Indian a decent human figure under our 
laws, happy himself, hamiless to his new neighbors, is best for both. 

We cannot teach him to honor his father and his mother — ^for God 
Almighty taught him that without any help from tin-majors. He could 
in fact instruct us ; for no Indian child (unless from a government 
school) was ever disrespectful to his parents. That is cold literal truth ; 
bear it in mind as you watch the average attitude of our own children to 

We cannot teach him to love his children ; for the same God that put 
that flower to bloom in our hearts, put it in the Indian's. There are no 
infanticides, no abortions, no abandoned children and no abused ones, 
among Indians^ Compare that, too, with our cMlized police records. 

We cannot teach him continence ; for while he is human, he is quite 
as chaste as any American socie^ whatever. Nor honesty, until we have 
more of it ourselves. No tribal government was ever so— well, let us 
say "full of politics" — as ours is today. No New Hampshire commu- 
nity is freer from theft than any average Indian camp. 

Strange ? Well, if it is, then it is strange that God is not a fool I Do 
you imagine that the virtues which enable society to cohere are invented 
by Us ? Or did the Creator put the seeds in the human heart ? 

The Indian needs no salary-fattened school of ours to teach him to be 
a human being. Jehovah kindly relieved the Indian Commission of that 
responsibili^. What he does need is enlightenment how to live without 
being crowaed off the earth by the newcomers ; some of whom turn 
loose a Winchester at him, and some the more deadly methods of a cal- 
culating *' philanthropy." 

It is well that he learn to read and write, and get what comprehension 
he can of this nation's laws and genius, and acquire our language — all 
these things being valuable to him chiefly as some protection against 

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being robbed by our raicals. But most of bis education should be in 
better methods of life — ^better, that is, as in contact with us. Since he 
can no longer thrive as a hunter, he is mostly turning to be a farmer : 
and it is wonderful what an aggregate of good, honest farming is being 
done by the Indians of the United States^-generally on the worst lands. 
Well, ne should be taught sensible farming — ^and farming sense has 
grown a good deal, of late. He should be taught fertilizing, and rota- 
Bon of crops, and ffrafting, and grading up his stodc, and all that sort of 
thing. He should not he pauperized with *' rations," nor robbed by 
land in severalty. He should be taught the rudiments of aanitadon — 
like drainage, vaccination and the like (and it is but a little while since 
we didn't know them ourselves). He can learn a little carpentering, a 
little wagon-maldng, a little of many other homely, useful things. 

It would be best of all if he might learn that the New People who are 
so much smarter than he were also as decent ; that only the vilest 
would impose on him and that they should be punished inevitably. 
That no man of us would turn father against son or son against 
mother ; and that we really respect a home. 

The Indian, being taught these useful things we can teach him, 
should not be untaught the things more vital still. He should be al- 
lowed to love his parents and his children still, even if he Aas civilized 
neighbors. He should be allowed to believe that our government is not 
a liar when it makes him a promise, and that we are not all thieves ; 
and that it is not every American who hankers to rob him of his lands 
or his children — both to fatten the pocket. 

I hope I make this matter of interest. A mere affair of decency and 
fair play is apt to be dull reading ; but possibly as we come along to the 
concrete case we may waken the matter from too much sleepiness. 



The West is calling you, my love, today 
What time you sit and brood o'er musty tomes ; 

Strong is its spell upon you. In dismay 
You follow where imagination roams, 

And marvel that you feel such strange unrest — 
It is the necromancy of the West. 

Thought you to find within your stately halls 
The pleasure only my dear land can give ? 

Thought you that gold could stifle memory's calls? 
That you at last could give us up and live ? 

Ah no ! the light that in your study streams 
Serves but to vivify those faded dreams. 

The mountain peaks glow in the sunset light 
Red as the gold that bought your soul one time ; 

The streams are ever limpid, ever bright, 
The air so pure and bracing 'twere a crime 

Not to be living in it. Come and see 
The gladness of it all again — with me. 

Hark to the voices calling you 1 for well 
Know you the region whence this message flies. 

When heavily upon you falls the spell 
Of those old times, and with half-open eyes 

You dream of a lost friendship, may you know 
How true was that one of the long ago. 

I BrMftf , Hj: 

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Pioneers of the Far West. 

• F^om Docwnenis Never Before Published in Engiitk. 

i IMING, as it does, to be not only entertaining 
but of real valne, this magazine of and iot 
tbe West tries to carry a reasonable propor- 
tion of matter which people who care to 
team an3rthing will prke and cannot pro- 
cure elsewhere. In Ais line it is perform- 
iDg a service no other magazine in the conn- 
try (except the specialist ones which pay no 
attention to the popular) thinks of attempting. Aside from 
the interesting and graphic description and illustration of 
Western matters of today, it prints a generous amount (for its 
dze) of matter equally Western but of high scientific value, 
in the form of historic documents othervrise inaccessible to 
most students. As a presentation by text and pictures, of the 
actual features of a wonderful region, the magazine has no 
rival. No other part of the United States has ever been so 
fully pictured forth ; and the bound volumes of the Land of 
Sunshine already form a library of great richness in this re- 
spect. The historical feature is no less important ; no person 
who cares to study Western history can afford to be ^thout 
this collection of rare and valuable ''sources." Among other 
things the magazine has already published (for the first time 
in English) is the first Reglamento^ or code of laws for 
California ; the remarkable summary made by the Viceroy 
Revilla Gigedo of the history of Califomia from 1768 to 1793, 
with particular reference to the early explorations of Uie 
Northwest coast and Alaska ; and some minor documents. 

Carrying out this policy, we begin herewith an expert literal 
translation of the valuable summary of the history of Califor- 
nia, New Mexico and the Southwest in general, from 1538 to 
1626, left us by the Franciscan missionary Pray Ger6nimo de 
Zdrate Salmer6n, never before printed in English. Perhaps 
nowhere else in the same compass is there so concise a review 
of the most romantic period in Western history. 

Pray Ger6niino labored among the Indians of New Mexico for eight 
years, more than 280 years ago. In 161S we find him parish priest of 
the remote pueblo of J6mez, where he learned the language, and trans- 
lated the catechism into this Indian tongue, and there baptized 6566 
Indians, '* without counting those baptized in the pueblos of Cia and 
Santa Ana." He also, single-handed and alone, pacified and converted 
the lofty pueblo of Acoma, then hostile to the Spanish. He built 
churches and monasteries, bore the fearful hardships and dangers of a 
missionary's life then in that wilderness, and has left us a most yalnable 

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ehronide. He was an educated man, of coatae — his Latin qnotations 
are always to the point — a sharp observer and an honest recorder. His 
" Relation " was written in 1626. Its first notes were merely the hear^ 
say of the day ; bnt thenceforward he is one of our most important 
witnesses. He got his information about Vizcaino's discovery of Cali- 
fornia, for instance, directly from a member of that expedition ; and in 
several other matters was either an eyewitness or had access to original 
documents now lost. His narrative was written to urge other mission- 
aries to the field in which he was so devoted a laborer — ''And I, little 
and unworthy of the poorest the world can give, desire to end the days 
of my life among these heathen, preaching the word of God." His 
dedication to the head of his order, pleading for helpers in that 
" vineyard of the Lord," and the indorsement of Fray Francisco de 
Velasco, which precede the ''Noticias,*' need not be printed here, as 
our chief concern is with his history. For like reasons of space the 
annotation is made as brief as possible. But the accuracy of transla- 
tion and notes is vouched for. 


all the things 


as well by sea as by land 


By the Father 


Preacher of the Franciscan Order of the Province of the 

Holy GospeL 



Father of the Province of Cantabria and Commissary General 
of all the provinces of this New Spain. 


1. In the year 1538, Don Antonio de Mendoza being viceroy of this 
New Spain (1), was the first time an attempt was made to discover the 
Califomias and coast of the South Sea (2) ; for the which sailed four 
vessels of the Marques del Valle (3). And the holy Pray Antonio de 
Ciudad-Rodrigo, who was then Provincial of this province of the Holy 
Gospel, sent three priests in those vessels to the discoven^. They ar- 
rived at the Califomias at the entrance, in the port which is now called 

(I) Mexico, (a) Pacific. (3) Cortes. 

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La Paz, in lat. 24°; and as the land did not seem to them as good as they 
desired, they returned. 

2. In the same year the Father Provincial sent two other priests by 
land to the same coast of the South Sea, traveling northward by Jalisco 
and New Galicia. These two priests went in company of a Captain and 
12 soldiers who went in search of mines. Having passed all the terri- 
tory that had been discovered and conquered in that direction, they 
found two roads well opened. The captain chose that to the right and 
followed it, saying it led northward. And with a few days' journey 
they came into regions so rough that he obliged them to turn back, 
which they did. Of the priests one sickened and turned back also ; 
but the other, with two Indian interpreters he carried, followed the 
left-hand road to the coast— a very straight road. He arrived in a land 
populated with Indians who were poor, the which came forth to re- 
ceive the priest, taking him for a thing of heaven. They touched him 
and kissed his robe. The Indians went on, accompanying him, day's 
march by day's march ; more than 300 persons. Some of them went 
aside to hunt jackrabbits, cottontails and deer, which are abundant in 
that land ; and giving first to the priest, that he should eat, tke rest 
they divided among themselves. In this manner he walked more than 
200 leagues ; and in almost all this road he had news of a country very 
populous with people who wore clothes, and who had houses of sods, 
and not of one story only, but of many stories. Other peoples, they 
said, were settled on the bank of a great river, and that there are many 
walled pueblos, and that they have wars, the one with the other ; and 
that across that river there were other pueblos, many and greater, of 
richer people ; that they had cows larger than ours, and other animals 
not seen in Castile. 

3. In quest of this land had already gone out many and bulky fleets 
by sea and armies by land ; but from them all God hid it, and to a poor 
fraile of St. Francis, broken down and penniless, it was made manifest, 
discovered and seen sooner than by them. ** Because thou hast hid 
these things from the wise and prudent and hast revealed them unto 
babes." (Matthew, XI, 25.) There is no more to say. This priest re- 
turned to give the news of what he had seen and learned. As soon as 
this news was made public, many Spaniards wished to enter. The 
Provincial who was then Fray Marcos of Niza (4), to assure himself of 
what that priest had said, took the lead before the Spaniards should 
enter, and went as quickly as he could. He found the priest's narra- 
tive to be true, and thus corroborated it as a man who had seen it and 
found it true. 

4. The Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza in person made ready to 
go on this journey, to avoid the thefts and evil deeds that soldiers com- 
mit on such occasions. But grave duties prevented him, and so he sent 
in his stead Francisco Vazquez Coronado, who took in his suite the 
Father Provincial (5) of this province and four other priests (6), true 
sons of our father St. Francis. 

Journey of Francisco Vazquez Coronado to New Mexico. 

5. Before Francisco Vazquez Coronado should enter New Mexico, 
the Viceroy had sent a fleet to the Californias; its fleet commander 
being Francisco Alarcon and its field commander Marcos Ruiz. The 
which fleet was lost without accomplishing anything. Its people re- 
turned to this new Spain ; and as it had no result I spend no more time 
in treating of this journey. 

6. Francisco Vazquez left this city of Mexico in the year 1540 ; and 

(4) Biisspelled here Denla. (5) Marcos of Nl«a. (6) Frav Juan d« PablUa» the martyr 
of Kansas ; Pray Juan de la Cms, martyred at BemaUilo ; Pray Luis de Eacalooa, 
martyred at Pecos. Pray Antonio Victoria did not make the jonmey, having broken 
his leg near Cullacan. 

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having passed through the provinces of Chametla, Cnlhnacan (7), Sin- 
aloa, they entered by the Valley of Hearts and by the valleys of 
Sonora, which are more than sixty leagues long. He arrived at the 
province of Cufii '8), lodged his camp in the pueblo of Zivola, which 
IS the capital of that province ; and from this place sent 30 soldiers to 
discover the sea and to see if the fleet appeared, according to its in- 
structions to meet the army in so many degrees north latitude. These 
men went traveling northwest, and arrived at the Sea or Gulf of Cali- 
fornia in lat. 39^ They found no trace of the fleet. They only found 
two vessels anchored, and awnings fitted up as tents of some mulatoes 
resembling Moors or Chinamen. Coming to them they asked them by 
signs where they were from and what they sought. They [the mulatoes] , 
likewise by signs, said they came from very far — some understood from 
Gran China, and others understood from Asia Major — and that they 
were buying metals and amber which the Indians of a mountain range 
which joins the sea brought down. The soldiers returned to report to 
Francisco Vazquez Coronado what they had seen ; but they did not find 
him in Cufii, because he had gone to explore the Bufialo plains [llanos 
de ZlvolaJ with its innumerable herds of that name [cibolaj. He 
camped his army in these plains and thence sent (9) 30 soldiers to dis- 
cover the great city of Quivira. They traveled northeast, or even more 
north than northeast. These soldiers say (10) that they arrived at a 
very populous city surrounded by a wall with gates; and they dared 
not enter it they were so few. The great riches of this city I dietre not 
set down here, although they have related it to me (11). What is sure 
is that these soldiers returned desiring that all the army (which was 
400 men) should go thither. They came and reported the aforesaid to 
their general, whom they found crazy (12) from a fall from his horse. 
Others say that it was because he had just been married when he began 
this expedition, and that he loved his wife so much that he was always 
weeping and sighing for her, and though they urgently besought him to 
go to see what they had seen (13) he answered in the words of that other 
invited one of whom St. Luke tells us : *' I have married a wife and 
therefore I cannot come." At last he consoled all by saying that al- 
ready the winter was coming on and he wished to go to Mexico, but 
that next year he would return. He did not return, however. Since 
then, all are of so great desire to make this journey, that if it were pro- 
claimed the soldiers who would go in at their own cost, with arms and 
horse, would be so many that they would suffice, relieving His Majesty 
of these expenses. The important thin^ is a captain such as is fit for 
the like explorations, an unselfish Christian, jealous for the law of 
God and desirous of the advantage of the king. 

7. These 30 soldiers in this journey to the interior, on the road be- 
fore they arrived at the great city of Quivira, were informed by the 
Indians that about ten days' journey from there, on the coast of the 
North Sea (14) some white men were settled; wearing clothes, and 
bearded, and that they had swords, arquebuses and vessels, and 
other as clear signs, showing that tiiese are the Hollanders of New 
Prance. Since then we have seen and communicated with Indians, men 
and women, who have been in the settlement of these Hollanders and 
have been with them. None of the Spaniards of New Mexico has failed 
to see this, because it was in my own time. 

8. And as Francisco Vazquez Coronado returned to this city of 
Mexico, the Father Provincial [Niza] returned with him, and so did two 

(7) Culiacan. (8) Zaili. (9) In Cact led. (10) A grrave error. They say quite the 
reverse. The Quiylraa were savages, (xi) He confounds the mjrths which led to 
Coronado's march with the reports of what the march really discovered. (la) Not 
exactly, (xj) If the fraile's whole '* Reladon " were no more accurate than hisaccount 
of the Coronado expedition, it would not be printed here. For the official accounts see 
Wlaahip and BandeUer. (14) Atlantic. 

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of his companions. There remained behind, among those Indians of 
the Plains of Zf bola the Father Pray Jnan de Padilla and the Father 
Juan de la Cruz, apostolic men ; and a Portuguese called Andres d^ 
Campo, and two Indian laymen [d(mados\. And as Father Padilla 
learned from the Indians (15) of the great settlements that are under 
the North, and that if he would travel three months he would arrive 
where there were innumerable souls; with this inspiration he set out 
to see them, accomi>anied by the Portuguese and the lay Indians The 
Father Juan de la Cruz remained behind alone (16). Having traveled 
some days and come in sight of a great settlement of the Quivira, the 
Indians came out in order of war to meet them. Seeing them come, 
the priest recognized their evil intent, and begged the Portuguese, who 
had a horse, to take to flight ; and likewise the lay Indians that being 
light-footed they should follow [del Campo] ; while he [Padilla] would 
await these ravening wolves, that they might elut themselves on him, 
while the others fl^. So they did ; and stationing themselves on a 
hillock to watch, they saw how the holy man await^ on his knees the 
coming of the Indians. They came; they slew him. The same fate 
befell tiie holy Fray Juan de la Cruz, whom likewise the Indians killed 
there where he had remained (17). The Portuguese and lay [Indians] 
escaped; and having arrived here (18), they told what had hapi>ened. 
And it is worth consideration that there has been no corner discovered 
in this New Spain in which the first Columbus was not a fraile of St. 
Francis. They have ever been first to shed their blood, that with such 
good mortar the edifice should be lasting and eternal. This matter 
rested unspoken for the space of 40 years, till 1581, when God was 
pleased [to make it known] through a lay priest of my Father St. 
Francis, called Fray Agustin Ruiz. He was in the Valley of Santa Bar- 
bara [in Chihuahua], which is 200 leaRues (19J distant from this city of 
Mexico. And being among those COncho Indians, he learned that to 
the north there were great settlements, and asked permission of the pre- 
lates to go among those infidels. They granted it, and gave him two 
priests* from the theological schools, young men of good example, 
named Fray Francisco Lopez (who went as commissary) and Fray Juan 
de Santa Maria. These were soon joined by 12 soldiers and a captain 
(20), who went in search of mines. They left Santa Barbara, journey- 
ing northward 200 leagues, and arrived at the province of the Indians of 
the Tigua Nation (21 ) who are settled on the bank of the Rio del Norte 
(22), 400 leagues from the city of Mexico. Arriving at the pueblo of 
Puaray (23), as it appeared to the soldiers that the Indians were many 
and themselves few, they decided to return, and did so. The priests re- 
mained there among the Indians; and knowing how all that region 
was populous with many tribes, they entered to see all of them. Arriv- 
ing among the Tanos Indians, in the pueblo of Galisteo (24), and see- 
ing their docility, the three priests agreed that one of them should 
come [to Mexico] to inform the prelates what they had seen, in order 
that more priests might come in to work in that vineyard. The Father 
Fray Juan de Santa Maria now offered himself for this journey. He was 
a great astrologer, and tracing out the land he found on his own account 
how they might have journeyed shorter and more directly. So he set 
out behind the range of Puaray (25) to go by way of the salt lakes, and 
from there to cut straight across to El Paso, on the Rio del Norte, 100 
leagues this side of New Mexico [that is, of Santa F^]. But he did not 

(16) AMin very inexact. Pniy PadllU had in fact already accompanied Qotonado 
dear to Qnivira. He now went back. 6ee *' The Spanish Pioneers,** Lnmmia, p. 117, 
for the story of Padilla's martyrdom and del Campo's unprecedented joamcy. 
(16) Pray I^uis de Bscalona remained in Pecos, and was there iflam (17) In BemaliUo, 
N. M. (18) In Mexico, after eiaht years' wandering. (X9) 526 miles. (20) Prandaoo 
Sanchex Chamnscado. He died on the Jonmey. (21) The present imeblo of Isleta, 
N. M. (22) Rio Grande. (28) Across the Rio Grande from Bernalillo ; now obliterated. 
(24) Now a ruin. Santo Domingo is its soocessor. (26) The Sandi a Mountains. 

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succeed in his good intent ; for on the third day after bidding &rewell 
to his brethren and companions, as he came to rest under a tree, the 
Tigua Indians of the pneblo, now called San Pablo (26), killed him and 
bnmed his bones. The other two priests returned to the pueblo of 
Puaray where they had been, pleased with their friendly reception ; and 
there they were with the Indians, learning their language, until the 
demon, our enemy, had his will. One evening, as Fray Francisco 
Lopez was praying, a little more than the range of an arquebnse away 
from the pueblo, an Indian slew him with two blows of a war>club pn 
the temples — as the marks on his skull show. Also, the Indians of that 
pueblo confess it, for to this day there are many Indians who mtnessed 
his death, and they revealed where his body was buried. Father Fray 
Agustln Ruiz laid him in a shroud and buried him in our [FranciscanJ 
fashion inside the village. The captain of the pueblo showed signs of 
sorrow for the death of this priest ; and that the same [fate] might not 
befall the lay priest who remained, he took him with him to the pueblo 
called Santiago, a league and a half up the river. But he coidd not 
keep such careful track of him but what, in a moment when he was 
careless, they did the same to him [the lay priest] and cast his body 
into the river, which was then in freshet. In such manner these Tigua 
Indians slew these three priests ; whence it has been said that in this 
little comer lie five martyrs for the honor and glory of God. And their 
blood hath so fructified the land that through it there have been baptized 
34,650 souls (as I have counted on the baptismal records) not counting 
the many that at present (27) continue to be converted. In the which 
mystery are working, with the greatest spirit, the laborers in the vine- 
yard of the Lord ; who have erected 43 churches in all, lar^ and small, 
at their own cost, without our lord, the king, spending a dime, thus re- 
lieving His Majesty of these expenses. And as ministers continue to 
come in with each expedition [despacho], these conversions are always 
being exended. 

9. The soldiers who returned from that land when these three priests 
remained in the pueblo of Puaray notified the prelates how they had 
remained there and the i>eril that they had remained in. The Viceroy 
desired to make an effort to learn of them ; and Antonio de Bspejo, a 
man very honorable, and devout in our faith, offered himself for this 

10. Antonio de Espejo entered New Mexico in the year )583 (28), in 
the month of July. He took with him a priest named Fray Bernardino 
Beltran, a true son of our Father St. Francis. Before reaching New 
Mexico they learned that the Indians had killed the priests. When An- 
tonio de Bspejo and his soldiers reached the pueblo of Puaray, the In- 
dians out of fear deserted the pueblo ; but they did not escape unpun- 
ished, for they paid well for it. 

11. Of this journey of Antonio de Bspejo, nor of that of Castano 
[de Sosa], nor of the coming in of the Captain Nemorcete [an evident 
error for de Morlete] nor of Humana, I do not write ; because they all 
saw the same thing, and so it is enough to mention them once. The 
body of the holy Fray Juan Lopez was undiscovered for more than 33 
years ; at the end of which [time] an Indian of the pueblo of Puaray, 
an eye-witness of his death and burial, revealed it to the Father Fray 
Bstevan de Pcrea, who was commissary of those provinces and a great 
minister among those natives. The which body (or rather bones; the 
priests, in their robes and on foot, bore with all veneration and respect 
and placed them in the church of Cdndia [Sandia], a good long league 
away. And though this procession was in the month of February, 

(26) San Pedro. The niins nemr the great modem copper camp of this name. 
(27) This was written in 1626. (38) The original says 15^8 ; but the blander is an> 

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which is in the rigor of the winter, the intemi>erate weather 
none of them ; and from the time the procession started, the saint be- 
gan to work miracles. Of the which another priest has written vety 
rally; and for that reason I do no more here than note the fact and pass on. 


12. While the Connt of Monterey was viceroy of this New Spain, 
His Majesty ordered that they should explore [descnbriesen] the Cali- 
fornias, because His Majesty was informed that on that coast there 
were many pearls. This commission came to Sebastian Vizcaino, a per- 
son of standing and experienced by sea and land. He gathered people 
for the trip ; and since the priests of my father St. Francis have been 
the first in labors and new explorations, His Majesty ordered that they 
should go on this one. Wherefore went Pray Francisco de Balda (as 
Commissary), Fray Diego Perdomo, Pray Bernardino de Zamndio, Fny 
Nicolds de Sarabia, priests, and Fray Crist6bal Lopez, lay. 

13. Embarking in Acapulco, they began their voyage along the coast 
of the South Sea, steering the ship to the northwest (since thb was 
the trend of the coast). They arrived at the port of Zalagua, where 
they halted, awaiting the provisions and the soldiers. They Miled from 
here and arrived at the port of St. Sebastian and isles of Mazatlan. 
Here fifty soldiers deserted, seeing the scant provisions they carried, 
and suspecting what [really] happened — that they would have to turn 
back for want of provisions. From here the Commissary Pray Fran- 
cisco Banda went back. Prom here begins the mouth of the [gulf of] 
California, which is 80 leagues wide (29). It took them seven days 
to make this crossing. They went ashore where there were many 
naked Indians, civil folk. They passed forward to ianother port, where 
they staid eight days. A priest and 30 soldiers went inland and arrived 
where there were many Indians, but these consented not that the 
Spaniards should enter their houses. But near these [houses] they 
brought them food — ^varieties of fish, plums and other fruits ; also a few 
pearls. And presently they said to the Spaniards that they must go back 
and could not enter the houses. Even so they did. They [this party] 
affirm that there were many people, and that all sallied to see the 
Spaniards ; that afterward they lost their fear and all came to see the 
Spaniards, little and big bringing rice. They were here 15 days. They 
sailed away to find a more convenient place. The General sent the flag- 
ship ahead to seek a good harbor ; she returned within six days, having 
found a very good harbor, to which they gave the name Port of the 
Peace [La Paz]. There are many afiable Indians, who received the 
Spaniards peacefully. Here the Indians brought a few more pearls, and 
various fruits. Here they entrenched themselves as best they could, 
and built a church and some small ranch houses for the priests and for 
themselves. It was the best and most peaceful harbor they had thus 
far seen ; and therefore they made it their chief port. [Cabeza de loa 

14. The priests asked the Indians to bring their children, so as to 
teach them the Doctrine, the which they did with good will. To these 
[children] the [priests] began to teach the first rudiments ; but being 
there not over two months, could not go beyond this. The Indians had 
conceived a great love for the priests, and brought them presents of 
fruit ; but they fled from the soldiers and could not look upon them, 
because these took from them whatever they were carrying. They 
complained to the priests, and indicated with the finger the one that 
had wronged them, and said to the priests that they alone ought to stay, 
and that Sie soldiers should go away. This is the incurable weakne« 
of soldiers ; and unhappy is the £raile who restrains their vices, for at 

(99) 31 X miles. 

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once their tongnes are poisoned against him. ''The venom of asps is 
under their lips.** (30). Bat I account them very fortunate who, be- 
cause they have reproved vice, hear such epithets. 

15. In this port they found many articles made of iron, left by the 
vessels of the Marques del Valle [Cortez] which I have mentioned 
above. They also found a plaza de armas [public square] laid out ; and 
the Indians said that Spaniards had been there. It is a coast most 
abundant in fish. It rains in October, as in Spain. There are many 
forests, and good timbers for building vessels. 

16. From here Gen. Sebastian Vizcaino despatched the admiral Lope 
de Arguelles with the flag-ship and a launch, up the mouth of the Cali- 
fornia [gulf] to explore the rest. They went in as far as full 30*^ north 
lat., and were always well received by the Indians. The coast is very 
mild ; there are many pearl fisheries ; and in four fathoms deep the 
water is so clear that from above one can see the pearl oysters as 
plainly as if they were on top of the water. The Indians gather an in- 
finity of these oysters to eat ; the which they put in great fire-pits 
[hogueras] to bake. There they open and the pearls are burned— some 
of them are very large. And if the pearl is big they put a hole 
through the middle and hang it on their neck for an ornament. 

17. The Father Fray Bernardino de Zamudio told me how the 
Spaniards took out vety good i>earls until Sebastian Vizcaino ordered 
that they should show all they found, that he might set aside the king's 
share (31) ; and thereupon they would not seek more. I do not treat 
here of the deaths or happenings [of that journey] for brevity's sake, 
since I am not making history. I merely say that to all of them the 
land appeared very good, and if they had not lacked provisions they 
would not have returned, and today that land would he very well set- 
tled up. God knows what was best. 


18. Some vessels coming from China to the Philippines, in north lat. 
42^ saw a point of land which they named Cape Mendocino, in honor 
of the Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza, who had sent them ; and 
they noticed that from there to the point of Navidad all was mainland. 
Arrived in New Spain, they reported this to the Viceroy, who made it a 
point to explore this and the whole coast up to it. He sent out some 
vessels, but they got no farther than the port of Santiago, now called 
Magdalena, in lat. 25''. They returned because it seemed to tiiem impos- 
sible to go farther, since on that coast the northwest winds are con- 
tinuous ; which is a searching wind, diametrically against navigation, 
which must run up the coast northwestwardly. 

19. Eling Phillip Third knew how his father had ordered this explor- 
ation. Likewise His Majesty found some papers and data that certain 
foreigners had given his father, wherein they told him notable things 
which they had seen in that country, having been driven thither by the 
force of the storm which struck them when they were fishing for cod- 
fish off Newfoundland. They had passed [they said] from the North 
Sea to the South Sea [from the Atlantic to the Pacific], through the 
Straits of Anian (32) — or at least, if the exit is not the Straits of Anian, 
then some strait which opens the other side of Cape Mendocino in lat. 
43° ; in which strait they had seen a most populous city, rich, well girt 
with walls, and of a people polite, courtly and well mannered ; besides 
other things worthy to be seen. 

(30) Here, m often, Prmy Gerdnimo quotes lAtfai. (31) The **qtiintot del rcy." or 
ODC-filUi. (3a) This mythical Strait of Anian was one otthe stnbbomest geographical 
superstitions about America— the Northwest Passage brave Sir John FranlElin neiished 
in search of as latdy as 1847. Anian is pretty weU disposed of bv the shrewd ^ceioy 
of Mexico, ReyUla Oigedo, in 1793, in his important report published in this magaaine 
June to September, 1899. 

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20. Hit Majesty ordered that this exploration should be mrndt^ not 
stickling at cost, for it was his will. The Count of Monterey [Viceroy 
of Mexico], desiring to fulfill with all punctuality what His Majesty so 
ardently ordered, named for general of this expedition Sebastian Viz- 
caino ; for admiral, Torf bio Gomez de Corban ; and not wishing to give 
them frailes from this province, took three Uuefoot [DescalsosJ monks 
of Our Lady of Carmen, named Fray Andr^ de la Asuncion, Pray An- 
tonio de la Ascension, and Fray Tom^ de Aquino. The oosmographer, 
to map the country, was GerOnimo Martin. They dei>arted from [the 
City of] Mexico March 7, 1607 ; on the 5th of May they sailed from 
Acapulco—three vessels and a long barge to enter the coves ; and sev- 
eral made for sailing— and took &eir route northwest. It has already 
been said how the winds are contrary for this navigation. For which 
reason, from leaving the port of Acapulco till they arrived at Cape San 
Sebastian, which is north of Cape Mendocino, their voyage lasted 
seven months of continuous navigation. They reached the port of 
Navidad, and Cape Corrientes, and the islands of Mazatlan (these are two 
fair-sized islands, and close together ; between them and the mainland 
it makes a good harbor, into which empties the swollen river which 
comes from New Galicia). This is where the Bnglishman Thomas 
Cady careened and repaired his ship while he waited for our vessels to 
arrive from China that he might rob them. The mainland of this 
island is Caponeta and Chametla. Prom here begins the mouth of the 
California [golf] by the coast and mainland of this New Spain. 34 
leagues from these islands, in the direction of Sinaloa, the Rio de To- 
luca (here called Rio de Nai^ito) enters the sea. They went from here, 
crossing an arm of the sea between said islands and Cape St. Lucas, 
which IS the junction and mainland of California. The crossing [of 
the gulf] is here sixty leagues. Close to Cape St. Lucas i^the port of 
San Bernab^, where there were great numbers of naked Indians, with 
bows and arrows. These are the usual weapons of all the country, and 
this is enough to say about it for the whole voyage. These [Indians] 
called the Spaniards to come on land. They leaped out ; and when the 
Indians saw so many Spaniards they retired to a hillock ; and as the 
Spaniards kept approaching the Indians kept withdrawing. Father 
Fray Antonio de la Ascencion went to them, and they waited for him. 
He embraced them with much love, and directly they put their bows 
and arrows on the ground. The said Father called a Negro to bring a 
pannier of biscuits to give them. The Indians were pleased at seeing 
the Negro, and said that near by was an island of Negros, who were 
their friends. On this shore was great quantity of pearl oysters. Here 
they caught great quantity of fish, such at ruffles, led-snapper, halibut, 
catfish, topes, sharks, skates, rays, chuchos^ lisas^ salmon, horse-mack- 
erel, snorers, bonito, mutton-fish, hog-fish, sole, plum-fish, eels and 
other varieties whose names they did not know. On all this coast there 
is great quantity of sardines. It is a land healthful, good and fertile, 
of mild climate. There is much huntin^i of the chase and fowling ; 
many groves and fruit-bearing trees. The Indians bring for sale many 
animal skins, tanned on the flesh side — of the lion [puma], tiger 
[jaguar], wolf and coyote ; and many small nets of cotton, curiously 

21. The captain's ship left this stopping-place and reached the port 
of Magdalena ; and until it reached the island of Cedro[s] the other 
vessels were not seen. On this voyage they encountered great tempest ; 
each day they saw themselves lost. I relate here only the things they 
saw, for brevity's sake. This port of Magdalena is very great, a most 
handsome bay, prettily sheltered. This bay has two entrances ; an arm 
of the sea runs inland, it is not known how far. It is thickly populated 
with Indians. 

22. This is the place where the Bnglishman who robbed the ship 

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Santa Ana, thrust ashore the people who had come in the ship ; and 
having plundered her he set her afire. They left here and examined a 
bay into which a river discharges ; they named it Cove of San Crist6- 
bal. They arrived at the bay of Ballenas [whale bay], so called from 
the great number of whales there. There was a great number of In- 
dians, who said that inland they were more numerous yet. They 
reached the isles of San Roque, and soon the isles of Asuncion, Esterio 
and Mala. There were great numbers of sea>lions as large as yearling 
calves. There is a vast amount of fish. They went out in quest of 
Cedros Island, and reached a high mountain against which the sea 
beats ; it is wholly naked, without any sort of grass or trees ; all of it 
marbled in belts of various colors, so pretty and sightly that it caught 
the eyes of all, since they saw the veins even from afar. Some miners 
who were along said that it was g^reat riches of silver and gold, and 
tried to get ashore ; but the coast was so wild and the waves beat with 
such great force that it gave them no chance. They reached the island 
of Cedros, entering between the mainland and the island of Navidad. 
The captain's ship and frigate, before reaching the island of Cedros, 
anchored in the port of San Bartolom^, which is barren and without 
water. They found on the beach only a bitumen which smelled of 
shell-fish ; and because it had not a good odor they did not burden 
themselves with it. Some affirmed that it was ambergris; and so 
much was there of this sort that they could have loaded a vessel vety 
well, for all the beach was full of this bitumen. And no one [need] 
marvel at this, because the whales that are there are in great number ; 
and the surge of the sea flings this ambergris on the beadh. There was, 
besides, a vast amount of stranded fish ; for, fleeing from their enemy, 
the big fish, they come so close to land (where the other, being big, 
cannot come) that the waves of the sea easily cast them ashore. For 
this reason, there are on this coast innumerable birds which smell 
fishy. They explored this land ; and as they did not find water they 
left just as quickly as they could. They reached Cedros Island, near 
whidi is a point called Cape St. Augustine. The frigate went to sail 
around Cedros Island, and found it was 30 leagues in circumference ; 
with very great forests on the crown of the highest hills ; all the trees 
were the most lofty cedars. There are many Indians, but thejr wished 
no fiiendship with the Spaniards, but sooner threatened them with their 
arrows. The frigate went to reconnoiter the cove, and it was seen that 
an arm of the sea ran inland. They did not see the end of it, for it 
entered very far inland, toward the east. They went in search of the 
Isle of Cenizas [ashes]. Steering to the northwest, which is toward the 
main coast, they came to land, and it was good, sightly, cheerful and 
well wooded. They saw the bay of San Hip61ito ; good, peaceful and 
fertile. They found a wide and much traveled road which led inland, 
and a very large Canada (33) covered with palm leaves. More than 50 
persons could get inside. At four leagues to the northwest is the cove 
of San Cosme ; a good harbor sheltered from the northwest wind. Near 
the beach on the mainland is a big lagoon of fresh water. The land is 
ffood and fertile, well wooded and verv populous. They reached the 
root of a great range, high, black ana precipitous at the sea, called 
Sierra of St. Ciprian. Joined to these ranges on the leeward side (which 
is the southwest) are some white blufib, and on them much people. 
Soon comes the island of San Ger6nimo. They reached the bay of San 
Francisco (34), where were many Indians, aflable and peaceful. Here 
they found the horns of bufialoes (35) and elk. The land, extremely 
good, and wooded, showed signs that there were abundant herds by the 

(33) Pr. Zarate mast have mistaken his Informant's word. Cafiada Is a valley. Per- 
haps he means ramada — the characteristic brush house of California Indians. 
^) Lower California. (35) A. mistake, of course. There were no Imffaloes in Cali- 

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dunff and tracks that were aeen. North of this ia « cove into which the 
floodtide enters with great fnry ; and when it ebbs it is neither more nor 
less. In this port, and in that of San Ger6nimo, were great nnmbers of 
soles and divers other fishes. The frisate entered this cove and fonnd a 
famous port. Thej went ashore ; and great nnmbers of Indians were 
fishing from canoes made of rushes. S>on as they saw the Spaniards 
they came with gladness, and gave tJiem of the fish they had with great 
love and good will, and directly told them where there was eood nresh 
water. These people showed particular love to the Spaniard, and did 
not go to their ranches without bidding them farewell and begging 
leave to go and rest. And from the interior came many Indians to see the 
Spaniards. The women were modest and dressed in the skins of animals. 

These Indians have a trade in fish with the Indians of the interior. 
They carry fish and bring back mescalli, which is a preserve of the root 
of the Maguey. These [Indians] said how, in the interior, there were 
many white folks, bearded and clothed ; that they had arquebuses, and 
that they were not more than six days' journey distant. They cannot be 
the soldiers of New Mexico ; for according to the demarcation of the 
land, by the variation of the meridians and climes of the maps (as the 
cosmographer reckoned it) from here to the camp of the Spaniards of 
New Mexico is 200 leagues (36). Father Fray Antonio de la Ascension 
says they are Muscovites [Russians]. Departing from here, they soon 
arrived at the island of San Hildrio. There is a big bay which gives 
shelter from the northwest wind. There were many Indians, and vety 
impudent. From here they went, sailing against the vdnd and cur- 
rents. They reached a great bay walled by high ranges ; and through 
a break entered an arm of the sea. Near here are two islands, towu^ 
the west, called All-Saints. Six leag^ues north are four islands called 
the Coronados. North of these islands, on the mainland, is the port of 
San Diego. It has a hill which wards off the northwest wind. It has 
many scrub-oaks, reeds, furze, and rosemary, and many odoriferous 
herbs. The harbor is most beautiful, and large, and shelters at all 
seasons. On the other side, to the northwest, is another port (37). On 
this beach they dug some wells in the sand ; and when the tide was up 
the wells had fresh water in them ; and when the tide was out, salt 
water. Many Indians came to see the Spaniards, painted blue and silver 
color. Being asked what this was, they showed some ores from which 
they made their paint, and said that some white and bearded men who 
lived near there were working that metsl. Coming to a Spaniard who 
wore a leather jacket with some fancy trimminn, they said those white 
men also had leather jackets of the same sort. This port is fertile, with 
much pasturage, good lands, much hunting of birds and beasts, good 
climate, good sky and soil. 

They reached a bay, a ^ood arrangement of the land twelve leagues 
north, away from the mainland. It is called Isle of Santa Catarina (38) 
[St Catherine] ; and before reaching it they espied another greater one, 
southwest of this of Santa Catarina. The inhabitants of the island 
made great rejoicings over the arrival of the Spaniards. They are fisher- 
men, using boats of boards ; the prows and poops high, and the middle 
very low. Some will hold more than twenty persons. There are many 
sea-lions, the which these Indians hunt for food ; and with the tanned 
skins they all cover themselves, men and women, and it is their usual 
protection. The women are very handsome and decent. The children 
are white and ruddy and very smiling. Of these Indians, many wished 
to come with the Spaniards ; they are so loving as all this. From here 
follows a line of islands, straight and orderly, at four to six leagues 
from one to another. The length of all these islands is 100 leagues. 
All have communication with one another and also with the mainland. 


(86) Neailydonblt that, in fact (87) False Bay. (88) Now Santa Catalina. 

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To a list which already included nearly every other prominent writer 
upon the West, this magazine is now proud to add the name of Dr. 
Elliott Cones as a member of its regular staff. Dr. Cones is eminent 
in ornithology, lexicography (he is one of the authors of the Century Die- 
iionary) ana Western history. Perhaps his most important work is in 
the latter line. A deep scholar, a trenchant writer, never without a 
quick and willful humor. Dr. Cones is always worth reading, and always 
most readable. 

Benj. Ide Wheeler has entered upon his duties as president of the 
the University of California ; and next month this magazine new 

will print a forecast, specially written by him for these pages, dispensation. 

of what he hopes to do there, along wiUi a compact sketch of what the 
UniversitT has already done and what it now is. 

It would be absurd to blink the fact that Prest Wheeler has taken a 
large contract at Berkeley. Wa are something provincial still, being 
congested with them that are not ytt over surprise at the size of the map. 
There is always opposition to the leader of men — if his mind were just 
like the average mind, he would not be a leader. Further, the State 
University is a State University ; therefore not so far from politics as is 
the mercy of God. And the tin-hom statesmen wore out the only presi- 
dent Berkeley ever had who was at all comparable to Dr. Wheeler— drove 
him to the retirement of Johns Hopkins. But there is a peculiar set to 
President Wheeler's jaw. He does not look as though peanut politi- 
cians could tire him out — and if he won't let them, he wul do a service 
to the best things a man can revere. He is one to win the devoted 
loyalty of the student body ; he has the universal respect of scholars ; 
he can have and will havetne love and godspeed of all true Californians. 
With that sort of backing, he can afford to do whatever he deems right. 
And with Wheeler at Berkeley and Jordan at Stanford, California is 
"better fixed" than any other State in the Union, and prophecy will 
begin to become true. 

It will not do to laugh at Catholics for deeming the Pope in- who 
fallible and then turn round and think our politicians so. It i8 your 

is a very simple dnij of manhood (and we beheve Americanism pope r 

stands for manhood) to judge rignt as right and wrong as wrong ; and 
to hold every man accountable to that unvarying standara. Whether he 
be our man or our adversary, potentate or pauper. 

And now it is vdnter vdth us of California — an early winter and what 
with every promise to be " severe." The first rains fell bravely winter 

Oct. 11. In precisely four days the broad bosom of Mother means 

Earth was cracked with infinite wee upheavals. Another day, and there 
was at each crowsfoot a hint of g^reen. A week more, and these innu- 
merable growing things were an inch high, and the landscape began to 
show pat^es of emendd. In a few weeks now our world will be green 
with lush i^nts, hurrying to their time of blossom — the months when 
they winter-carpet God's country with such broideries of color as no 
Bastem State ever remotely dreamed of— wild flowers by the hundred 

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leagues, and ao thick a child's foot conld scarce be set down withont 
trampling flowers. 

The sky is made oyer new, the air whips the cheeks like a spray of 
alcohol, the snowy mountains dimb high on the northern sky, imminent 
above our flowery orange-groves and roses. And so it will go throngh 
the enchanted months that Califomians call Winter — a day or night or 
two days and nights of swift, wet rain — then a week or two weeks of 
glory — say a little more perfect April days than any one April day New 
England ever saw — more rain, more shine, more snowy cumuli and 
snowy peaks — and forever and ever roses and open windows and bare- 
foot babes and a new joy in life. That is Winter in our book. And 
yet the grace of God includes about sixty-five million Americans who do 
not even know what " good weather ** means ! 

LEARNiNQ It is a very wicked thine, in some judgments, to be a college 

AS A president. It is noticeable, of course, that this enmity toward 

RED RAQ. learning comes mostly from those who have none to speak of. 
A college president, indeed, is only human. Hia training may tend to 
narrow him as an outdoor man — though Eliot of Harvard was an athlete 
of the highest rank, and Jordan of Stanford can play football and climb 
the Jungfrau and be a man amon^ men anywhere. Nowadays, too, a 
college president is no longer a desiccated bookworm. He is not only 
a scholar — ^he has to be, and is, a man of aflairs. Even a |20-a-week re- 
porter need not too disdainfully look down on a scholar who successfully 
manages ten to twenty millions. College presidents are not altogether 
fools. And Americans who can aflbrd it generally send their sons to 
college, where they are in danger to become wiser than the rabble. No 

food American scorns a man for his misfortunes, unless they are willful ; 
ut everv good American grows weary of the ignorance which looks 
upon all learning as an enemy. 

KEPT Whether the Administration's Philippine policy is moi:ali7 

FROM THE right or wrong — and there are several million people on each 

PEOPLE. side of a disagreement about this point, and only one side can 
be right — none but those who forget what little they once knew of 
United States History can deceive even themselves into thinking it is 
American. It is American to obey the Constitution. Congress is the 
only power that can legally launch this nation upon any war, or main- 
tain it in anv war. Now is the first time in our history that a President 
has declared war on his own hook, and kept it going by his lone self. 
The excuse that it '' beean " by itself and he had to keep it going indi- 
cates that the sober bulk of the people must be taken by the politicians 
for very simple folk. '* What else could he do ?" cry the organs. Do? 
He could have called a special session of Congress to do its duty as to 
war, as easily as he calls one to arbitrate pewter dollars. But he has 
taken very good care not to— evidently suspicious that Con^ss might 
" meddle." All these bitter months he has kept the war to himself ; re- 
fusing to submit to the people the most momentous question that ever 
came before them. And as Congress is not wholly without politicians, 
and politicians are always afraid of big questions — ^lest thev fall on the 
unpopular side, after all — Congress has not demanded its rignt and duty. 
All this was not constitutional, nor is it safe, even with so good a man as 
President McElinley. Wiser and larger men (and it is not sedition to 
rank Washington and the other Pamers of the Republic as larger and 
wiser than any recent President) designed Congress expressly as a check 
on the one-man power. The count^ did not dare to put in George 
Washington's hands — nor has any President before now attempted to 
wield — any such authority as President McKinley has taken and is 
using. Not one of them could afford the luxury of a personal war. If 
the hand of God had pushed any of our former great Presidents into 
any kind of a war, hia first act would have been to convene Congresa. 

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What was power enough to give Washington and Lincoln is power 
enough to give McKinley. And God pity the kind of Americans who 
don't care whether a policy is constitutional or not 1 

When one looks abroad in society, literature and politics, the our 
easiest thing to be seen is how many kinds of cowards civiliza- timid 

tion makes us. We label it with all sorts of pretty labels ; but traininq. 

when a man— ditch-dijgger or senator or president — fails to do what he 
knows he ou^ht, he is simply a coward. And how many of us eyer 
pass a day without doing what we would not, because some one will 
say something if we don't? 

Ever since modem history besan, England has been butcher- money- 
ing little peoples and putting tiieir lands in her pocket. She qrubbers 

never takes anyone her own size. In 200 years she has not and men. 

fought a just war on her own hook — and she does not mean to begin. 
The Califomia Lion is no tail-twister. He reveres England for what she 
does well ; and of her litter are some of his dearest friends. But history 
is history. The war on the Boers is of a piece with England's past— the 
little republic is to be slaughtered to fatten British pockets. The Uit- 
landers are only an excuse. If Britons and Ammcans don't like 
Kruger's republic, what's to hinder their coming home ? They can have 
** lil^rty " here. They have gone into another man's house to make 
money. Because thev cannot run the house, they wish to kill their 
host That's the plam English of it. Of course our newspapers (not 
one of which, in all this country, has a correspondent in the war) find 
it easier to swallow British promoter's news tnan to think. Prest. Kru- 
ger was ''very insolent " not to let England get all her troops on the 
ground. His message was simply : " You act warlike. Will yon ex- 
plain yourself at once ? If not I shall take it for ^pitnted yon mean 
war." And that's what any brave man would do m his own affair. 
England is fighting for gain. The Boers are fighting for their homes 
and their fre^om. No sophistry can change those twin facts — nor does 
it change the morals of uie case if the Boers are impolite and rude. 
This Lion hopes they will make many a Majuba Hill. It might even be, 
in the grace of heaven, that as one of England's own colonies once 
fought too bravely to allow profitable conquest (and We ought to remem- 
ber that fact), history shall again repeat itself. 

One thing every man with a man's blood must glory in — and that is the 
little Orange Free State. When other lands are drunken money-setters, 
this chivalrous little republic keeps its word and its honor by jommg the 
Boers in a hopeless struggle. May God be ^ood to men like that ! And 
would that He lent us some of their spirit. Every American who 
knows the history of his own land will wish well to the two little South 
African republics which are today where we were in 1776. 

The Club has spent, this summer, something over |200 in the 
initial repairs at San Diego Mission. Most of this work has landmarks 

been done in underpinning threatened walls ; and the money club. 

has done full work, thanks to Mr. W. S. Hebbard, architect in charge. 
But this is only a small part of what must be done there ; and the club 
appeals to its members to pay up this year's dues, as not more than a 
quarter of them have done. The club lus just sent another $100 from its 
lean treasury, and expects the San Diego people to match it, as they did 
before. There is crying need, however, for more funds. If the members 
will all pay up their dues, it will enable a ^eat deal of work to be done. 

We have previously acknowledged contributions amounting to $3715.- 
96 ; new contributions are : G. H. Buek, TrulA, New York city, $5 ; 
Geo. Parker Winship, John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. I., $2 ; 
Adam Dove, Los Angeles, $2. $1 each, Frederick Webb Hodge, Bureau 
of Ethnology, Waslmigton, D. C. ; Miss A. M. Elallock, San Jos6, Cal. ; 

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Mn. J. M. C. Marble, Elizabeth Marble, C. B. T. Oay, hoe Angeles; 
Arthar McDonald Dole, Pomona, CaL 

COMINO With all allowance for the yellowness of onr newspapers, it 

DOWN has at last become clear that Gen. E. S. Otis is the wrong man 

TO FACTS. in the wrong place. Dewey's officially judicious words are in 
themselves a severe mticism ; and criticism is universal. Generals were 
blackguarded in our Big War, it is true ; but that does not make out 
that every general is right because criticised. Gen. Otis has not even 
the respect of his men — ^ask the returned volunteers. He is upheld by 
the administration—which is right if he is right. But the administra^ 
tion also upheld Alger. It has come to be past serious question that 
the PiUpino outbrec^ was caused by bad management ; that it would 
not have occurred if Dewey or I^awton had been Governor-General ; 
that it could be stopped now in two days. And these things are going 
to be reckoned with. 

The papers and people who pack their minds away with camphOT- 
balls in the Administration closet are assuring us that *' only a few Fili- 
pinos of one tribe" object to being benevolently assimilated by us. 
Evidently. That's the reason we are sending 70,000 American soldiers 
and 40 American war-ships to the Philippines. It is just a street row, 
for the police to put down. 

One can imagine the feverish administration pressure put on Dewey to 
get him to keep from saying anvthing anti-Imperial. But it will take 
a good deal more than we have had yet to make anyone believe Dewey 
in sympathy with the present policy. And if he be, it is not the last 
word. Even Dewey is not so big as Truth and Justice. Even the Ad- 
miral can be mistaken. 

There is needless concern, among the mteful feeders at the federal 
board, over the "cruel indecency " of calling for Dewey for preddent. 
We expect lofty consideration from the machine. A nomination to the 
presidency is a deadly insult, of course, and our dear Dewey should not 
be insulted. Besides, he might not be kind to the Push. 

A proud and grateful country has done full honor to George Dewey 
without a dissenting voice. Up to date he has made a clean record. He 
has done his duty magnificently and stopped there. There is none of 
the ear-to-the-ground business about Dewey. The nation welcomes the 
man as it will never welcome a politician. 

As Ez-Gov. Boutwell truly says, a more distinguished list of names is 
already written to the anti-Imperial protest than has been brought to- 
gether in America since the Declaration of Independence. It is daily 
growing harder, even for amaranth newspapers, to call *' traitors ** prac- 
tically all the ablest men in the United States. 

There was a notion once, on ancient hearsay, that the Almighty is 
without variableness or shadow of turning. But as we are now assured, 
on the highest (vicarious) authority, that the Administration is a mere 
instrument of the divine will, it becomes evident that God changes His 
mind a good many times in a year. 

The administration newspapers are evidentlv getting; anxious. They 
have found out that it is treason to question the President. Then they 
are all traitors — ^for it is not four years since these same papers were 
blackg^uarding a President. 

If it is wicked to disagree with the President, our servant, then we 
can never change him. The election of Lincoln, therefore, was 
'* treason." So, for that matter, was the election of McKinley. 

Chas. p. Ldmmis. 

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The disappointed scribbler always 
knows* why lie is crushed. Not because of 
bla'^coogenltal flattiess, his illiteracy, his itnpu- 
fV*^r ' ' ^^ deuce — not at all! It is simply because editoj^ asd pub- , 
•^J"^ Ifsher'^ .'.re ■=!'"rR! i of real merit^ and mere toadies to sue- ' 

cess. So afraid that they would rather give Eipliog )]000 for two or 
three pages of his trash than to Jones the |50 for which Jones would be 
hysterically glad to sell ''something Kipling never could write." 
These cringing conspirators care nothing for money, so long as bv 
squandering it they can oppress struggling genius. They spend their 
days and nights hating everyone that is Unknown. Of course Kiplins 
and all the other trashy favorites were Ejiown when they began. If 
anyone now successful was once obscure, it's all Luck. Not at all be- 
cause he could write. 

No two consecutive mails come even to this little magazine without 
some letter wailing on this string— but mttefully sure that this editor 
does not belong to the combine which is trying to stifle talent. And 
even some truly clever people (who may write very well but lack the 
human touch ; or who are very vital but have no technique) salve their 
wounds with this silly and mean apologv. I was simply dumbfounded, 
not long ago, by an editorial lament of the same brand from the brilliant 
Argonaut — which is certainly no squelched genius. 

Now there is nothing known to man more false or more foolish than 
this whole idea ; and few things so vain and cowardly. Instead of be- 
ing hard, literature is nowadays laughably easy. Time was when pub- 
lishers were few aud the market small, and some flowers of genius went 
begging— though it is to be noticed that we have them all. Within a 
few years we have gone book-drunk. Every printer is a publisher ; 
everyone reads. The result is a competition so hot that we are ava- 
lanched with literature — such as it is — and that nearly "everything 
goes." Not only is it a sheer impossibility for merit to go unrecognized 
— it can hardly find an asylum from which it will not be dragged into 
print. And anything which cannot find a glad publisher now is bad in- 
deed. Every publisher is fairly dragging the ponds for new writers. 
Many — most — famous authors are pot boiling on the fire of their reputa- 
tion. The editor knows that almost as well as you do. He is also 
aware of your roar. It is visible to him that he can get a dozen articles 
from a novice for what he has to pay the celebrity for one ; and he is 
looking for the novices, hard. All he asks of them la work good enough 
for a very much cheapened market. 

So when he declines to discover me, who am more than willing for a 
Columbus, the wisest thing I can do is to conclude that the ''literary 
club" and church social (which adore me) are about my size. The 
man who has succeeded msLj be an ass in some ways ; but I needn't be a 
t>tgger in all ways — ^as I am if X blame him for being unable to forget my 

A neat, well made, well bound edition, two volumes in one, a novel 
and at the very modest price of one dollar, must largely widen 
the popularitv of F. Marion Crawford's 7^ Ralstons, This 
powerful and stirring novel of New York high-life has a vitality 



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which should keep it in circnlatioti for a long time. The fine old mnlti- 
millionaire " Uncle Robert ; ** his iron nephew ** Alexander," who be- 
gins to disintegrate under vast temptations ; '* Katherine " the unspoiled 
and unsubmissive beauty — these and a dozen other characters are strongly 
and dramatically drawn ; and incident is as unflagging as the most exi- 
gent could wish. It is a book no one Ia3r8 down without regret ; a novel 
of the large order. The Macmillan Co. , 66 Fifth ave., New York. |1 . 

'' AND A most useful and authoritatiye little book is J. M. Buckley's 

OTHER Chrisiian Science and Other Superstitions. And withal most 

SUPCRrrrrioNS.'' interesting. Dispassionately and logically, Dr. Buckley re- 
views these strange fanaticisms, which are fully entitled to so mild a 
name as '' Superstitions,'* although some very respectable and otherwise 
sane people accept them. That the world was believed, by its ablest 
minds, not many centuries ago, to be flat, does not demand that we re- 
spect the like ignorance now. Dr. Buckley's papers are not only ex- 
cellent reading ; they should be of real service. The Century Co., New 
York. 50 cents. 

A piRATt A bom story-teller, fitted out with a vast fund of personal ex- 

IN periences as a sailor and a still vaster fund of sailor hearsay, 

OLOVER. Herbert Elliott Hamblen came in one step from the obscurity 

of a mechanic to a popular success as a writer. His C>» Many Seas 
made a distinct sensation. Here was a new man with something to tell, 
and a shoulder-hitting directness in his telling. And as everyone likes 
a good story, his market was made. 

He has followed up this success with several other books in ouick suc- 
cession, and none of them fall short in vivid interest. 77ie ram of a 
Bucko MatCy his latest, comes nearer being a novel of adventure ; for it 
shows not only his graphic power but construction of no mean order. 
The picture of the brutalities of the old packet-ships, while of course 
exaggerated in its proportions, has a ghastly fascination ; and the logical 
blossoming of the brute '* Bucko Mate " of the '* Osceola " into a par- 
ticularly^ tMise, mean and murderous pirate, develops the plot still more 
interestingly. Cocos Island and its *' treasure " is the pivot of the plot ; 
and is handled with a calmness worthy of Rider Haggard. Begging 
pardon of Mr. Hamblen's footnote, it is not "a histoncal fact" that 
thirty millions or any other treasure was buried on Cocos. It is one of 
the common sea-myths, no more ; but it has cost a good many credulous 
lives and a great deal of money, and is still being sought by the class of 
people preordained to swindle themselves. 

The whole book is a breathlessly *'good story," so far as its running 
quality is concerned. But as to its taste there may be some question. I 
cannot remember that its publishers have ever before published a book 
of this class. It is the very sort of book to fascinate a boy ; and to do 
no boy any serious good. The " hero " is so cowardly and lustful a mur- 
derer as was never rivaled even in the mucky pages of W. H. Thomes. 
Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York. $1 .50. 

MORE The old butterfly hunter, his sound, likable niece, and her 

ARTHUR two human children — these start off* very pleasantly Arthur 

MORRISON Morrison's To London Town, Nor are our expectations dis- 
appointed, for the man who has written so well of The Child of the 
Jago and the Tales of Mean Streets^ gives us here again the work we ex- 
pect of him. The fortunes of the little family, transplanted after 
** Grandad's " tragic end, to the metropolis ; the brave battle of "Nan," 
and the brave development of her boy; the cadging ** Uncle Isaac " 
and the brute *' Butson " — these, and more become real enough to 
warm us. It is a comfortable and an interesting book. H. S. Stone & 
Co., Chicago and New York. $1 .50. 

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Baja California Ilustrado is third in the series of "write- ABOUT 
ups" of the northern States of Mexico by J. R. Sonthworth, lower 

who had already given us Sonora and Sinaloa. The present California. 

volume is an advance on its predecessors typographically, while of the 
same general character of text. The half-tone illustrations are numer- 
ous and very good, and much commercial and other information is 
given concerning the Peninsula of Lower California. Cloth, $2.50, 
paper, $1.50. J. R. Southworth, 23 First street, San Francisco. 

The boarding-house world of the South End of Boston is boston 
Walter Leon Sawyer's setting for a rather shrewd if somewhat rooms 

uneven novel, A Local Habitation, The story is simple and to let. 

straightforward, the picture of life cleaily enough drawn, and some of 
the characters are distinct. The strongest phase of the story is an in- 
sight — neither content nor contemptuous — into the real humanity even 
of people who live in cheap boarding-houses; and the most original 
feature is the delineation of the cad ** Carter,** a would-be author, who 
goes to pieces by despising his ** inferiors.** The publishers, Small, 
Maynard& Co., Boston, have a reputation for handsome workmanship, 
and this volume is particularly attractive. $1.25. 

Evidently Frank Norris has come to stay, and bringing his another 
welcome with bim. It is but a few months since we revit;wed success 

his remarkable novel McTeague (now gone into its fourth by norris. 

edition) ; and already comes a new San Francisco storv from his pen, 
with the mystifying title Blix, It is almost the swing of the pendulum 
from McTeague ; not so powerful, certainly, as that gha«>tly study in 
sodden brutality, but far more comfortable reading. Indeed the grisly 
note is avoided altoeether ; and Blix is a direct, simple, yet ingenious 
and loveable love-story, with little more than the two central characters. 
Mr. Norris's descriptions are unusually good, and not too much dwelt 
upon ; his character drawing is literally excellent. We have a right to 
hope large things of a young man who already shows up so handsomely. 
Sent on approval. The Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. $1 25. 

Her first book proved the young woman who calls herself "zack»8'» 
**Zack** an artist of uncommon power; and her new novel powerful 

On Trial is in itself enough to make a reputation. It is stories. 

'* realistic,** of course; with a heorine who steals for her lover, and a 
lover no self-respecting flea would abide upon, so irredeemable a cur is 
he; and a peculiarly congealed villain, and various other characters to 
whom English rural districts are highly welcome — if so be they there 
inhabit, as *' Zack '* gives us to understand. Doubtless no one is blama- 
ble for being a '* realist** who thinks she knows that kind of people. 
Personally it is more gratifying to recognize the fact that every human 
life has some humanity in it ; and that no one ever lived on a dissecting- 
table. But no one can refuse the skill of '*Zack*s** scalpel, and the 
book is haunting in its grip. Chas. Scribner*s Sons, New York. $1.50. 

The first authorized American edition of George Moore*s worse 
Esther Waters^ which has made so much noise, has been and 

somewhat added to since its English birth. It is a strong story moore of it. 

of the servant girl world ; not notably squeamish nor in anyway up- 
lifting — as ** realism ** evidently never intends to be. This reviewer 
would be last to despise the humble ; but for that very reason he 
fancies that an unsnobbish attitude of mind would make even servants 
more interesting. Perhaps that is what ails the mudpuddle artists any- 
how — they lack the wherewithal to imagine that every human being has 
some spark of humanity. If Mr. Moore will extend his horizon of 
English scullery-maids he can doubtless find some who escape the lying- 
in hospital — and they would be as well worth writing about. There seems 

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to be a notion in that certain school of "literature" that nothing is 
"powerful " except mire. Which shows how hopelessly God falls be- 
hind the " realists/' for He made a good deal more sky than mud. 
Nevertheless, Mr. Moore is very clever with mud. H. S. Stone & Co., 
Chicago. $1.50. 

SOME Bliss Perry, editor of the Atlantic Monthly ^ is also editinjg a 

"little very competent series, in attractive duodecimos, of LtttU 

MASTERPIECES " Mosterpieces. There is already one dainty booklet of judicious 
selections from Charles Lamb {Essays and Letters) ; and one from 
Th(ukerays Book of Snobs and so on ; and one from, the cream of De 
Quincey. Similar selections are to follow from Poe, Irving, Hawthorne, 
Frankhn, Webster, Lincoln, Macaulay, Ruskin and Carlyle. Bach little 
volume has an excellent portrait and an excellent introduction by the 
editor. Sent to any address on approval. The Donbleday & McClure 
Co., New York. Cloth 30 cents a volume, full leather 60c. 

QARLANO'S A quiet, dignified new edition of Hamlin Garland's Main 

BEST Traveled Roads is out, and has several additional numbers be- 

WORK. tween its covers. These powerful short stories of the Middle 
West need no discussion now. They have taken their place. It is 
doubtful if Mr. Garland has ever done any other work quite up to this. 
It is a life he knows and feels — a God-forsaken, pessimistic provincial 
world, in which hot biscuits seem to have gone sodden on digestion, and 
indigestion to have poisoned the mental attitude. But untouched of the 
heavenly spark as these lives are, Mr. Garland draws them with almost 
brutal power. The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth avenue, New York. $1.50. 

ROMANCE An active and well-told story, competent to keep even a sleepy 

WELL person awake beyond the usual hour, is A Modern Mercenary^ 

TOLD. by E. and Hesketh Pritchard, mother and som The diplomatic 

fortunes of the little kingdom of *'Maasau ; " itssmooth chancellor and 
his admirable daughter ; **Rallywood," the English soldier of fortune ; 
the stifif-necked guard ; the rival intriguers to absorb the pocket duchy 
for Germany and England respectively — these are touched with a good 
deal of skill and still more of vitality. These are characters we come 
to like or dislike pretty warmly — and that is the secret of story-telling. 
Sent anywhere on approval. Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. 
$1 .25. 

KIPLING'S Nothing, appsrently, that Kipling could write if he tried 

SCHOOL could be un worth the reading ; and Stalky <Sf Co, still shows 

BRATS, the strong hand. Personally, one may prefer Kipling as a de- 
lineator of four footed beasts ; yet it is interesting to learn from the 
same naturalist how much less morals English schoolboys have than 
the quadrupeds of India. The adventures of ** Stalky" and his accom- 
plices are highly entertaining, however ; and despite the esoteric speech 
of British schools, the story has vitality for readers everywhere. It is 
probably true to life, too — reading it, one can precisely understand the 
grown-up Jingo. The Doubleday & McClure Co., New York. Sent 
anywhere on approval. $1.50. 

BOLD Starting oflf with sufficient promise of dullness, The Perils of 

BAD Josephine^ by Lord Ernest Hamilton, promptly becomes excit- 

BRITONS. ing enough for any palate. We cannot doubt the Lord's 

word that such sanguinary rascals obtain in England as "the Squire*' 
and ''Norman" and "Father Boyle." The Lord ought to know, and 
doubtless docs. At any rate, the plot is clever, the narrative well car- 
ried, and the interest unflagging. It is not a book one will nod over. 
H. S. Stone & Co., Chicago. $1.50. 

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That is what circulates in Joel Chandler Harris's Chronicles of good 
Aunt Minervy Ann ; and anyone who has the like is going to RED 

tingle to the humanity of this sturdy story. There are several blood. 

pretty real people in the book ; but the old Negro woman is a rare and 
vital character, flavorsome and wonderfully taking. It is doubtful if 
Mr. Harris, with all his successes, has done anything stronger than this 
untamed figure. The whole book is delightful reading. Chas. Scrib- 
ner's Sons, New York. $1.50. 

The October Bookman has a portrait, and an appreciation by notes. 
Geo. Hamlin Fitch, of Dr. C. W. Doyle of Santa Cruz, whose 
Taming of the Jungle brought him at once into the category of 
California authors big enough to count. Dr. Doyle is just fetching out 
a novel of the Chinese Quarter, in San Francisco — The Shadow of 
Quong Lung, 

The Whitaker & Ray Co., San Francisco, have put out three attract- 
ive pamphlets of good matter. Easily first is David Starr Jordan's 
masterful paper on California and the Calif or nians^ with illustration. 
This is the best compact statement of California^ that has ever been 
printed. The other brochures are The Man Who Might Have Been^ by 
Robert Whitaker, and Prof. Thos. P Bailey's Love and Law, 

Chas. A. Keeler's First Glance at the Birds has issued from the press of 
Elder & Shepard, San Francisco, in a very tastefully made brochure, in 
large type and on deckle edged paper. Here is very pleasant reading, 
along with dependable information. 50 cents. 

Edmond Rostand's graceful comedy The Romancers is issued in a 
very attractive 12mo, cloth, by the Doubleday & McClure Co., New 
York, and sent to any address on approval. 50 cents. 

*'This satisfying and exquisite volume of verse," is the just phrase 
the Dial finds for Grace EUery Channing's Sea Drift, 

Prot. Solon I. Bailey, the intrepid astronomer in charge of the Harvard Observatory 
in Arequipa, Peru, issues in the 39th volume of the Annals a valuable report on Ptru- 
vian Aleieorology 1888 90. It is illustrated with magnificent photographs of the volcano 
Bl Misti and the station at its top — the highest in the world. Harvard Observatory, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Chas Frederick Holder, LL. D., one of the most prolific and sound of our writers of 
popular science, has just issued somewhere about his twenty-fifth hook. — Stories of 
Animal Life^ in the "Eclectic School Readings." It contains a large number of in- 
teresting and authentic anecdotes; and is good reading. The American Book Co., 
New York. 

Surat'Pine Murmurings is published by the Whittaker & Ray Co., San Francisco, 
for the authors, Elizabeth Sargent Wilson and J. L. Sargent. It is a mild collection of 
short stories and sketches, of which only one — "The Justice of John Fannin" lays 
hold at all upon worth. |1. 

The handsomest thing of the sort in many years is the Aztec Calendar issued by the 
Santa F4 Route, with fine color reproductions of six of Burbank's best paintings of 
the Pueblo Indians. It is gratifying to note that the road has returned to the historic 
spelling of Moqui. 

Dr Elliott Coues's labor of love as editor of the Osprey is over. He had put it to the 
front of bird Journals; but his larger field in history could not spare him. Dr. Gill 
resumes the usprey. 

Schopenhauer in the Air is a pamphlet of seven tragic, rather unbalanced short stories 
by Sadakichi Hartmann. 207 B. Thirteenth street, New York, 60 cenU. 

Chas. F. Lummis. 

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V. U. Davis Eos. Co. 


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I Elastic felt Nattrcs^ 

^'i/t' vtiH opt'fi hi ionvu tunt ? or arc you one of the fen^ pe«>|)le who hhU h*ive aa unsanitary 
hair maMri!^^ — no mattur i^^hat it rnst^ ? We make it simple t^^r vou t.i learn al>oiit (see 
above pictuiO and easv for \ri»t in \n\\ , for our mattress is alwavs 


SLbEP ON IT JO fNIQHTS and if it is nut c\cn all >ou have hoped for, if you dunl believe it lo l>e 
i!m* eipifil ill itlt-anhruss, ilnrahility :intl ciiinruri tjif any 550 hair mattress ever made, you tan get your 
money hack by rdura in;trl^" no qucsliotis askt'd." TIhtc will be no unpleasantness about it at all 

<fK,VNP RAi'ri*^, Miili , k; Wn^hirnfitm Street. M-itch mh, iJb?. 
Di'AU SiHN : In i^Hi /, , *> ,ar>. .ii.'»0 [ rirdtrcd a l^ilint JCU>tic KIl Mallichs, a> an c'xiteriintint.and Un: rtsiilu have 
nctii ni every- m,^v sati^4ilor> . // r*'f,fiH* //* sh,t/^ timiettUff>ify in rt mnnurr thiti makt^ JttH^fees af hair maiirttses 
tt^cmiuhrH^. t k*un\f &/ mt ftiat^'ruii tiutt >ntf h^gtn ft* Cf*m^trif w/M t/t*' IWf. Afy txf^rt^ute with it hux mntf^ Wf 
rfCi^mtmnd it ti* ntjf /riftiM, aui/ fho' itt'ttjf*nf f» the <ch**ru\ i*f fn^isf 

tttui tti'0rknmmfi i^ trrw f(* itn' us't/ u>(Jii*f fhf in'Mtuh of tthutfuty. 

Mi thf ^U^ittn you m'$Ar /W fhf rmiteriit/ 

(nili. (Kc^ run IS W It LMAN. 

C4iiut*rc*«ln(r I be fi it 

Send for ** The Test of Time/* 

uliclht-r ynn ntetl a niaUrt'ss iiirw tir n<»t. It wfU 
iniLrest yoii anyway Ut know about the ht'sf aiul 
ihraptst inaltress in tlK^ world. We sell direct to 
\.\\v user only. 

2 feet 6 inches wide, 35 Ibt. 

3 feet T* itte, JO ibs- 

3 leet 6 inches wide. 35 lbs, 

4 feet wide, 40 ibi. . . . 
4 feet 6 inches wide, 45 lbs. 

Made in ^.vsfo parts, 50 cent9 extra. 

Express charges prepaid everywhere. 
WARNING I Nnl r»r -^Ic liV hUjJx^. a It w imsirupidtiMs di^U 

vr- .a<' '.'A inj,'!.iMrl a <<^ m.iurcv^fur $ni^nd^i5im curadvtni*- 
i«i4. t'itifiit 1 Ij.'.ej.' I'tiEt Maltrciit* ciyi nnty I»c boii};bii of 

* ^-^B \ ALL 

"'"** I 3 INCHES 
U-35 LOHO. 

15.00 J 

Wktfl lOtweHiiK AdvertiBciAeiils, ple*ae mentien tlut jcm " saw It In the Laptd of Snittstiim," 




















Mrs. Graham's 

Cucumber and Elder 
Flower Cream 

It cleai].<^e4, wfalteos and b»ulific« the 
skin, feedK a ad nourishes »kiQ tlMues, 
ihus banishing wrinklei. It is hsnnJeps 
a&dew, and as nourishing to the skin as 
^ dew U to the flower. Price flDO at drug' 
I / ,^^ gists and agents, ot sent anywhere pre- 

^^*4 p»id. S»mple bottle. IQ cents, A hand- 

some book. " How (o be Benutiful," free, 


TO MAKE HIS H^K^m enow. ji,nd 


TO hestouc tmk color. 

Both gtiamoteed harmless na irater, 8oId by b««t Urusgistfl, nr irnt in plain sealed 
wrapper by express, prepaid. Prlcei St .f>0 «a«ili» 

For sale by M Druggists and Halrdealers, 

S«ii<1 f«r rEKE BOOK ; "A Confidential Chat with Bald Beaded, Thin H?*ied and 
Gray Haired Men and Wnmen," GocmI Agents wanted, 

B£]>]NGTaN A CO., Svn rrnnelsco, 0«n. FaclMo €o»st Amenta. 
HKS. OKHTAIi^i: f^RAHAM, I'^IIO mebt^Kii At«.. Chici&so. 


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